Design Life Cycle and fundamental design calculations Tolerance Stack up

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Tolerance Stack up 
Tolerance stackup analysis is used to deal with dimensional tolerances in one-dimension, the resultant tolerance is always the sum of the component tolerances. Analysis and control of dimensional tolerances are relatively well developed compared to those for geometric tolerances. The stackup of geometrical tolerances was usually ignored or replaced by the stackup of component tolerances. 

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A and B two linear dimensions to be added a1 , a2 tolerance on A b1 , b2 tolerance on B A+B = C The tolerance on C to be analysed.

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C is max. when A and B are max. C is min. when A and B are min. Cmax Cmin Cmax (C + c2) Cmin (C - c1) = = = = A max + B A min + B
max min

(A + a2) + (B + b2) -------- ( 1 ) (A - a1) + (B - b1) -------- ( 2 )

c1, c2 tolerance on C Subtracting C min ( 2 ) from C max ( 1 ) c1 + c2 = (a1+a2) + (b1 + b2)

If , ( a1 ( b1 ( c1 + + + a2 ) b2 ) c2 ) = T = T = T
a b c

The Tolerance on the total length will be
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T c = Ta + Tb

Subtraction of Tolerances
A and B two linear dimensions to be subtracted a1 , a2 tolerance on A b1 , b2 tolerance on B A-B=C The tolerance on C to be analysed.

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and B is min.B min -B max . when A is min.b1 A .c1 ) = ( A .Subtraction of Tolerances C is max. C is min.( B .( 3) = ( C . A + a2 B . when A is max.a1 B + b2 = ( C + c2 ) = ( A + a2) . C max C min A max B min A min B max C max C min = = = = = = A A max min .a1) . and B is max.( B + b2 ) ---------.( 4 ) Subtracting C min ( 4 ) from Cmax ( 3 ) (c 2 + c 1 ) = ( a2 + a1 ) + ( b2 + b1) If ( a 2 + a 1 ) = Ta ( b 2 + b 1 ) = Tb ( c2 + c1 ) = Tc The Tolerance on the remaining length T c = Ta + Tb Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .b1 ) ----------.

Addition & Subtraction of Tolerances The tolerances are getting added both in addition and subtraction. Further slides deals with how to calculate unknown dimensions. Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .

a2 x1 = = = = Therefore. x 2 . x2 x1 X x2 x1 (X) Therefore.1 The value of X and tolerances x1.(A) z2 z1 x 2 . x2 x1 X Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited a2 a1 A = Z a2 a1 . x2 are un-known.Case .a1 x 1 .a1 x2 x 1 .a2 (X -A) z2 z1 Z = = z2 a1 + z2 z1 a2 +z1 = a1 + z2 a2 + z1 (A + Z) .

0.5 ) = 10 + 0.2 X .2 + 0.2 .1 .0. +0.1 .2 .2 + 0.0.2 .0.0.1 + 0.0.1 (15 .0.Example .1 .0.1 ) x2 + 0.0.2 .1 = .1 x2 + 0.2 .1 The value of X and tolerances x1.1 + 0.0.0.2 + 0.1 x1 .0.0.1 x1 10 = = = = = = + 0. x2 x1 + 0.2 . x2 are un-known.1 = + 0.1 .1 x2 x1 .1 (X .2 = 10 Therefore .5 = x2 .1 ) x1 .5 ) Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .2 + 0.0.( + 0.( .

x 2 (A -X) = Z The tolerances of the equation can be equated.Z) . x2 are un-known.x 1 a1 .z2 = (A. x2 x1 (X ) Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited a1 .Case ± 2 The value of X and tolerances x1.z1 Therefore.x2 = z2 = a2 .x1 .z1 a2 . a2 a1 x2 x1 z2 z1 z2 z1 A - X = Z a2 . a2 x1 a1 x2 .z2 = z1 = a1 .

1 .0.2 .1 .1 .1 -0.2 .x2 +0.Example .1 x2 Therefore + 0.2 +0.X ) = 10 The tolerances of the equation can be equated.1 = 10 + 0. + 0.1 x1 -0.1 The value of µX¶ and tolerances x1.1 x2 x1 + 0.1 -0.2 .1 15 - 5 = 10 Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .2 +0.2 + 0.1 .x1 .1 x2 x1 + 0.1 . +0.1 +0.2 -0. x2 are un-known.x2 15 - X +0.2 = -0.x1 = = = = +0.0.0.2 .0.0.2 = +0.2 .2 15 - X = 10 ( 15 .1 .0.0.0.0.1 .

0 Dimension B = 60. Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .0.05 .Example .0.20 Calculate the nominal size and the variation for the dimension C.0.13 .2 + 0.03 Dimension A = 100 .0 .

13 .05 .15 0.05 .20) 0.05 .( .Example .25 +0.0.25 .13 ) = + 0.60 = 40 a2 a1 b2 b1 B C c2 c1 = A - B .20 40 c2 c1 = = = 100 + 0.20 ) = + 0.03 ) + ( .13 ) .0.0.03 .( .2 Nominal size C C c2 c1 = = Nominal size A .0.15 Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .1 +0.15 = Ta +Tb + 0.( .1 c2 c1 C Verification: = 40 Tc = Ta + Tb = = Tc = 0.0.15 0.0.Nominal size 100 .03 - 60 + 0.0.( .0.0.

3  Calculate the dimension x and tolerance on x with M-M and L-L as references. Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .Example .

Example .1 .1 0.8 ) 0.x2 = 22 ±0.x1 -0.0 .0.1 .1 0.1 30 .0.3  Considering MM as reference a2 a1 x2 x1 b2 b1 A + 0.0 The value of Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited X = 8 .1 ( 30 .x2 x2 x2 x1 = = = = = + 0.1 .1 X x2 x1 = B ±0.0 .0.x1 x1 -0.1 22 0.0.0 .8 +0.

3  Considering LL as reference a2 a1 b2 b1 x2 x1 A - B ± 0.1) = + 0.0.0 .1 = X x2 x1 + 0.0 .( .(+ 0.Example .1 .22 = 8 x2 = + 0.0.2 x2 x1 + 0.1) = .0.1 .1 30 .2 X = 8 Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .0.0.1 x1 = .

decreases proportionately similarly Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited . the tolerance of the result. When divided by a constant number. if multiplied by a positive constant number. the tolerance of the result also increases proportionately.Multiplication & Division by a constant number Any dimension with tolerances.

1) 3 (+0.3 +0.9 = 12 Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .Multiplication by a constant number a2 a1 When A is multiplied by a constant K .1 + 0.3) 3 4 * (3) = (4 * 3) +0.3 (+0. it becomes a2 a1 a2 * K a1 * K (A) * K = (A*K) Example : + 0.

3/3 0.9 0. it becomes a2 a1 a2 ÷ K a1 ÷ K (A) Example : ÷ K = (A ÷ K) + 0.1 +0.9/3 ( 12 ) ÷ 3 = ( 12 / 3) +0.3 + 0.Division by a constant number a2 a1 When A is divided by a constant K .3 = 4 Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .

Example : 1 Find out the variation of dimension x with reference to LL Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .

3+0.2 +0.0 .1 x2 x1 X x2 x1 x2 x1 = 50 .2 + 0.3 = .0 .( .0 ) .3 +0.0.1 ) = + 0.5 .( + 0.0.38 .6 = = = = Tx 0.3 = 0.3 -0.( .0.0.1= 0.2 +0.5 = 2 = + 0.1 -0.0.0 -0.0.6 0.Example : 1 x2 x1 +0.2 ) .0 -0.0 -0.( .1 + 0.1 ) .0 = .6 Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .2 .0 +0.3 X = 2 = 2 Verification : Ta + Tb + Tc + Td Ta + Tb + Tc + Td Tx 0.0.2 + 0.3 ± 0.6 0.

000 -0.017) x2 x1 + 0.119 .017)] = 0.012-(+0.006)-( -0.136 Tx = [0.073)+(0.136 0.012 +0.009)-(0.013)-(0.019)+(-0.000)-(-0.017 x2 = (0.013)-(-0.017 x2 x1 150 .136 Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .0.040 + [(-0.017)] = 0.119 = .040)-(-0.019 -0.040)+(-0.017 X Verification : Ta+ Tb+ Tc + Td + Te + Tf Ta+ Tb+ Tc + Td + Te + Tf = 290 = Tx = 0.006) x1 = (0.019)] + [(-0.073)] + [(0.Example : 2 +0.001)+(0.009)] + [(+0.012)+(-0.20 + 95 .0.040)-(-0.000)-(-0.009 +0.136 = 0.006 -0.15 + 65 + 15 = 290 = + 0.073 +0.000)+(-0.013 -0.001)] + [(-0.040 -0.040 -0.001 -0.119-(-0.

011 ) + ( 0.011 .021 +0.021.011 ) + 0.046 + 0.057 = .097 Tx = 0.057 .000 + 0.20 .( + 0.0.030 .030 + 0.040 (240 + 75 .030 .008 +0.011 +0.011 x2 x1 240 X x2 x1 + = = = 75 - 20 - 60 = X = 235 = + 0.030 ) x2 x1 +0.011 ) = 0.( + 0.046 + ( 0.( + 0.Example : 2 + 0.008 ) + ( 0.021 ) .097 = 0.030 +0.( + 0.008 ) .60) + 0.097 0.0.046 + 0.097 Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .0.030 .0.0.040 235 Verification : Ta + Tb + Tc + Td = Tx = 235 Ta + Tb + Tc + Td = 0.

004) + 0.004)+0.0.(.013 -(-0.004 +0.128 Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .063-(-0.009)+0.( 0.032 x2 x1 +0.007 .008-(-0.096 .20 + 450 .007)+ 0.032) = 0.120 + 12 = 387 + 0.009 -0.013 -0.003) = .009) + (0.003) = 0.009) + 0.012 .128 0.0.000) .008 = + 0.096 .009 +0.012-(-0.012 .(0.Example : 3 +0.009 -(-0.0.032 387 Verification : Ta+Tb+Tc+Td+Te Ta+Tb+Tc+Td+Te Tx = 387 = Tx = 0.0.(-0.007 +0.013) + (-0.128 = 0.096.063+0.008 -0.0.003 x2 x1 65 x2 x1 = = .128 = 0.063 +0.

as 1.25 ± 0.25 mm Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .Example : 4 Calculate the value of x to have the axial clearance between bearing and the shaft.

L L Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited . D. C. and E to A.Example : 4   Considering LL as reference The value of X must lie as the difference between the sum of the dimension of B.

100) = (51.0.25 =1.50 -0.0.25 L Tb+Tc+Td+Te+Ta Tb+Tc+Td+Te+Ta Tx 1.25 +0.25 x2 x1 + 5 .70 (51.20 .0.20 Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited = = = = L Tx +0.10 +0.50 .25 + 0.100 X x2 x1 (151.00 -0.25+0.05 +0.00 .0 -0.0.05 +0.20 1.05 +0.25 .( + 0.05 + 0.1 + 0.0 + 0.25 ) = + 0.10 .( .70 = .25 -0.25 ) x2 x1 +0.25 .00 + 0.Example : 4 Equation : x2 x1 +0.05 .0.25 + 0.25 .0.25 X x2 x1 = = = = 5 + 140 x2 x1 + 1.05 .00 -0.25) + 0.25) Verification : = 51.20 1.0.25 +0.

Calculate the tolerance for the dimension 12 from one end in a box jig plate to obtain the resultant dimension 79 s 0.1 Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .1 from one side of the component.Example : 5 A hole 16H6 has to be drilled and reamed The dimension is 79 s 0.

12 Max.05 .10 +0.05 ± 0.05 ) .05 + 0.05 x2 x1 79 = 111 - 20 .12 0.20 .0.0.x2 0.00-(-0.00 .00 .0.00 .0.05 Min.05)+0.05 .05)-(-0.05 +0.05)-(-0.20 Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited = = = = 111 20 .20 0.0.00 ) .20 (0.Example : 5 ± 0. limit : + 0.05)+(0.x1 x1 = 0.00) = 0.10 = + 0.05 = Ta + Tb + Tc ± 0.( + 0.0.00 .0.05 +0.( .05 +0.00 79 Td Ta + Tb + Tc 0.00 12 Verification: Td or 12.05 .10 ± 0.1 x2 = = . limit : The tolerance for the dimension 12 is + 0.

Example : 6 A hole of 16H7 is to be made with reference to another predrilled and reamed hole 10H7 which lies on a perpendicular plane The dimension of the hole 10H7 with reference to one side of the box jig is given as 245 s 0.05 Calculate the tolerance for the dimension 97 to position the drill jig bush to drill and ream dia 16H7 hole. Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .

Example : 6 s 0.( x1 ) x1 -0.05 - 97 148 + 97 +0.1 x2 x1 = 245 s 0.05 The tolerances for the dimension 97 is s 0.1 = 0.2 = 0.( x2 ) x2 = 245 = +0.05 Verification : s 0.1 .97 Ta +Tb Tc 0.05 = +0.0.05 s 0.05 x1 x2 Dimension should be 148 s 0.1 .05 = .2 = 148 = 0.05 = .1 s 0.1 + 0.0.1 245 .2 Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .05 s 0.2 = 0.

25 X = 30 Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .( + 0.0.0.05 .( . In case 1 the dimensions.1.05 s 0.05 are toleranced.0. Analyses the more practical one.1 s 0.2 ) = .2 ) = + 0.05 .05 s 0.05 and 30 s 0.Example : 7 Case 1 : considering LL as reference x2 x1 s 0.35 = .2 ) = + 0. 2 X x2 x1 x1 x2 = 130 - 100 = + 0. dimensions 100 s 0.0. 50 s 0.0. = + 0.05 .2 .( + 0. and the overall dimensions 180 s 0. 100 s 0.( .1 ) .05 are toleranced.25 s 0.2 ) = . In case 2 . is dimensioned by two methods. 130 s 0.( .( + 0.35 s 0.0.0.2 X x2 x1 x2 x1 = 180 - 50 - 100 The component shown in Fig.2 .05 .1 ) .35 X = 30 Case 2 : considering AA as reference x1 x2 s 0.25 = .

Example : 8 The dimension C from the functional reference LL .08 It is impracticable to measure the depth ( 20 . Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .0. In view of this new reference the dimensions of A. which is also reference for manufacturing.14 ) of the hole having diameter D1 from the functional reference LL Hence the best auxiliary reference selected in this case is C and their tolerances are evaluated as follows. B. + 0. MM .

05 ) a2 a1 .14 = .03 -0.0 5 = C +0.08 .03 = .03 -0.( .0.14 30 .10 a2 .08 = 0.05 = + 0.05 ) a1 = 20 a2 a1 = + 0.08 -0.0.( + 0.Example : 8 Nominal dimension of A A A Total Tolerance of C The equation will be A .09 The depth of hole is = 30 Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .0.09 +0.09 A = 30 +0.0.B a2 a1 b2 b1 = Nominal dimension B + Nominal dimension C = B+C = 20 +10 = 30 = Total tolerance of A -Total tolerance of B = C c2 c1 A a2 a1 B s 0.

Tolerance on dimensions between centers of two holes Case 1 : Sizes of the holes and shafts are identical. D is the diameter of holes in two plates. d is the diameter of the shafts. Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited . A set up for the worst case of interchangeability.

Therefore m=L Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited . as 100% interchangeability is to be achieved.2m .Tolerance on dimensions between centers of two holes 1-1 2-2 CC M ±m (D-d) = = = = = = Axis of holes in the plate1 Axis of the holes in the plate 2 Axis of the shafts mating the holes The distance between the centers of holes The tolerance on M on the respective holes Clearance between hole and shaft = L Considering a datum line of no clearance from the figure: The following chain of dimension can be placed keeping in view the signs. m can be less than L but not more.( M+ m ) + D/2. An equation for the expression of tolerance is as 0 = D/2 .2d 2m = 2 ( D-d ) 2m = 2L m = L As this is a critical value.d+ D/2 + ( M-m ) + D/2 -d 0 = 2D .

the tolerance on dimension between the two holes cannot be more than twice the diametrical clearance between the holes and shafts. It could be less or equal to the clearance. Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .Tolerance on dimensions between centers of two holes Conclusion : If 100% interchangeability is to be achieved in the above case.

Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .Tolerance on dimensions between centers of two holes Case 2 : The size of the holes and shafts vary D1 be the diameter of the holes in plates 1 and 2. A worst case set-up for 100% interchangeability is shown. D2 be the diameter of the holes in plates 1 and 2 for the mating shaft d2 . for the mating shaft d1.

( D2 .d2 ). ( D1.( M+ m )+ D1/2 . a set of chain dimensions can be placed as follows.Tolerance on dimensions between centers of two holes 1-1 2-2 c1 -c1 c2 -c2 M ±m = = = = = = Axis of holes in the plate 1 Axis of holes in the plate 2 Axis of the shaft of diameter d1 Axis of the shaft of diameter d2 The distance between the centers of holes The tolerance on M.d1 ) . 0 0 2m 2m = = = = D2/2 .d2) = L2 m = ( L1 + L2 ) ÷ 2 Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .d1 ) + ( D2 .d1 ) = L1 and ( D2 .2m + ( D1 + D2 ) .d1 + D1/2 + ( M .d2 .d2 ) ( L1 + L2 ).m ) + D2/2 . Starting from a point of no clearance.( d1 + d2 ) ( D1 . Since ( D1 . = The clearance between the holes and Shafts. keeping in view the directional sign and equating it to zero.

Tolerance on dimensions between centers of two holes Conclusion : The critical tolerance m on the centers of two holes in the above case should be equal to half the sum of clearances in both holes and could be less for 100% interchangeability between the two plates. Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .

Tolerance Stack up Case Study Objective : To calculate the tolerance stackup on the clearance between the Reel Assembly and Bedbar-Bedknife assembly by Worst Case analysis and Statistical analysis. Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited . Need for Tolerance stack up : The clearance between the Reel Assembly and Bedbar-Bedknife assembly determines the quality of grass being cut.

Tolerance Stack up Case Study Reel Mower Cutting Unit : Reel Assembly Plate-Side Support Bedbar-Bedknife Assembly Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .

Tolerance Stack up Case Study Reel Mower Cutting Unit-side View : Clearance Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .

  Title block tolerances are considered wherever applicable Clearance between the Reel sub assembly and Bedbar-Bedknife sub assembly is assumed to be .  Bedbar-bedknife assembly(107-3274) center axis is aligned to the mounting hole axis of Plate-Side supports(107-3256).0008 Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .Tolerance Stack up Case Study Assumptions :  Reel sub assembly center axis is aligned to the mounting hole axis of Plate-Side Supports(107-3256).

Tolerance Stack up Case Study Shaft & Plate-support Dimensions Bearing Dimensions G2 A2 A1 D1 D2 Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .

Tolerance Stack up Case Study G1 F2 E1 F1 Clearance Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .

Tolerance Stack up Case Study B1 C1 Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .

Clearance between the Bed Knife and Bed Reel Assembly is : (G1 + E1 + F1) ± F2 Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited . F2 = Height between shaft axis to bottom of Reel Assembly.Tolerance Stack up Case Study Tolerance Stack up Calculations : Tolerance accumulated at the clearance = ( Tolerance accumulated at Bed knife cutting edge ) ( Tolerance accumulated at Reel cutting edge ) = (G1+E1+F1) F2 (G1 + E1 + F1) = Height between shaft axis to top of the Bed Knife.

5274 = = = As per tolerance analysis : ±0.5940 1.1025 3.8317 0.0008 G1 E1 F1 F2 = = = = 1.0190 1.3.5282 .0150 0.5940 Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .Tolerance Stack up Case Study As per the Tolerance ± Stack .1025 +0.Calculation sheet : G1 E1 F1 F2 = = = = 1.8317 + 0. Clearance 1.5274 0.1025 = 3.0160 -0.0100 1.0018 Tolerance Stack up calculations G1 + E1 + F1 Therefore.8317 ±0.5282 3.5940 ±0.5940 + 1.

0018 .8317 0.0150 + 0.0.0150 -0.0.0100 + 0.Tolerance Stack up Case Study ±0.0160 ) .0428 0.0008 Therefore : = X Nominal clearance Upper value Lower value Max clearance : Min clearance : X x2 x1 X + x2 X + x1 = = = = = 0.5274 x2 x1 = X 0.0190 ) ( 0.0100 ±0.0.0150 + 0.3.0466 = -0.0420 Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .0008 .0008 + 0.0008 0.0190 x2 x1 1.0.1025 ( .5940 + 1.0458 -0.0018 ±0.0160 .0458 0.0100 .0018 + 0.0428 = 0.0.

04425 .02760 -0.5282 .01745 +0 x2 x1 x2 x1 = = = = = = 0.0008-0.01000 + 0.02680 -0.01000 0.02680 = 0.02760 ± (-0.01500 0.02680 3.5274 = X 0.02680 +0 0.3.01745 = 0. clearance 0.Tolerance Stack up Case Study As per statistical analysis : Probable tolerance on G1 E1 F1 F2 (G1 + E1 + F1) Therefore.01745 = = = = = X Max clearance Min clearance Probable clearance Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited 0.01745 0.00180 + 0.0008 0.0008+0.01665) 0.01500 0.00180 0.01665 0.

0420 As per Statistical Analysis : Probable Clearance between the Reel Assembly and the Bedknife Assembly is 0.04425 Confidential © 2009 Infotech Enterprises Limited .0466 Minimum Clearance is -0.Tolerance Stack up Case Study Conclusions : As per Worst Case Analysis :  Nominal Clearance between the Reel Assembly(107-4044) and the Bedknife Assembly(107-3274) is 0.0008   Maximum Clearance is 0.

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