Abhinav Doomra 108335 IT-2 3rd year

Introduction
Android is an operating system for mobile devices such as cellular phones, tablet computers and netbooks. € It was initially developed by Android Inc. which was later purchased by Google. € Google further formed the open handset alliance
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Open Handset Alliance
o The Open Handset Alliance (OHA) is a business alliance of 78 firms for developing open standards for mobile devices o Technically the term ³ OPEN STANDARDS ³ refers to a specification whose description is freely available .

oThis means that developers are free to create applications which are valid according to the specification and which will therefore work with software designed for it.

Some major names in OHA HTC € SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS € MOTOROLA € GOOGLE € NVIDIA ELECTRONICS € INTEL CORP € EBAY € SONY ERRICSON € .

Android is open source. € Being an open source it has the following advantages € Support Cost Flexibility . The source code of the android os is freely available to anyone.

ANDROID ARCHITECTURE .

and driver model. .LINUX KERNEL € Android relies on Linux version 2. process management. The kernel also acts as an abstraction layer between the hardware and the rest of the software stack. network stack. memory management.6 for core system services such as security.

with its own instance of the Dalvik virtual machine.ANDROID LIBRARIES € € € Android includes a set of core libraries that provides most of the functionality available in the core libraries of the Java programming language. Every Android application runs in its own process. . The Dalvik VM relies on the Linux kernel for underlying functionality such as threading and low-level memory management.

LIBRARIES System C library Media Libraries Surface Manager «1 ‡ A BSD-derived implementation of the standard C system library (libc). JPG. MP3. H. including MPEG4. as well as static image files. AMR. tuned for embedded Linuxbased devices ‡ It is based on Packet Video¶s Open CORE. the libraries support playback and recording of many popular audio and video formats. and PNG ‡ Manages access to the display subsystem and seamlessly composites 2D and 3D graphic layers from multiple applications .264. AAC.

0 APIs ‡ Bitmap and vector font rendering ‡ A powerful and lightweight relational database engine available to all applications .LIBRARIES LibWebCore SGL 3D libraries Free Type SQLite «2 ‡ A modern web browser engine which powers both the Android browser and an embeddable web view ‡ The underlying 2D graphics engine ‡ An implementation based on OpenGL ES 1.

contacts. calendar.etc Android will ship with a set of core applications including an email client. browser. All applications are written using the Java programming language. . and others.APPLICATIONS € This is where we find the basic functions of the device such as making phone calls. maps. accessing the Web browser and accessing contacts list . SMS program.

jar file. For example.dex file of the web browser app in Android is about 200K. effectively reducing the space requirement (uncompressed) by half from a traditional . the . whereas the equivalent uncompressed .dex) files.Dalvik Virtual Machine € € € The Dalvik VM takes the generated Java class files and combines them into one or more Dalvik Executable (. .jar version is about 500K. It reuses duplicate information from multiple class files.

€ € € Second. as a result of the Dalvik VM. Finally. the Dalvik VM uses a different kind of assembly-code generation.dex files instead. . in which it uses registers as the primary units of data storage instead of the stack. We should point out that the final executable code in Android. Google has fine-tuned the garbage collection in the Dalvik VM. is based not on Java byte code but on .30 % fewer instructions are accomplished as a result.

The latest Froyo home screen . the Froyo was the most awaited and rumored edition of the android till date.Android 2.2 FROYO Released may 2010.

is used for data storage purposes ‡ Android provides a standard way for a application to expose its private data to other applications through content providers ‡ Content providers implement a standard syntax for requesting and modifying data.Data Storage ‡ SQLite. and a standard mechanism for reading the returned data.sqlite . a lightweight relational database. ‡ All the interfaces. classes required for database operations are available in the package android.database.

such as user and group IDs that are assigned to application ‡ Additional finer-grained security features are provided through a "permission" mechanism that enforces restrictions on the specific operations that a particular process can perform (by default no application can perform tasks that impact other applications) . in which each application runs in its own process ‡ Most security is enforced at the process level through standard Linux facilities.Security: Multiprocess system Linux security Finer security ‡ Android is a multi-process system.

WiMAX Messaging ‡ SMS and MMS are available forms of messaging. gyroscopes. including threaded text messaging and now Android Cloud to Device Messaging Framework (C2DM) is also a part of Android Push Messaging service.EDGE.IDEN. scaling. ‡ Google search through Voice is available as Search Input ‡ Voice actions supported on Android 2. Hardware support Voice Based Features ‡ Android can use video/still cameras.Bluetooth. thermometers.Wi-Fi.CDMA. GPS. proximity and pressure sensors.2 onwards. . accelerated 2D bit blits (with hardware orientation.UMTS. accelerometers.Connectivity ‡ GSM. magnetometers. touchscreens. pixel format conversion) and accelerated 3D graphics.

2 comes bundled with Adobe Flash 10. Handsets running Android 2.Upgradations : € Adobe Flash: Android 2. including websites like PopCap games and Farmville. the latest and greatest version of Flash.2 will have full access to the web¶s flash content. .1.

2 comes packaged with a little piece of code called the just in time (JIT) compiler.Just In Time compiler: € Android 2. . A JIT compiler will increase the speed of Android and its applications by translating their code into a form that¶s much faster for your phone to run.

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€ A new javascript engine dubbed as V8 renders executions of javascript upto two to three times faster € .BROWSER BOOST UP !! Froyo¶s browser supports latest adobe flash.

2.New Developer Services € CLOUD TO DEVICE COMPUTING : Android Cloud to Device Messaging (C2DM) makes it easier for mobile applications to sync data with servers. for example Gmail. Contacts. Starting with Android 2. C2DM allows third-party developers to use the same service. . and Calendar. Many of the Google applications on Android already use push to keep their data fresh.

and an Intent broadcast is sent to the app. and sends the ID to its server. it posts the message via HTTP to Google¶s C2DM servers. . ‡The app is woken up to process the message in its Intent Receiver. an application on the device registers with Google and get a registration ID. ‡When the server needs to push a message to the app on the device. ‡The C2DM servers route the message to the device.‡To enable C2DM.

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functional and comparatively inexpensive. It would make easier for users of Android powered phones to share information between pc. .Future Aspects € Google android operating system can be used in netbooks : Netbooks are now the fastest growing segment of the PC market. they are portable.

SONY € Sony Ericsson to introduce Android 3.0 gaming platform and PSP like smartphone .

SONY € « Contd. . € There will be a new area of the Android Market specifically for the games.0) with a phone-specific skin. € The device will be running Gingerbread (Android 3. Will have a 1GHz CPU € It's a landscape slider with game controls in place of the typical QWERTY keyboard.

Some interesting APPS € LETS TAKE A LOOK AT SOME OF INNOVATIVE APPLICATIONS THAT HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED FOR THE ANDROID .

Virtual qwerty with SWYPE technology This application produces a virtual qwerty for the user € It has an additional feature that you don¶t have to lift your finger from the screen inorder to type a word € The word is automatically guessed. based upon the characters travelled across € .

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It enables sharing of your ³high speed 3g ³ data network over upto five devices € .WI-FI HOTSPOT € An application lets you turn your phone into a wi-fi hotspot.

retrieve data based on those geographical coordinates. . compass and GPS data to identify the user¶s location and field of view. and overlay that data over the camera view.LAYAR REALITY BROWSER € € The Layar Reality Browser shows what is around you by displaying real time digital information on top of the real world as seen through the camera of your mobile phone Layar works by using a combination of the mobile phone¶s camera.

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Its custom virtual machine optimize memory and hardware resources in a mobile environment.Conclusion Android is a big revolution in the field of operating system. it can be liberally extended to incorporate new cutting edge technologies as they emerge.. The open source platform will continue to evolve as the developer community works together to build innovative mobile applications .

Refer www.google.com :P .

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