3G BASIC OVERVIEW

BALI, SEPTEMBER 11-12, 2008

AGENDA

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IMT-2000 frequency allocations – Rel 99
1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 MHz

Mobile Satellit e

IMT-2000

ITU

IMT-2000

UMTS (TDD)

GSM 1800

UMTS (FDD)

Mobile Satellit e UMTS (TDD)

Europe

UMTS (FDD)

Mobile Satellit e IMT-2000 UMTS (TDD) (TDD)

IMT-2000

Japan

IMT-2000

PCS unlicensed

PCS

PCS

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Mobile Satellit e

USA

Mobile Satellit e

Mobile Satellit e

PHS

Mobile Satellit e

DECT

Mobile Satellit e

Spectrum Allocations– 3GPP rel4
Frequency MHz
1920 1980 20102025 2110 2170 2200 60MHz TDD FDD SATELLITE TDD
Uplink Uplink

60MHz FDD SATELLITE

Downlink Downlink

Duplex 190 MHz 3G(WCDMA) 2GHz frequency band for Europe and APAC Frequency MHz
1850 1910 1930 1990 60MHz FDD
Uplink

60MHz FDD
Downlink

Duplex 80 MHz 3G(WCDMA 1900) for U.S
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WCDMA/HSPA Spectrum – 3GPP Rel6
• WCDMA/HSPA is standardized for all cellular band
= WCDMA/HSPA band in 3GPP today = WCDMA/HSPA band under work in 3GPP, target end of 2005

Band VII Band I Band II Band IV Band III Band V,VI
1

2600

Up to2 190 MHz New 3G band

Mainstream WCDMA band 2x60 MHz 2100 2x60 MHz band in USA and Americas PCS 1900 .. 1700/2100 2x60 MHz 1800 in Europe, Asia and Brazil 1800, 17001 2x75 MHz 1700 in Japan and China

900 800, 850

2x35 MHz Europe, Asia and Brazil Americas, Japan, Asia 2x25 MHz

1800 completed, 1700 under work in 3GPP 2 Some regions may not have the full band available
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Background – Transmission Bandwidth
• WCDMA and CDMA2000 both use Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) • WCDMA:
– 5 MHz carrier spacing – 3.84 Mcps chip rate • CDMA2k: – 1.25 MHz carrier spacing – 1.2288 Mcps

Higher bandwidth implies
•Better multipath diversity •Higher processing gain •Higher bitrates •Lower power fluctuation

5 MHz

5 MHz

1.25 MHz
• Processing Gain = 10*log(Chip rate/bitrate)
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HSPA Peak Data Rates
Downlink HSDPA • Theoretical up to 14 Mbps • Initial capability 1.8 – 3.6 Mbps
Max # of codes Modulation data rate 5 codes 5 codes QPSK 1.8 Mbps

Uplink HSUPA • Theoretical up to 5.76 Mbps • Initial capability 1.46 Mbps
# of codes 2 x SF4 2 x SF2 2 x SF2 2 x SF2 + 2 x SF4 TTI 2 ms 10 ms 10 ms 2 ms 2 ms Max data rate 1.46 MbpsPhase 2.0 Mbps 2.9 Mbps 5.76 Mbps

Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3

1

16-QAM 3.6 Mbps

10 codes 16-QAM 7.2 Mbps

15 codes 16-QAM 10.1 Mbps 15 codes 16-QAM 14.0 Mbps

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Mixed Voice/Data in 1xEV-DO
• 1xEV-DO does not support voice services • Needs the use of 1x carriers to handle voice calls • Inefficient scheme
= data
Power Power

Blocking for speech Low data throughput

= voice
EV-DO

Max capacity

Max capacity

5 MHz

cdma2k voice

Unused capacity

cdma2k voice All GSM, EDGE or WCDMA capacity 2 x cdma2k + EV-DO GSM, EDGE or WCDMA fully utilized 2 x cdma2k + EV-DO
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Key parameters in TDD and in WCDMA
TD-SCDMA TD-SCDMA (LCR TDD) (LCR TDD) Bandwidth Bandwidth Chip rate Chip rate Spectrum Spectrum flexibility flexibility Multiple Multiple access access Peak bit rate Peak bit rate
1.6 MHz 1.6 MHz 1.28 Mcps 1.28 Mcps Unpaired Unpaired spectrum spectrum TDMA/CDMA TDMA/CDMA 2.8 Mbps 2.8 Mbps

TD-CDMA TD-CDMA WCDMA/HSPA WCDMA/HSPA (HCR TDD) (HCR TDD)
5 MHz 5 MHz 3.84 Mcps 3.84 Mcps Unpaired Unpaired spectrum spectrum TDMA/CDMA TDMA/CDMA 10.2 Mbps 10.2 Mbps 5 MHz 5 MHz 3.84 Mcps 3.84 Mcps Paired spectrum Paired spectrum CDMA CDMA 10.7 Mbps 10.7 Mbps (14.0 Mbps) (14.0 Mbps)

TD-SCDMA Technology solutions to be verified by large scale field trials • TDD operation • Interference control between uplink and downlink • Joint detection receivers • Smart antenna performance and site solutions • Dynamic frequency and channel allocation algorithms • Synchronization between operators
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Voice Spectral Efficiency
300 250 Erlangs / sector / 10 MHz 200 150 100 50 0 GSM

>700 Simultaneous Users per 3-sector Site with 10 MHz Spectrum

AMR 4.75 AMR 5.9 AMR12.2 DFCA SAIC AMR EFR

WCDMA

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Wideband AMR Provides Major Step in WCDMA Voice Quality
= Current AMR with audio bandwidth 300-3400 Hz = Wideband-AMR with audio bandwidth 50-7000 Hz Wideband AMR

Audio bandwidth

Capacity
Similar capacity with WB-AMR as AMR 12.2 kbps

50-7000 Hz Landline phone AMR 300 3400 Hz

90 80 70 60 Users per 50 sector 40 30 20 1 0 0

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AM 7.95 AM 1 R R 2.2 WB-AM WBR 8.85 1 2

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Service Evolution with Nokia 3G Radio

= not feasible = feasible with capacity or service performance limitations = feasible with attractive performance and efficiency

GSM/GPRS
AMR voice Wideband AMR CS video call CS voice + email/MMS CS voice + video sharing MP3 music download PoC Streaming (Mobile TV) VoIP Broadband internet access

GSM/EDGE

WCDMA

With DTM text based emails >10 min download E2e ok, capacity challenging 20 kbps

Under study OK with DTM, more capacity than GPRS With DTM and 3+3 UE 40-60 kbps 4 min download More capacity 60-80 kbps

OK More capacity 100-110 kbps 2 min download More capacity Even more capacity Even more capacity <1 min download

100-110 kbps 200-300 kbps E2e ok but Efficiency could Low quality / limited coverage and efficiency lower be better than CS low efficiency VoIP with 3GPP R4 than CS voice Narrowband Average 100-150 Average 200-300 1-2 Mbps with internet access kbps with 300 ms kbps with 150 ms <100 ms
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PS only

Even more capacity

CS+P S

CS only

Very high spectral efficiency with AMR+SAIC Defined in 3GPP but no Nokia product plans

Very high base station hardware capacity and even higher spectral efficiency OK

WCDMA/HSP A

UMTS Air Interface Technical Aspects

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UMTS Air Interface Technical Aspects

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WCDMA Technology
Frequency
f 5 M H z

WCDMA Carrier
3 . 8 4 M H z

5+5 MHz in FDD mode 5 MHz in TDD mode

Direct Sequence (DS) CDMA

Time

WCDMA 5 MHz, 1 carrier

TDMA (GSM) 5 MHz, 25 carriers

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1 radio frame = 10 ms Each radio frame has 15 slot.
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Energy Box

Originating Bit

Received Bit

Power

Duration (SF)

Energy pro bit = const
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Fr eq u

en cy

Ba

nd

Spreading & Processing Gain
Bit rate
Power density (Watts/Hz)

R‘

Unspread narrowband signal

Spread wideband signal

Frequency

Bandwidth W (3.84 Mchip/sec)

Mchip R ⋅ G p = const = W = 3.84 sec BU u 38400 SF = = ≠ Gp BBearer BBearer
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Gp : processing gain BUu : system chip rate BBearer : bearer symbol rate R: User data bit rate (L2) SF: spreading

Processing Gain Examples
Voice user (R=12,2 kbit/s)
R

Power density (W/Hz)

Gp=W/R=24.9 8 dB • Spreading sequences have a different length • Processing gain depends on the user data rate

Frequency (Hz)

Packet data user (R=384 kbit/s)
R

Power density (W/Hz)

Gp=W/R=1 0 dB

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Frequency (Hz)
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Channelisation and Scrambling Codes

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DL & UL Channalisation Codes
• Walsh-Hadamard codes: orthogonal variable spreading
factor codes (OVSF codes)
– SF for the DL transmission in FDD mode = {4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512} – SF for the UL transmission in FDD mode = {4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256}

• Good orthogonality properties: cross correlation value for

each code pair in the code set equals 0 • Orthogonal codes are suited for channel separation, where synchronisation between different channels can be guaranteed, e.g. downlink channels under one cell, uplink channels from a single user; uplink signals from different users are not time synchronised. • Orthogonal codes have bad auto correlation properties and thus not suited in an asynchronous environment
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Channelisation Code Tree
SF= 1 SF= 2 SF= 4
C4(0)=[1111 ] C2(0)=[11] C8(2)=[11-1-111-11]

C8(0)=[1111111 1]

SF= 8

SF= C16 (0)=[.........
...] C16 (1)=[......... ...] C16 (2)=[......... ...] C16 (3)=[......... ...] C16 (4)=[......... ...] C16 (5)=[......... ...] C16 (6)=[......... ...] C16 (7)=[......... ...] C16 (8)=[......... ...] C16 (9)=[......... ...] C16 (10)=[........ ...] C16 (11)=[.......... .] C16 (12)=[....... ....] C16 (13=[........ ...] C16 (14)=[....... ....] C16 (15)=[....... ....]
1 6

...

SF=2 SF=5 56 12

C8(1)=[1111-1-1-1-1]

C4(1)=[11-1-1]

C8(3)=[11-1-1-1-111] C0(0)=[ 1] C8(0)=[1-11-11-111] C8(5)=[1-11-1-11-11] C2(1)=[1-1] C8(6)=[1-1-111-1-11] C4(3)=[1-1-11] C8(7)=[1-1-11-111-1]

C4(2)=[1-111]

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Chips & Bits & Symbols

Bits (In this drawing, 1 bit = 8 Chips)
+1

Baseband Data
-1

Chip Spreading Code

Chip
+1 -1

Spread Signal

+1 -1

Air Interface

i ead s pr De ng

+1 -1 +1

Data

-1

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Physical Layer Bit Rates (DL)

Half rate speech Full rate speech 128 kbps 384 kbps 2 Mbps

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Scrambling Codes & Multipath Propagation
Sprambli ng code C1

+ C1 ∆
C1 + ∆1

3

C 1+ ∆2

C2

Sprambli ng code C2

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RAKE Receiver

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Micro Diversity

MS RAKE Receiver

Node B RAKE Receiv er

Summed signal

Micro Diversity Points
max ratio combining is used

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Macro Diversity in the RNC
Node B

Active cell set

Macro Diversity Point
selection combining is used Node B

S-RNC

Core Network

Node B

D-RNC

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