Communications Theory

The instructional design knowledge based

Key principles:

‡ The communication process can be viewed as a matter of transmission, behavior, interaction, or transaction. ‡ The typical components of the communication process are the information, source, the message, channels (auditory & visual), noise, environment, information receiver ( including cultural backgrounds & previous experiences), interpretation of meaning, & feedback.

Philosophical Emphases
The following generalizations can be made:

‡ ‡ ‡

Transmission & behavioral emphases have an empiricist &/or a rationalist view. The interaction emphasis has a humanist view. The transaction emphasis has a constructivist view.

Basic research support
‡ Shannon¶s early channel & noise research; Gestalt research & theory related to perspection

Early contributors
‡ ‡ Communication theory: David Berlo, Malcolm MacLean, Wilbur Schramm, Claude Shannon, Warren Weaver, and Bruce Westley; ID Applications: James Heartley & Robert Travers

ID Application
‡ Culture-Based ID Models ‡ ‡ Message Design Multimedia Design

Support ID Research
‡ Elements that direct attention in instruction (e.g. Frank Dwyer) ‡ Multimedia message design (e.g. Richard Mayer) ‡ Single- vs. multiple-channel processing (e.g. Robert Travers, Allan Paivio) Studies of effects of message structure on cognitive processing ( eg. John Sweller & colleagues)


Related concepts:
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Cognitive Load Cueing Techniques Globalized & Localized Education & Training Information Load Single-& Multi-channeled Communication Split Attention Visual Language & Learning

Instructional Design Domains & Elements Relating to Communications Theory

Learners & Learning Process
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Learner characteristics Attitudes Background Culture Demographics Motivation

Learning & Performance Contexts
1. Environment
Message context Social system Society Technology-based 2. Physical materials and arrangements

Content structure & sequence
‡ ‡ Information & cognitive load Message structure (eg. Vocabulary, grammar,visuals, color)

Instructional & noninstructional strategies
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Eliminating noise Facilitating interaction & social communication Facilitating online communication Giving & receiving feedback Securing & focusing attention

Media & delivery systems
‡ ‡ Auditory & visual delivery channels New technologies & message tranmission

Designers & design processes
‡ ‡ ‡ Message design(gaining attention,typographical & visual cues) Multimedia design ( avoiding split attention, information redundancy, sound perception) Text design ( page& type size, typeface, spaing, capitalization

Communications Theory

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