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BASIC MICROPROCESSOR
SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE
The Memory

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THE MEMORY
Memory is used to store program, data and instruction, as patterns of 1s and 0s in a temporary or permanent form. Divided into two groups: 1. ROM 2. RAM

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ROM (READ ONLY MEMORY)


Nonvolatile memory because the stored data is not lost when power to IC is turned off. It contains the essential instruction for the computer to start.

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ROM CONT.

Block Diagram Of ROM

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ROM CONT.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Version of ROM: Standard ROM PROM EPROM EAROM

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1. STANDARD ROM
Data is fixed and not erasable, uses for fixed program such as monitor for a system. Called mask-programmable ROM.

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2. PROM (PROGRAMMABLE ROM)


Can be programmed by using electrically bit pattern Once it programmed the content cannot be changed A memory element with un-blown fuse stores a 1 and a blown fuse store 0

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3. EPROM (ERASEABLE PROM)


Can be programmed, erased and then programmed by the user as often as required The information can be erased by flooding the chip with ultra-violet Following this process the complete memory has been erased, and new bit pattern can be entered

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4. EAROM (ELECTRICALLLY ALTERABLE ROM)


Can be erased and programmable by a user. The content of the complete memory can be erased by applying voltage to appropriate pins of the IC

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ROM ADVANTAGES
1.

2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

Nonvolatile, and so they do not lose their contents when power is lost Cheaper than RAMs More reliable than RAMs because their circuitry is simpler Static and do not require refresh Easier to interface than RAMs Cannot be accidently changed

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RAM (RANDOM ACCESS READ/WRITE MEMORY)


Used for temporary storage or user programs and data Volatile memory because the stored data is lost when the power supply to memory is switched off.

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RAM CONT.

Block Diagram Of RAM

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RAM CONT.

1. 2.

Divided in two groups: SRAM DRAM

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1. SRAM (STATIC RAM)


Contains flip-flop-like circuit as memory cells Needs no refreshing and will holds its binary information as long as the IC power is powered

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2. DRAM (DYNAMIC RAM)


Contains memory cell based on capacitance, the cells must be refreshed hundreds of times per second Have advantage of higher capacity and lower power consumption over RAM

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DRAM CONT
DRAM types: A. FPM B. RDRAM C. EDO D. SDRAM

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I. FPM (FAST PAGE MODE)


Slightly faster than conventional DRAM. While standard DRAM requires that a row and column be sent for each access, FPM works by sending the row address just once for many accesses to memory in locations near each other, improving access time.

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II. RDRAM (RAMBUS DRAM)


Data is transferred on both the rising and falling edges of the clock signal, a technique known as double data rate Slight increase in latency, heat output, manufacturing complexity, and cost

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III. EDO (EXTENDED DATA OUTPUT)


Faster than conventional DRAM Unlike conventional DRAM which can only access one block of data at a time, EDO RAM can start fetching the next block of memory at the same time that it sends the previous block to the CPU

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IV. SDRAM (SYNCHRONOUS DRAM)


Synchronized with the system bus Synchronous interface, meaning that it waits for a clock signal before responding to control inputs Enabling higher speeds

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RAM ADVANTAGES
1. 2. 3. 4.

Simple to erase and reprogram Can use for reprogramming purpose Programming can be done quickly Does not require programmer (equipment) to program