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UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION

INTRODUCTION
 The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace. 192 member states  Works through principal organs and several specialized agencies.

HISTORY
 The United Nations was established to replace League of Nations.  To resolve conflicts and bring about peace in the world.  Franklin D. Roosevelt first coined the term 'United Nations' as a term to describe the Allied countries .  The term was first officially used in the Declaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942  UN conference began on 1st January 1942  Officially established on 24th October 1945

LEGAL BASIS OF ESTABLISHMENT


 Case of Reparations for Injuries .  The question arose whether the United Nations, as an organization, had "the capacity to bring an international claim against a government regarding injuries that the organization alleged had been caused by that state."

ORGANIZATION
 There are six official languages of the United Nations, used in intergovernmental meetings and documents, namely : i. ii. Arabic Chinese

iii. English iv. French v. Spanish

vi. Russian

Principal Organs: The General Assembly(the main deliberative assembly)  The Security Council (for deciding certain resolutions for peace and security) Economic and Social Council (for assisting in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development).  The Secretariat (for providing studies, information, and facilities needed by the UN)  The International Court of Justice (the primary judicial organ)  The United Nations Trusteeship Council (which is currently inactive

 Specialized agencies
Sr. No.
1

ACRON YMS
FAO

FLAG

AGENCY

HEADQUARTE RS
Rome, Italy

HEAD

ESTABLIS HED IN
1945

Food and Agriculture Organization International Atomic Energy Agency International Civil Aviation Organization International Fund for Agricultural Development

Jacques Diouf

IAEA

Vienna, Vienna, Austria

Yukiya Amano

1957

ICAO

Montreal, Montreal, Canada

Raymond Benjamin Kanayo F. Nwanze

1947

IFAD

Rome, Rome, Italy

ILO

International Labor Organization

Geneva, Switzerland

Juan Somava

1946 (1919)

Sr. No.
6

ACRON YMS
IMO

FLAG

AGENCY
International Maritime Organization

HEADQUARTE RS
London, United Kingdom

HEAD
Efthimios E. Mitropoulos

ESTABLIS HED IN
1948

IMF

International Monetary Fund International Telecommunication Union United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

Washington, D.C., USA Geneva, Switzerland

Dominique Strauss-Kahn Hamadoun Tour

1945 (1944)

ITU

1947 (1865)

UNESCO

Paris, France

Irina Bokova

1946

10

UNIDO

United Nations Industrial Development Organization Universal Postal Union

Vienna, Austria

Kandeh Yumkella

1967

11

UPU

Bern, Switzerland

Edouard Dayan

1947 (1874)

Sr. No.
12

ACRON YMS
WB

FLAG

AGENCY
World Bank

HEADQUARTE RS
Washington, D.C, D.C, USA Rome, Italy

HEAD
Robert B. Zoellick Josette Sheeran

ESTABLIS HED IN
1945 (1944)

13

WFP

World Food Programme World Health Organization World Intellectual Property Organization World Meteorological Organization World Tourism Organization

1963

14

WHO

Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Margaret Chan

1948

15

WIPO

Francis Gurry

1974

16

WMO

Alexander Bedritsky Taleb Rifai

1950 (1873)

17

UNWTO

1974

OBJECTIVES
 To keep peace throughout the world;  To develop friendly relations among nations;  To help nations work together to improve the lives of poor people, to conquer hunger, disease and illiteracy, and to encourage respect for each others rights and freedoms;  To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations to achieve these goals.

FINANCE
 The UN is financed from assessed and voluntary contributions

from member states .

 Different ceiling rates for different members.  Expenditure on peacekeeping.  Voluntary contributions by member states.

MEMBERSHIP
 The United Nations Charter outlines the rules for membership in Chapter 2,Article 4.  Membership is open to all peace-loving states.  The admission of any state to membership in the United Nations will be effected by a decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.  Group of 77

EFFECTIVENESS
 Relevance of United Nations in the 21st century.  Restrictive administrative structure and hindrance by the permanent members of the Security Council.  Decline in armed conflict since the end of cold war.

CRITICISMS
 Inefficient and excessive bureaucracy.  Incapable of decisive action.  No standing military force.  Creation of a exclusive Nuclear Club in the security Council.  Veto power and fait accompli.  Non democratic character.  Dependence on member states for funding.

CONCLUSION
 Many notable successes and failures.  Millennium Development Goals.  Extremely crucial and larger role to play in order to achieve its stated objectives.

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