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DEFINITION OF MASS DENSITY The mass density of a substance is the mass of a substance divided by its volume:

m V! V

SI Unit of Mass Density: kg/m3

Example 1 Blood as a Fraction of Body Weight The body of a man whose weight is 690 N contains about 5.2x10-3 m3 of blood. (a) Find the bloods weight and (b) express it as a percentage of the body weight.

m ! VV ! 5.2 v 10 m

3

kg 1060

m ! 5.5 kg

3

(a)

W ! mg ! 5.5 kg
9.80 m s ! 54 N

2

(b)

11.2 Pressure

F P! A

SI Unit of Pressure: 1 N/m2 = 1Pa

Pascal

11.2 Pressure

Example 2 The Force on a Swimmer Suppose the pressure acting on the back of a swimmers hand is 1.2x105 Pa. The surface area of the back of the hand is 8.4x10-3m2. (a) Determine the magnitude of the force that acts on it. (b) Discuss the direction of the force.

11.2 Pressure

P!

F A

F ! PA ! .2 v105 N m 2 .4 v10 3 m 2 1 8

! 1.0 v103 N

Since the water pushes perpendicularly against the back of the hand, the force is directed downward in the drawing.

11.2 Pressure

! P2 A P1 A mg ! 0

P2 A ! P A mg 1

m ! VV

V ! Ah

P2 A ! P A V Vg 1

P2 A ! P A V Ahg 1

P2 ! P V hg 1

Conceptual Example 3 The Hoover Dam Lake Mead is the largest wholly artificial reservoir in the United States. The water in the reservoir backs up behind the dam for a considerable distance (120 miles). Suppose that all the water in Lake Mead were removed except a relatively narrow vertical column. Would the Hoover Same still be needed to contain the water, or could a much less massive structure do the job?

Example 4 The Swimming Hole Points A and B are located a distance of 5.50 m beneath the surface of the water. Find the pressure at each of these two locations.

P2 ! P V gh 1

atmospheri pressure c P2 ! .01v 10 5 Pa
.00 v10 3 kg m 3
.80 m s 2
5.50 m
1 1 9

! 1.55 v 105 Pa

P2 ! P 1

V gh

Patm ! V gh

! 0.760 m ! 760 mm

P2 ! PB ! PA

PA ! P V gh 1

absolute pressure

P2 Patm ! V gh

gauge pressure

PASCALS PRINCIPLE Any change in the pressure applied to a completely enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to all parts of the fluid and enclosing walls.

P2 ! P 1

V g 0 m

F2 F1 ! A2 A1

A2 F2 ! F1 A 1

Example 7 A Car Lift The input piston has a radius of 0.0120 m and the output plunger has a radius of 0.150 m. The combined weight of the car and the plunger is 20500 N. Suppose that the input piston has a negligible weight and the bottom surfaces of the piston and plunger are at the same level. What is the required input force?

A2 F2 ! F1 A 1

2

P2 P ! V gh 1

FB ! P2 A P A ! P2 P
A 1 1

V ! hA

FB ! V ghA

FB ! ] g VV

mass of displaced fluid

ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE Any fluid applies a buoyant force to an object that is partially or completely immersed in it; the magnitude of the buoyant force equals the weight of the fluid that the object displaces:

FB ]

Magnitude of buoyant force

! Wfluid ]

Weight of displaced fluid

If the object is floating then the magnitude of the buoyant force is equal to the magnitude of its weight.

Example 9 A Swimming Raft The raft is made of solid square pinewood. Determine whether the raft floats in water and if so, how much of the raft is beneath the surface.

Wraft ! FB

26000 N ! V waterVwater g

h!

Conceptual Example 10 How Much Water is Needed to Float a Ship? A ship floating in the ocean is a familiar sight. But is all that water really necessary? Can an ocean vessel float in the amount of water than a swimming pool contains?

In steady flow the velocity of the fluid particles at any point is constant as time passes. Unsteady flow exists whenever the velocity of the fluid particles at a point changes as time passes.

Turbulent flow is an extreme kind of unsteady flow in which the velocity of the fluid particles at a point change erratically in both magnitude and direction.

Fluid flow can be compressible or incompressible. Most liquids are nearly incompressible. Fluid flow can be viscous or nonviscous. An incompressible, nonviscous fluid is called an ideal fluid.

When the flow is steady, streamlines are often used to represent the trajectories of the fluid particles.

The mass of fluid per second that flows through a tube is called the mass flow rate.

(m ! VV ! V A v(t ]

distance

(m2 ! V 2 A2v2 (t

(m1 ! V1 A1v1 (t

EQUATION OF CONTINUITY The mass flow rate has the same value at every position along a tube that has a single entry and a single exit for fluid flow.

V1 A1v1 ! V 2 A2 v2

SI Unit of Mass Flow Rate: kg/s

Incompressible fluid:

A1v1 ! A2 v2 Q ! Av

Example 12 A Garden Hose A garden hose has an unobstructed opening with a cross sectional area of 2.85x10-4m2. It fills a bucket with a volume of 8.00x10-3m3 in 30 seconds. Find the speed of the water that leaves the hose through (a) the unobstructed opening and (b) an obstructed opening with half as much area.

(a)

Q ! Av

(b)

A1v1 ! A2 v2

v2 !

A1 v1 ! 2 0.936 m s ! 1.87 m s A2

According to the pressure-depth relationship, the pressure is lower at higher levels, provided the area of the pipe does not change.

W ! F ! (F s ! (P As ! P2 P1 V s

Wnc !

mv

1 2

2 1

mgy1

mv

1 2

2 2

mgy2

BERNOULLIS EQUATION In steady flow of a nonviscous, incompressible fluid, the pressure, the fluid speed, and the elevation at two points are related by:

2 P1 1 Vv12 Vgy1 ! P2 1 Vv2 Vgy2 2 2

Conceptual Example 14 Tarpaulins and Bernoullis Equation When the truck is stationary, the tarpaulin lies flat, but it bulges outward when the truck is speeding down the highway. Account for this behavior.

Example 16 Efflux Speed The tank is open to the atmosphere at the top. Find and expression for the speed of the liquid leaving the pipe at the bottom.

P ! P2 ! Patm 1

v2 } 0

y2 y1 ! h

1 2

Vv12 ! Vgh

v1 ! 2 gh

FORCE NEEDED TO MOVE A LAYER OF VISCOUS FLUID WITH CONSTANT VELOCITY The magnitude of the tangential force required to move a fluid layer at a constant speed is given by:

LAv F! y

coefficient of viscosity

SI Unit of Viscosity: Pas Common Unit of Viscosity: poise (P) 1 poise (P) = 0.1 Pas

TR 4 P2 P 1 Q! 8LL

Example 17 Giving and Injection A syringe is filled with a solution whose viscosity is 1.5x10-3 Pas. The internal radius of the needle is 4.0x10-4m. The gauge pressure in the vein is 1900 Pa. What force must be applied to the plunger, so that 1.0x10-6m3 of fluid can be injected in 3.0 s?

8L Q P2 P ! TR 4

T v 10 m 4.0

-4 4

! 1200 Pa

P ! 1900 Pa 1

P2 P ! 1200 Pa 1 P2 ! 3100 Pa

5 2

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