Differentiated Instruction

David W. Dillard

Objectives
‡ Based on the information provided today, teachers will be able: ‡ To define differentiated instruction (evaluation) ‡ Implement differentiated instruction by overcoming obstacles and/or identifying current practices (evaluation) ‡ List three strategies they have used or might use in their classroom (evaluation) ‡ Find information and additional resources (provided in handout)

Definition I
‡ Differentiated instruction is a process through which teachers enhance learning by matching student characteristics to instruction and assessment. Differentiated instruction allows all students to access the same classroom curriculum by providing entry points, learning tasks, and outcomes that are tailored to the students¶ needs.

Definition II
‡ In differentiated classrooms, teachers begin where students are, not the front of a curriculum guide. They accept and build upon the premise that learners differ in important ways. Thus, they also accept and act on the premise that teachers must be ready to engage students in instruction through different learning modalities by appealing to differing interests, and by using varied rates of instruction along with varied degrees of complexity.
(Carol Ann Tomlinson)

Definition III
‡ In differentiated classrooms, teachers provide specific ways for each individual to learn as deeply as possible and as quickly as possible, without assuming one student's road map for learning is identical to anyone else's. These teachers believe that students should be held to high standards. They work to ensure that struggling, advanced, and in-between students think and work harder than they meant to; achieve more than they thought they could; and come to believe that learning involves effort, risk, and personal triumph.
‡ (Carol Ann Tomlinson)

It means using a variety of instructional strategies that address diverse student learning needs. and preferences. strengths. . Differentiated instruction is a way to enhance learning for all students by engaging them in activities that respond to particular learning needs.Differentiated instruction From Wikipedia. It places students at the center of teaching and learning and student needs drive instructional planning. the free encyclopedia ‡ Differentiated instruction (sometimes referred to as differentiated learning) is a way of thinking about teaching and learning.

Differentiated instruction From Wikipedia. instructional needs. teacher-facilitated classroom where all students have the opportunity to meet curriculum foundational objectives. . interests and learning preferences and provide opportunities for students to work in varied instructional formats. a classroom that utilizes differentiated instruction is a learnerresponsive. Teachers respond to students¶ readiness. the free encyclopedia ‡ The goals of differentiated instruction are to develop challenging and engaging tasks for each learner (from low-end learner to high-end learner). problem based and project based instruction. Lessons should be on inquiry based. In a nutshell. Instructional activities are flexible and based and evaluated on content. process and product.

lecture.Carol Tomlinson.. demonstrations. textbooks. the content¶s complexity should be adapted to students¶ learner profiles. taped texts) to best meet students¶ needs.e. The instructional concepts should be broad based. and all students should be given access to the same core content. However. Teachers can vary the presentation of content. identifies four classroom elements that can be differentiated: ‡ Content: What the student needs to learn.( i. . professor at the University of Virginia.

Examples of differentiating process activities include scaffolding. manipulatives. varying the length of time for a student to master content. . flexible grouping. identifies four classroom elements that can be differentiated: ‡ Process: Activities in which the student engages to make sense of or master the content.Carol Tomlinson. professor at the University of Virginia. interest centers. and encouraging an advanced learner to pursue a topic in greater depth.

and various means of scoring. . professor at the University of Virginia. Products should provide students with different ways to demonstrate their knowledge as well as various levels of difficulty. identifies four classroom elements that can be differentiated: ‡ Products: The culminating projects that ask students to apply and extend what they have learned.Carol Tomlinson. group or individual work.

Winebrenner. The differentiated classroom should include areas in which students can work quietly as well as collaborate with others. materials that reflect diverse cultures. 1999. and routines that allow students to get help when the teacher isn¶t available (Tomlinson. identifies four classroom elements that can be differentiated: ‡ Learning Environment: The way the classroom works and feels. . 1996). 1992. 1995.Carol Tomlinson. professor at the University of Virginia.

and modifications (including related services.1 Comprehensive services for all resident children with disabilities. are an integral component of the district¶s educational program. All students with disabilities have access to the general curriculum. The district has policies and procedures in place to ensure provision of effective special education services to children (ages 3-21) and their parents in accordance with state and federal regulations. as required by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and Chapter 162. The district ensures that all students with disabilities receive appropriate supports.DESE ± MSIP ‡ DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION AND SUPPLEMENTAL PROGRAMS pt. I ‡ 7. and positive behavioral interventions) to address their individual needs. ‡ 3. ‡ 4. . The district implements programs which result in improved opportunities for post-secondary education and employment for students with disabilities. ‡ 1. and demonstrate progress in the general curriculum. assistive technology. participate in regular education settings with nondisabled peers. services. ‡ 2. RSMo.

A balanced. The district identifies and provides targeted instruction or other needed services/interventions for educationally-disadvantaged. Classroom strategies that accommodate students¶ individual learning needs are implemented. ESOL.DESE -. be at risk of leaving school without completing high school. . ‡ 4. as well as students who may. for other reasons. ‡ 3. ‡ 1.3 The district has implemented effective instructional programs designed to meet the assessed needs of its students. II ‡ 6. as well as the practices and procedures needed to support these programs. migrant. The district consistently provides access to extended learning time and alternative instructional delivery systems for all students.MSIP pt. research-based reading program is in place for grades K-3. ‡ 2. and homeless students.

2006. I Long to return to the Good Old Days I thought I was differentiating I teach the way I was taught I don¶t know how I have too much content to cover I¶m good at lecturing I can¶t see how I would grade all those different assignments Kathie F. 2. CA: Corwin Press.Obstacles 1. 6. Nunley. 4. 5. 7. . Thousand Oaks. Differentiating in the High School. 3.

I want my classroom under control 12. I have neither the time nor the funding for all that Kathie F. I don¶t know how to measure my student¶s learning styles 13. . I subscribe to ability grouping 10. Thousand Oaks. Nunley. 2006. I have real logistic issues 11. Differentiating in the High School. CA: Corwin Press. I thought differentiation was for the elementary school 9.Obstacles 8.

Obstacles 14. . CA: Corwin Press. The bottom line ± if they are learning. Nunley. Thousand Oaks. Differentiating in the High School. There¶s no support for it at my school 16. 2006. I¶ve been teaching this way for years and it works 15. My district requires me to follow a prescribed text 17. you are teaching Kathie F. Parents expect lecture format in high school for college prep 18.

Response to: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Student readiness Student interests Student learning style Multiple intelligences Success for all students What is practical and what is doable .

windows. implicit. equipment.CRIME ‡ Curriculum: content. barriers Mary Anne Prater. difficulty. teacher & student directed ‡ Materials: textbooks. seating. tests. ³She Will Succeed!: Strategies for success in Inclusive Classrooms. doors. standards ‡ Rules: explicit. homework. space. supplies ‡ Environment: furniture. trade books. individual & group work pace. written ‡ Instruction: teaching style. Council for Exceptional Children .

Council for Exceptional Children .SHE WILL SUCCEED Mary Anne Prater.

Key Guidelines for Differentiation ‡ All of you are already doing some differentiation ‡ Take small steps to implement ‡ Clarify key concepts and generalizations: note taking is critical ‡ Use assessment as a teaching tool to extend rather than merely measure instruction ‡ Emphasize critical and creative thinking as a goal in lesson design ‡ Engaging all learners is essential ‡ Provide a balance between teacher-assigned and student-selected tasks .

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have a room chart and make notes ± Observation II (class management): you should know when you have lost ³them´ ± Discussion: with the whole class.Assessment ‡ Informal and formative as opposed to summative ‡ Classroom assessment is ongoing through personal communications: ± Questioning: try to question all students ± level the question to ability and aim at higher order thinking ± Observation: move around the room. or individual . group.

Classroom Assessments ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ You have their attention ± (They have a pulse) One-minute paper (what did the students lean) Note-check ± teacher and or peer Three (???) questions you still have or would like clarified (collect and answer the next day) The Muddiest Point One-sentence Summary What¶s the Principle/Process Clickers -.eLearning Questioning .

Classroom Assessments ‡ Use a seating chart to log questions/responses ± Can be as easy as +/± Can be used for behavior/attention ‡ Have students keep a response sheet to questions and collect/check at the end of the lesson/day ‡ Clickers/eLearning automated responses ‡ Thumbs up ± thumbs down response to questions .

and then open up the class discussion  Ask "follow-ups" (Why? Do you agree? Can you elaborate?)  Tell me more. Can you give an example?  Withhold judgment . discussion with a partner.Questioning I  Remember wait time  Provide at least three seconds of thinking time after a question and after a response  Utilize "think-pair-share"  Allow individual thinking time.

thumbs down")  Allow for student calling "Richard. will you please call on someone else to respond?"  Play devil's advocate .Questioning II  Respond to student answers in a nonevaluative fashion  Ask for summary (to promote active listening) "Could you please summarize John's point?"  Survey the class "How many people agree with the author's point of view?" ("thumbs up.

Questioning III  Require students to defend their reasoning against different points of view  Ask students to "unpack their thinking"  "Describe how you arrived at your answer. I want you to consider alternatives. Not just those with raised hands  Student questioning. Let the students develop their own questions." ("think aloud")  Call on students randomly. "There is not a single correct answer for this question.  Cue student responses." .

Graphic Organizers & Note Taking Do you really know what students are learning. use different organizers with a specific purpose in mind ‡ Check what students create . writing down. understanding? ‡ T-Notes ‡ Cornell Notes ‡ Lit Circle ‡ Q-Notes ‡ Inference Notes ‡ Cluster Notes ‡ Hierarchical Notes ‡ Think-in-Threes ‡ Timeline Notes ‡ Venn Diagrams ‡ Conversational Roundtable ‡ Episodic Notes ‡ Spreadsheet Notes ‡ This is a skill that must be taught.

Lit Circle Notes .

Inference Notes .

Q-Notes .

Cornell Notes .

and open-endedness. The curricular content and objective(s) are the same. but the process and/or product are varied according to the student¶s level of readiness .Tiered Assignments ‡ Designed to provide different levels of complexity. abstractness.

Allowing students to choose a topic can be motivating to them. The teacher may select a variety of topics or areas that students or groups can select. .Interest Centers or Interest Groups ‡ Interest centers are set up so that learning experiences are directed toward a specific learner interest.

Flexible Grouping ‡ Students work as part of many different groups depending on the task and/or content. ‡ Groups assigned: ± ± ± ± Readiness Assigned by teacher Randomly Chosen by students ‡ Allows students to work with a wide variety of peers and keeps them from being labeled .

.Learning Contracts ‡ An agreement between the student and the teacher (they may or may not be written. but written often works better) ‡ Teacher specifies the necessary skills ‡ Student identifies the methods for completing the task (there may or may not be debate on establishing and there may or may not be amendments) ‡ Allows students to: ± Work at an appropriate pace ± Target their learning style ± Helps students work independently ‡ This is an excellent way for students to understand what is EXPECTED of them.

pairs. or individual assignments .Choice Boards ‡ Organizers that contain a variety of activities ‡ Students choose activities to complete as they learn a skill or develop a product ‡ These may contain small groups.

Students work individually (or in small groups) to complete the agenda tasks. ‡ ‡ ‡ . The agendas can be personalized (e.Differentiated Instructional Strategies I ‡ Anchor Activities: are on-going assignments tied to the curriculum and for which students are accountable that can be worked on independently throughout a grading period or longer. Student agendas throughout a class will have similar and dissimilar elements. usually two to three weeks. interests. more challenging work) for individual students. Allowing for multiple right answers: are open-ended assignments that focus on the process of solving the problem and/or critical thinking. and learning profiles. and homework. Agendas: These are personalized lists of tasks that a student must complete in a specified time.g.. teachers adjust the sorts of questions posed to learners based on their readiness. if needed. include IEP tasks. Adjusting questions: In class discussions. tests.

‡ ‡ ‡ . Centers: are flexible areas in the classroom that address variable learning needs.Differentiated Instructional Strategies II ‡ 4MAT: Teachers who use 4MAT plan instruction for each of four learning preferences over the course of several days on a given topic. role-plays. Chunking: is breaking assignments and activities into smaller. some on personal involvement. Stations work in concert with one another. and some on synthesis. Centers differ from stations in that centers are distinct. and community projects: are performance assessment tasks. Attention to social issues. based on authentic situations of interest to students. more manageable parts and providing more structured directions for each part. Thus. some on understanding. Each learner has a chance to approach the topic through preferred modes and also strengthen weaker areas. simulations. etc. Two kinds of centers are particularly useful for differentiated instruction: learning centers and interest centers. some lessons focus on mastery. real world experiences.

Movement among groups is common. writing assignment. giving them credit for what they already know and allowing them to move ahead in the curriculum. Developing student responsibility: giving the students opportunity to help develop the evaluation rubrics. Flexible grouping: matching students to skill work by virtue of readiness. .Differentiated Instructional Strategies III ‡ Compacting: is a process that involves pre-assessing students. ‡ Emphasis on Thinking skills: giving students the opportunity to think aloud. computation skill. and complete self and group evaluations. Flexible pacing: allowing for differences in the students' ability to master the curricula. write project proposals. discuss their thinking with their peers. based on readiness on a given skill and growth in that skill. Compressing the required curriculum into a shorter period of time so students who master it ahead of their classmates can use the time they "buy back" for other activities. and reflect on their thinking in journals. etc. not with the assumption that all need the same task.

High-level questions: questioning that draw on advanced levels of information.Differentiated Instructional Strategies IV ‡ Goal setting and planning: involving students in their individual goal setting and the planning of learning activities. Hands-on projects/activities: using manipulative to motivate instructions. . Usually the focus is on the process and thinking skills. Group investigation: working in cooperative mixed-ability groups on openended tasks or in like-ability groups working on appropriately challenging tasks. requiring leaps of understanding and challenging thinking. one to one with the teacher. Independent study: providing students with the opportunity to work independently to investigate topics of interest to them.

Learning contract: is a proposal made prior to beginning a project or unit in which the resources. reinforce. Portfolios: provide a means for helping teachers and parents reflect on student growth over time. Interest centers: are designed to motivate students' exploration of topics for which they have a particular interest. which make connections across multiple curricular areas. steps toward completion. or extend a particular skill or concept. These are collections of student work are excellent for helping children set appropriate learning goals and evaluating their own growth. and evaluation criteria are agreed upon with the teacher.Differentiated Instructional Strategies V ‡ Interdisciplinary/integrated curricula around a theme: thematic units. Learning centers: are classroom areas that contain a collection of activities or materials designed to teach. .

Stations work in concert with one another. Stations: are different spots in the classroom where students work on various tasks simultaneously.Differentiated Instructional Strategies VI ‡ Problem-Based learning: placing students in the active role of solving problems in much the same way adult professionals perform their jobs.k12. This page was created by Michael Szesze.us/curriculum/science/instr/differstrategies.mcps. Students must seek additional information. Stations allow different students to work with different tasks. Program Supervisor for Science. pose solution. They invite flexible grouping because not all students need to go to all stations all the time or spend the same amount of time in each station. The teacher presents students with an unclear. locate resources. define the problem. communicate that solution to others. and assess the solution's effectiveness. http://www.md. make decisions about solutions. complex problem.htm .

org/pd_online/diffinstr/el199909_tomli nson.htm ‡ http://www.html .weac.htm ‡ http://pdonline.html ‡ http://www.htm ‡ http://www.ascd.englishcompanion.org/pd/learning/differentiated_learning.com/Tools/notemaking.h tml ‡ Note taking: http://www.sresd.org/kids/1998-99/march99/differ2.rmwc.k12.us/pages/resources/differentInstr .njpep.edu/mentor_grant/Differentiated/differe ntiated_instruction.Websites ‡ http://faculty.mi.

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