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TazriAziz

Earthwork
includes:
1. Excavation
2. Grading: Moving earth to change
elevation
3. Temporary shoring
4. Back fill or fill: Adding earth to raise
grade
5. Compaction: Increasing density
6. Disposal
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A. Job conditions
Material type
Water level and moisture content
Job size
Length of haul
Haul road condition (accessibility and
load restrictions)

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B. Management conditions
Equipment conditions and
maintenance practices
Skills of work force and management
Planning, supervision and
coordination of work.

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Management Conditions*
J ob Conditions**

Excellent

Good

Fair

Poor

Excellent

0.84

0.81

0.76

0.70

Good

0.78

0.75

0.71

0.65

Fair

0.72

0.69

0.65

0.60

Poor

0.63

0.61

0.57

0.52

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Meter cube m3 (bank, loose, or compacted)

Bank (BCY):

Loose (LCY):

Compacted (CCY):

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Materials in its natural


state before disturbance
(in-place, in-situ)
Material that has been
compacted or disturbed
or loaded
Material after compaction

1.0 METER
CUBE IN
NATURAL
CONDITION
(IN-PLACE
YARD)

1.25 METER
CUBE AFTER
DIGGING
(LOOSE
YARDS)

0.90 METER
CUBE
AFTER
COMPACTED
(COMPACTE
D YARDS)

1.25

1.0

In place

0.90

Loose

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Compacted



Bank: VB
Bank Meter Cube (BMC)
Density B Lb /BMC

Loose: VL
Loose Meter Cube (LMC)
Density L Lb/LMC

Compacted: Vc
Compacted Meter Cube (CMC)
Density C LB/CMC
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Swell:
A soil increase in volume when it is
excavated.
Bank density
density
Swell (%) = (Loose- 1)
x 100
Loose density
Load factor = Bank density

Bank Volume = Loose volume x Load factor

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Shrinkage:
A soil decreases in volume when it is
compacted
Shrinkage (%) = (1 Bank
- ) x density
100

Compacted density

Shrinkage factor = 1 - Shrinkage


Compacted volume
= Bank volume x Shrinkage factor

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Loose
Material
(kg/m3)
Clay, dry
1,604
Clay, wet
2,062
Clay and gravel, dry 1,833
Clay and gravel, wet 1,986
Earth, dry
1,693
Earth, moist
1,841
Earth, wet
2,101
Gravel, wet
2,123
Gravel, dry
2,360
Sand, dry
1,986
Sand, wet
2,368
Sand and gravel, dry 2,215
Sand and gravel, wet 2,597

Bank
(kg/m3)
2,024
2,731
2,139
2,368
2,177
2,353
2,582
2,398
2,765
2,230
2,689
2,483
2,865

Swell
(%)
26
32
17
17
29
28
23
13
17
12
13
12
10

Load
Factor
0.79
0.76
0.85
0.85
0.78
0.78
0.81
0.88
0.85
0.89
0.88
0.89
0.91

Exact values will vary with grain size, moisture content,


compaction, etc. Test to determine exact values for specific soils.
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Initial
Convrted to:
Soil Type
Clay

Common earth

Rock (blasted)

Sand

Soil Condition
Bank
Loose
Compacted
Bank
Loose
Compacted
Bank
Loose
Compacted
Bank
Loose
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Bank
1.00
0.79
1.11
1.00
0.80
1.11
1.00
0.67
0.77
1.00
0.89

Loose
1.27
1.00
1.41
1.25
1.00
1.39
1.50
1.00
1.15
1.12
1.00

Compa
0.9
0.7
1.0
0.9
0.7
1.0
1.3
0.8
1.0
0.9
0.8

2-0
or more
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Angle of Repose

om
m
en
de
d
1: Sl
1 op
(4 e
5
f
D or
eg A
.) ve
Re
c

Co
mp
ac
te
1/2 d A
:1 ngu
(6
3 D lar G
eg rav
.)
el

Original
Ground Line

Solid Rock, Slate or Cemented Sand and Gravel


(90 Deg.)

ra
ge

So
ils


For Sloping Sides
of Excavation

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nd
a
d
S
an
p .)
S
r
a
g
se
oo )
Sh De
L
.
d
d
te ( 33
de Deg
c
n
u
6
pa :1
Ro 1 (2
m 1/2
l
l
:
o
2
C 1
We

1.

End Area Method

2.

Contour Line/ Grid Method

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Used in sites where length is much


greater than width

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1. End Area Method


a.Take cross-sections at regular
intervals, typically, 10m intervals.
b.Calculate the cross-section end areas
c.The volume of earthwork between
sections is obtained by taking the
average of the end areas at each
station in square meter.

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88

86

84
84

30m

80

82

82

80

78

10

88

86

l
Fil t
Cu

10

D
10
50m
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10

F
10

80

Sec. A- A

78.5
78
76

Project Cross Sections

82

Sec. B- B

80.3

80
78
84

Sec. C- C

82.3

82
80
86

Sec. D- D

84.2

84

88

Sec. E- E

86.2

86

90

Sec. F- F

88.2

88

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107 x 1.0
Area =
= 53.5
2

80
79.5
79

78.5
78

76.7

193 x 1.8
Area =
= 173.7
2

77

76

Section A- A
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90 x 1.5
Area =
2

82
= 67.5
81

80.3
80

76.7

210 x 1.8
Area =
= 189.0
2

79

78

Section B- B
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81.8


Section
A-B
B-C
C-D
D-E
E-F

Emb (CCY) Exc. (BCY) Exc. x B/C Net


Exc. Cum Exc
(CCY)
(CCY)
(CCY)
672
224
254
- 418
- 418
567
441
499
- 68
- 486
215
791
896
681
195
0
1031
1167
1167
1362
0
1222
1384
1384
2746

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Used for parking lots and site


leveling
Grid size from 10mx10m to
50mx50m
the greater the terrain variance
the smaller the grid

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Step l
Determine by visual study of the site drawing if the net total will
be an import (more fill required than cut) an export (less fill
required than cut) or a blend (cut and fill about equal)
Step 2
Determine the pattern of calculation points or grid size.
Step 3
Determine elevations at each calculation location, the corners
of each grid.
Step 4
Calculate the cubic yards of cut or fill required in each grid cell.
Step 5
Add the individual Grid Cell quantities together to arrive at the
total cut, total fill volume and the import or volume export
yardage required for the job.

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60m

88
87.6

A
87.6

G
87.4

N
87.2

89
88.5

B
88.6

H
88.2

O
87.7

No Scale

90
89.3

C
89.4

J
89.5

P
89.0

91
90.3

92

93

94

91.5

D
90.4

91.6

K
90.6

91.6

Q
90.4

91.3

95.0

F
93.2

M
92.7

93.5

S
92.0

Notes:
1. Bring the entire site to elevation
90.
2. All grids are 10m x 10m = 100
sq m

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94.3

93.1

Purpose
Grade the entire site to grade 90
Need
Fill

Quick and Dirty


Assume one grid
Existing 90.50
Proposed
90.00
Cut
0.50
3
Total Cost 10
= x=10
1.851m
x 0.50

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Nee
d
Cut
10
m
90'

90.5'

91'

10
m

90'

If we choose the grid size to be 10mx10m

88.6

Average elevation
87.6+88.5+87.6+88.6
=
4
= 88.08
change
= 90-88.08 87.6
= 1.92m3

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87.6

87.6