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UMTS/UTRAN Introduction

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

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Table of contents
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Introduction Services Provided UMTS system description WCDMA for UMTS UTRAN (Release 1999)

Introduction to UMTS

Appendix Related Documentation Abbreviations and acronyms


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1. Introduction

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Definition

1.Introduction

Universal Mobile Telecommunication System


UMTS is one of the major new third generation mobile communications systems being developed within the framework which has been defined by the ITU and known as IMT-2000 UMTS Forum
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1. Introduction

1.1 Context 1.2 Standardization 1.3 UMTS goals 1.4 UMTS technical overview

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1.Introduction/1.1 Context

Past mobile systems (1)


First Generation (1G) In the early 80s, analog systems e.g Radiocom 2000, C-Netz Service: speech Limitations of 1G: poor spectrum efficiency expensive and heavy user equipment mobility only in a small area no security of communications

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1.Introduction/1.1 Context

Past mobile systems (2)


Second Generation (2G)
In the early 90s, digital systems Europe : GSM US : IS-95 (also called cdmaOne), IS-136 (TDMA system) Japan : PDC Services: Speech and low data rate Limitations of 2G: Congestion more than 300 million wireless subscribers worldwide -->need to increase system capacity Limited mobility around the world -->need for a global standardisation Limited offer of services more than 200 million internet users--> Need for new multimedia services and applications (video telephony, e-commerce...)

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Technical solutions

1.Introduction/1.1 Context

Two types of solutions were possible : enhancement of 2G system --> 2,5G low cost but short term e.g.: HSCSD, GPRS, EDGE for GSM evolution design of a complete new standard --> 3G high cost, long term, but great amount of new potential services e.g: UMTS

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1.Introduction/1.1 Context

GSM evolution (1)


HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched Data) Principle: to enhance channel coding scheme and to bundle GSM time slots on a circuit-switched basis. Performance: up to 115,2 kbps Already implemented but not all operators/manufacturers have made this choice. GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) Principle: to enhance channel coding scheme and to bundle GSM time slots on a packet-switched basis (the allocation of time slots is performed dynamically at the initialisation and during the connection) Performance: up to 171,2 kbps 1999/2000 : deployment phase 2002 : service offers for most operators
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1.Introduction/1.1 Context

GSM evolution (2)


EDGE (Enhancement Data rates for GSM evolution) Principle: new modulation scheme (8PSK instead of GMSK) Performance: up to 384 kbps Implementation is yet to come (foreseen for 2003) EDGE might be a good alternative to 3G systems in certain areas or for operators who do not have 3G licences, although the 3G brings more in terms of new multimedia services.

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Lets take some examples!


w Downloading a map (50 KBytes)
GSM 42 s GPRS 8 s EDGE 3 w Downloading a Word document s UMTS 0.2 (500 KBytes) s GSM 7 mn GPRS 82 s EDGE 27 s UMTS 2 s
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1.Introduction/1.1 Context

w A 2 1/2 minutes MP3 music file (2.4 MBytes)


GSM 34 mn GPRS 7 mn EDGE 128 s Video UMTS 10 s
Streaming with all technologies except with GSM

w Audio and streaming

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1.Introduction

1.1 Context 1.2 Standardization 1.3 UMTS Goals 1.4 UMTS technical overview

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

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IMT-2000: definition

1.Introduction/1.2 Standardization

IMT-2000 is a framework for third generation mobile systems (3G) which is scheduled to start service worldwide around the year 2000 subject to market considerations. IMT-2000 should use the frequencies around 2 GHz all over the world. IMT-2000 is defined by a set of interdependent ITU Recommendations*. IMT-2000 main requirements are : - wide range of high quality services - capability for multimedia applications - worldwide roaming capability - compatibility of services within IMT-2000 and with the fixed networks
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1.Introduction/1.2 Standardization

IMT-2000: main participants


Europe: ETSI Japan: ARIB USA: TIA, T1 South Korea: TTA China: CWTS ITU: International Telecommunication Union
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1.Introduction/1.2 Standardization

IMT-2000: terrestrial radio interfaces


IMT-TC (Time Code) TD-CDMA UMTS TDD IMT-MC (Multi Carrier) CDMA2000 FDD MC IMT-SC (Single Carrier) TDMA Single Carrier UWC-136 EDGE/ERAN IMT-FT (Frequency Time) TDMA Multi-Carrier DECT

IMT-DS (Direct Spread) W-CDMA UMTS FDD

Radio/Network Connection

Evolved GSM Core Network

Evolved IS-41 Core Network


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Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

1.Introduction/1.2 Standardization

2G terrestrial radio interfaces


China :

GSM
US & Canada : Western Europe:
(87%)

CDMA
(13%)

GSM
(12%)

GSM CDMA
(49%) (100%)

TDMA
(39%)

Japan: PDC
(64%)

CDMA
(36%)

Rest of the World :

GSM
(41%)

CDMA
(35%)

TDMA
(24%)

1999 Market Share: GSM 48 % CDMA 28 % TDMA 15 % PDC 9%


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Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

1.Introduction/1.2 Standardization

3G terrestrial radio interfaces


China :

GSM
US & Canada : Western Europe:

UMTS

(87%)

GSM (12%) EDG E

GSM CDMA (49%) CDM TDMA (39%) A EDG 2000 E UMTS


(100%)

CDMA (13%) CDM A 2000


Japan:

PDC

UMTS
Rest of the World :

(64%)

GSM UMTS
(41%)

CDMA (35%) CDM A 2000 UMTS

TDMA (24%) EDG E

1999 Market Share: UMTS0 GSM 48 % CDM EDG CDMA 28A % TDMA 15 % E 2000 PDC 9%
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IMT200

CDMA (36%) CDM A 2000 UMTS

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

1.Introduction/1.2 Standardization

3GPP: joint organization for UMTS standardization


Affiliated organizations: ETSI (Europe) ARIB/TTC (Japan) T1 (USA) TTA (South Korea) CWTS (China) Other members involved: manufacturers and operators System Specification: Access Network WCDMA (UTRA FDD) TD-CDMA (UTRA TDD) Core Network Evolved GSM All-IP Releases defined for the system specifications: - Release 99 (called R3 as well) - Release R4 and R5 (previously known as Release 2000 or R00)

In the following material we will only refer to UMTS R99.


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1.Introduction/1.2 Standardization

3GPP: TSG organization


Project Co-ordination Group (PCG)

TSG CN Core Network


CN WG1 Mobility Management, Call Control, Session Management

TSG RAN

TSG SA Aspects

Radio Access Networks Service and System

TSG T Terminals
T WG1 Mobile Terminal Conformance Testing

TSG GERAN GSM EDGE


Radio Access Network
GERAN WG1 Radio Aspects

RAN WG1 Radio layer 1 specification RAN WG2 Radio Layer 2 & Radio Layer 3 RR specification RAN WG3 Iub, Iur, Iu specification & UTRAN O&M requirements

SA WG1 Services

CN WG2 CAMEL

SA WG2 Architecture

T WG2 Mobile terminal services & capabilities

GERAN WG2 Protocol Aspects

CN WG3 Interworking with External Networks

SA WG3 Security

T WG3 Smart Card Application aspects

GERAN WG3 Terminal Testing

CN WG4 MAP/GTP /BCH/SS

RAN WG4 Radio performance & Protocol aspects

SA WG4 CODEC

CN WG5 OSA Open Service Access

SA WG5 Telecom Management

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1.Introduction/1.2 Standardization

3GPP specifications
Series_Id 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. Series_description Requirements Service Aspects Technical Realization Signaling Protocols (UE to network) UTRA aspects CODECs Data (reserved) Signaling Protocols (intra-fixed network) Program management User Identity Module O&M tm ecs.h Security Aspects p ecs/s p Test specification org/s . .3gpp Security algorithms ww

w ttp:// h

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1.Introduction/1.2 Standardization

UMTS Roadmap
EDGE Commercial introduction UMTS R99 Field Trials GPRS implementation UMTS R5

UMTS R99 commercial System

2001

2002

2003

2004

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1.Introduction

1.1 Context 1.2 Standardization 1.3 UMTS Goals 1.4 UMTS technical overview

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1.Introduction/1.3 UMTS goals

Why UMTS?

UMTS will be a mobile communication system that offers significant user benefits including high-quality wireless multimedia services to a convergent network of fixed, cellular and satellite components. It will deliver information directly to users and provide them with access to new and innovative services and applications. It will offer mobile personalized communications to the mass market regardless of location, network and terminal used. UMTS Forum 1997

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

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1.Introduction/1.3 UMTS goals

UMTS vision

Zone 4: Global Satellite


Zone 3: Suburban
Zone 2: Urban
Zone 1: In-Building

Macro-Cell

Micro-Cell

Pico-Cell

MSS

GSM

UTRA/FDD

UTRA/ TDD

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

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1.Introduction

1.1 Context 1.2 Standardization 1.3 UMTS Goals 1.4 UMTS technical overview

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

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1.Introduction/1.4 UMTS technical overview

UMTS general architecture


CS networks
(PSTN, ISDN..)

PS networks
(Internet)

CN Iu RAN Uu UE
CN RAN UE Core Network Radio Access Network User Equipment

Core network (CN) it provides support for the network features and telecommunication services. It is connected to external CS networks or PS networks. Radio Access network (RAN) it comprises roughly the functions specific to the access technique. 3 different RANs are foreseen: UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial RAN) MSS (Mobile Satellite component) BRAN (Broadband RAN) User Equipment (UE)
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Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

1.Introduction/1.4 UMTS technical overview

UMTS Cellular System


UMTS consists of a set of hierarchical cells, but the multiple access technique is completely different from GSM. GSM Users are separated in frequency (FDMA) and in time (TDMA) UMTS Users are separated with codes (CDMA)

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1.Introduction/1.4 UMTS technical overview

UMTS duplex modes


5 MHz channel

FDD mode
Code and Frequency orthogonality

f1 f2

Uplink Downlink

TDD mode
Code and Time orthogonality

.. .

5 MHz channel

Uplink & Downlink

.. .

15TS

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1.Introduction/1.4 UMTS technical overview

UMTS Frequency allocations


2110 2170 2200

FDD
1900 1920

MSS
1980 2010 2025

TDD

FDD

MSS

TDD
Uplink Downlink

FDD: Frequency Division Duplex TDD: Time Division Duplex MSS: Mobile Satellite System

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QUIZ! (1)
Mark the following answers to the questions A to E by True or False. A. What are the limits of 2G systems like GSM? 1/ No security of communications 2/ No dynamical allocation of radio resources 3/ Mobility only in a small area 4/ Heavy mobile phones 5/ Limited offer of data services B. EDGE... 1/ is an evolution of GSM 2/ is sometimes considered as a 3G system 3/ is based on a new modulation scheme 4/ is supposed to reach a bit rate about 40 times greater than the GSM one

1.Introduction

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

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QUIZ! (2)
C. Which of these radio interfaces belongs to IMT-2000? 1/ CDMA One 2/ UMTS FDD 3/ UMTS TDD 4/ CDMA 2000 5/ EDGE

1.Introduction

D. What is the organisation responsible for UMTS standardization? 1/ 3GPP CWTS 2/ 3GPP2 3/ ETSI 4/ ARIB 5/

E. What is the bandwidth of a CDMA carrier in UMTS? 1/ 200 kHz 2/ 1 MHz 3/ 5 MHz

F. Are the following statements about UTMS duplex modes True or False? 1/ FDD is similar to the GSM duplex mode 2/ TDD use the same frequencies as FDD 3/ FDD is better suited for asymmetric traffic
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

4/ TDD will come later

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2. Services provided

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2. Services provided

2.1 UMTS service principles 2.2 UMTS Bearer services 2.3 Tele-services 2.4 UMTS Terminals

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2. Services provided/2.1 UMTS service principles

What is a service?
E.g speech, file transfer, emails...
TE/MT UTRAN CN Node Teleservice UMTS Bearer Service External Bearer Service CN Bearer Service Backbone Bearer Service CN Gateway TE

E.g data transfer at 9,6 kbps, in transparent mode, with turbocode ...

Radio Access Bearer Service (RAB) Radio Bearer Service ... Iu Bearer Service ...

Physical Radio Physical Bearer Service Bearer Service Uu Iu


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Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

2. Services provided/2.1 UMTS service principles

Teleservices Speech, emergency calls SMS Email Internet Access Mobile e-commerce Video Postcards Information and location based services New applications

Tele-services and Bearer services


Instinctive service Basic services

Enhanced services New services to be provided by service providers (third party)

UMTS Bearer services Large toolkit for all kinds of services


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2. Services provided/2.1 UMTS service principles

Third party: service provider

Tele-services will not be standardised so as to differentiate between operators and providers of applications. UMTS offer new opportunity for content and service providers Todays 1:1 customer-operator relationship Tomorrows situation?
Operator
Contracted Content providers Contracted Service providers

Contracted Service providers

Operator
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2. Services provided/2.1 UMTS service principles

Virtual Home Environment (VHE)

The Virtual Home Environment (VHE) is an important portability concept of the 3G mobile systems. it enables end users to bring with them their Personal Service Environment (PSE) whilst roaming between networks, and also being independent of terminal used. "same look and feel" wherever you are The PSE is defined in terms of one or more User Profiles (list of subscriptions, associated preferences, terminal interface preferences, )

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2. Services provided/2.1 UMTS service principles

Service Architecture
Service Layer

Tele-services
(terminal equipment functions, Operator transmission capabilities)

Standardized interfaces Service Capability Features Service Capability Servers GSM/GPRS/UMTS CAMEL MExE SAT

Bearer Services

Network Layer Fixed

VHE concept is based on the standard mechanisms of Service Capability Servers which allow Service Capability Features. The latter are carried through standard interfaces in order to support Tele-services adapted to the Service Capabilities of the network and user equipment.
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2. Services provided/2.1 UMTS service principles

Lets Look for the nearest restaurant

Choose your preferences: - type of restaurant: French - type of payment: credit card ...

Restaurant Paul Bocuse 69660 Collonges-au-Mont-d'or

This service is built from the following service capability features: call set-up & authorisation (CAMEL for services in roaming after authentication phase with SAT), Map display on the phone : SAT and MExE Call the restaurant by Push Service : MExE Reservation with VISA card number : secured transaction with MExE Billing of the service : CAMEL Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

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2. Services provided

2.1 UMTS service principles 2.2 UMTS Bearer services 2.3 Tele-services 2.4 UMTS Terminals

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2. Services provided/2.2 UMTS Bearer Services

Bearer services characterization

Bearer services are characterized by a set of end-to-end characteristics with requirements on QoS, always considered point-to-point. Bearer services provide the capability for information transfer between access points and involve only low layer functions. Each bearer service is characterized by its requirements: transfer information: connection oriented or connectionless, traffic type (guaranteed/constant bit rate, non guaranteed/variable), traffic characteristics (uni-directional, bi-directional, multicast), priority quality characteristics: maximum transfer delay, delay variation, bit error ratio, data rate. This set of requirements are called QoS parameters.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Example : several active radio bearer services can be handled

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2. Services provided/2.2 UMTS Bearer Services

Bearer QoS requirements

negotiable: QoS offer on demand provide a wide range of QoS levels dynamic behaviour: It shall be possible to negotiate (renegotiate) the characteristics of a bearer service at session or connection establishment (during an on going session or connection). support of asymmetric nature between uplink and downlink supply of bearer services without wasting resources on the radio and network interfaces.
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2. Services provided/2.2 UMTS Bearer Services

Bearer Supported bit rates

The only limiting factor for satisfying application requirements shall be the cumulative bit rate per mobile termination at a given instant in each radio environment: At least 144 kbps in rural outdoor radio environment (with a maximum speed of 500 km/h) At least 384 kbps in urban or suburban outdoor radio environments (with a maximum speed of 120 km/h) At least 2048 kbps in indoor or low range outdoor radio environment (with a maximum speed of 10 km/h) Theses performances decrease: - when the speed of the user increases - when the load of the network increases
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2. Services provided

2.1 UMTS service principles 2.2 UMTS Bearer services 2.3 Tele-services 2.4 UMTS Terminals

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2. Services provided/2.3 Tele-services

Typology

Always-on
Directories Mobile Office
Voice (!) E-mail Agenda IntraNet/InterNet Corporate Applications Database Access Yellow/White Pages International Directories Operator Services

Media

Fun

Games (Hangman, Poker, Quiz, ) Screen Saver Ring Tone Horoscope Biorhythm

Music Transportatio n
Flight/train Schedule reservation

Downloading of music files or video clips

News (general/specific)

Vertical application

Traffic Management Automation Mobile branches Health

International/National News Local News Sport News Weather Lottery Results Finance News Stock Quotes Exchange Rates

Location services

Traffic Conditions Itineraries Nearest Restaurant, Cinema, Chemist, Parking;, ATM ...

Non physical

Mcommerce
Physical
on-line shopping on-line food

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

on-line Banking Ticketing Auction Gambling Best Price e-Book

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2. Services provided/2.3 Tele-services

QoS classes

w 4 classes have been identified:


t conversational
AMR speech service Video telephony CS: H324 PS: H323

+
Delay sensitiv e

Data Integrit y sensitiv e

t streaming t interactive
Web-browsing location based services

t background
e-mail delivery SMS ...

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2. Services provided/2.3 Tele-services

Performance
QoS of teleservices depends not only on UMTS network, but also on applications, terminals and external networks. From a users perspective it is more relevant to speak of delay rather than bit rate:

Error tolerant

Conversational Streaming audio Voice messaging and video voice and video

Fax

FTP, still image, E-commerce, Error Telnet, WWW browsing paging intolerant interactive games

E-mail arrival notification

Conversational delay <<1 sec

Streaming delay<1 sec

Interactive delay <10 sec

Background delay >10 sec

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2. Services provided/2.3 Tele-services

Defining charging principles

How will billing be performed: by time? by volume? by number of connections? If billing is performed by volume, what will be an easy way to explain to the customer what a 1 Mbyte of data is? What will happen in case of handover between GSM and UMTS? What about roaming? Prepaid services? QoS depends directly on the load of the network. A trade-off must be found between users. Customers who pay more might have higher priority or better QoS (depending of the operators strategies). Billing for a given service might depend on the QoS.
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Location based services


Teleservices will depend on the strategy and on the imagination of operators and content providers. The key point is likely to be a fast access to information and an appropriate filtering of the user location data. the UMTS killer application is likely be a location based service Example of location based services : look for an hotel, consult yellow pages, get local traffic situation or weather report,... Limitation: location information could be a risk for privacy.

2. Services provided/2.3 Teleservices

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2. Services provided

2.1 UMTS service principles 2.2 UMTS Bearer services 2.3 Tele-services 2.4 UMTS Terminals

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2. Services provided/2.4 UMTS terminals

User Equipement (UE)

Cu interface

UICC USIM1

USIM2

GSM acces s

SIM Mobile Equipmen t (ME) User Equipment (UE)


Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 51

GSM/GPRS terminal

2. Services provided/2.4 UMTS terminals

Range of terminals

There will be a wide range of terminals depending of the type of application (speech, video, games, dual...), the mode (UMTS/GSM, UMTS/DECT...) Integrated approach: Distributed approach:
1 handset able to perform all functions. Most of the concept phones today. 1 handset for voice & WAP, or voice only and a Bluetooth connection to other devices (headset, camera...).
Automotive / Telematics PS G Domestic Data / IT

New interfaces

E-Commerce Consumer Electronics

Image
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Games Audio
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2. Services provided

QUIZ!

A. True or False? The tele-services... 1/ are used for example to make a call, to access yellow pages, on-line banking... 2/ are mapped on bearer services 3/ will be standardized by 3GPP B. True of False? The VHE... 1/ is a portability concept of 3G mobile systems 2/ will enable to keep the same environment when roaming between mobile and fixed networks 3/ will be adapted to the terminal capabilities 4/ will use proprietary interfaces

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2. Services provided

QUIZ!

C. True or False? A bearer service can support for one user: 1/ 2 Mbps at a speed of 120 km/h 2/ 2 Mbps in a high loaded cell 3/ 2 Mbps at 3 km away from the base station 4/ Asymmetric traffic 5/ Variable traffic D. True or False? Location based services... 1/ are services only available in some areas (city centers...) 2/ are services related to the location of the user 3/ can locate the mobile phone with an accuracy of about 50 m

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2. Services provided

QUIZ!

E. True or False? A UICC (UMTS integrated Circuit Card)... 1/ has the same size as a GSM SIM card 2/ can not be used in a GSM terminal 3/ can be used in an UMTS terminal and provide access to GSM network 4/ is linked with the UMTS terminal via a proprietary interface 5/ may provide access to UMTS networks of different operators

F. UMTS services have been announced to come later than initially scheduled because of non availability of UMTS terminals in volume: can you find some reasons which makes it quite complex to design UMTS terminals?

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3. UMTS System Description

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3 views of the system

3. UMTS System Description

Logical architecture Entities

Protocol architecture Protocol stacks

Bearers Call scenario


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3. UMTS System Description

Entities

Protocol stacks

3.1 Logical architecture

Bearers

3.2 Protocol architecture 3.3 Call scenario

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3. UMTS System Descript./3.1 UMTS logical architecture

UMTS logical Architecture


CN
CS-Service Domain Core Network PS-Service Domain

Iu-CS

Iu-PS Iu-PS Iu-CS

IU

Iu-reference point RNS RNC Iur RNS RNC Iub Node B Iub Node B

UTRA N

Iub Node_B Node B

Iub Node B

UU UE

Uu-reference point

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3. UMTS System Descript./3.1 UMTS logical architecture

CN logical architecture
UMTS Core Network for Release 99
2G/3G MSC 2G/3G GMSC PLMN PSTN / ISDN

GSM BSS
BSC

Gb

EIR

HLR

AuC

VHE

Iu (CS)

UTRAN
RNC
Iu (PS)

2G/3G SGSN

IP

2G/3G Backbo GGSN ne

External IP Netwo rk
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3. UMTS System Descript./3.1 UMTS logical architecture

UTRAN logical Architecture


RNS Iur RNC Iub Node B Iub Node B

RNS RNC Iub Node_B Node B Iub Node B

RNC It is the intelligent part of the UTRAN: - radio resource management (code allocation, congestion control, admission control) - radio mobility management - macro-diversity handling (soft HO) - control of Node-Bs Node-B A Node-B can be composed of several cells and performs: - radio transmission handling - macro-diversity handling (softer HO)
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3. UMTS System Descript./3.1 UMTS logical architecture

Soft Handover (1)

Core Network
Iu Iu Iur

SRNC1
Iub Iub

DRNC2 S
Iub Iub

NodeB1

NodeB2

NodeB3

NodeB4

5 6

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3. UMTS System Descript./3.1 UMTS logical architecture

Soft Handover (2)

The role of an RNC (Serving or Drift) is on a per connection basis between a UE and the UTRAN: Serving RNC: provide Iu UE-CN connection Drift RNC: supports Serving RNC by providing radio resources The recombination of the signal is performed in Serving RNC (in Node B for softer HO) and in UE using a RAKE receiver. Soft HO is highly recommended in UMTS system: about 30 to 40% of mobiles are in macro-diversity mode in IS-95.

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Page 63

3. UMTS System Descript./3.1 UMTS logical architecture

UMTS logical Interfaces

Open Interfaces The functional split for the UMTS components (UE, Node-B, RNC...) are clearly specified, but the internal architecture and implementation issues are left open (it is up to the manufacturer). However all the interfaces (Cu, Uu, Iub, Iur, Iu-CS, Iu-Ps) have been defined in such a detailed level that the equipment at the endpoints can be from different manufacturers. Open Interfaces aim at motivating competition between manufacturers. Physical implementation of Iu interfaces Each Iu Interface may be implemented on any physical connection using any transport technology. ATM will be provided in the R99 release and IP is foreseen in Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U further releases
Page 64

3. UMTS System Description

Entities

Protocol stacks

3.1 Logical architecture

Bearers

3.2 Protocol architecture 3.3 Call scenario

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Page 65

3. UMTS System Descri./3.2 UMTS protocol architecture

Access stratum and Non Access Stratum

Non-Access Stratum (NAS)


Radio Protocols (1) Iu Radio Protocols Protocols (2) (1) Iu Protocols (2)

Access Stratum (AS)


UE
Uu

UTRAN

CN
SAP

Iu

Interchanges between entities is applied on a peer-to-peer principle. Each entity provides services to entities of upper layers through Service Access Points (SAP).
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 66

3. UMTS System Descri./3.2 UMTS protocol architecture

Non Access Stratum


CS traffic

CS traffic
CM/MM

PS traffic
SM/GMM

CM/MM

NAS AS
Radio Protocols
Uu

Iu Protocols
IuCS

Radio Protocol s

Iu Protocol s

MSC
PS traffic

UE

UTRAN

SM/GMM

Iu Protocols
Iu-PS

SGSN
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 67

3. UMTS System Descri./3.2 UMTS protocol architecture

Access Stratum: radio protocols

NON ACCESS STRATUM (NAS) ACCESS STRATUM (AS)

4. User authentication (NAS signalling) 2. Web browsing (from/to Iu-PS) 3. Local weather 1. Speech (from/to Iu-CS) forecast (SMS Cell
Broadcas t)

RRC
PDCP BMC

5. Initial access (RRC Connection Establishment)

RRC
PDCP BMC

RLC MAC Iu protocols Iub

RLC MAC Iu protocols

ne pla ol ne ntr pla Co er Us

Phys

Phys Uu

UE

Node B

RNC
Page 68

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

3. UMTS System Descri./3.2 UMTS protocol architecture

Access Stratum: Iu protocols


Iu-CS MSC RANAP SGSN

Node-B

Iub NBAP

RNC RNSAP RNC Iur Iu-PS

The same general protocol model is applied for all Iu interfaces:

Radio

Network Application Protocol Layer Transport Network Layer


Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane

Control Plane

User Plane

Data Stream(s)
Transport Network User Plane

Application Protocol: - NBAP for Iub - RNSAP for Iur - RANAP for Iu-CS and Iu-PS

ALCAP Signaling Bearer(s) Physical Layer

Signaling Bearer(s)

Data Bearer(s)

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Page 69

3. UMTS System Description

Entities

Protocol stacks

3.1 Logical architecture

Bearers

3.2 Protocol architecture 3.3 Call scenario

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Page 70

Radio Access Bearer (RAB)


UMTS Bearers CN-CS
R B A A R B

3. UMTS System Description/3.3 Call Scenario

UTRAN UE
UMTS bearer services
R A B R A B

UMTS Bearer UMTS Bearer

CN-PS Radio Bearers Iu Bearers

RABs (mapped on Radio & Iu Bearers) The RAB provides confidential transport of signaling and user data between UE and CN with the appropriate QoS.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 71

3. UMTS System Description/3.3 Call Scenario

Establishment of a call
Inside the UTRAN No more distinction between CS and PS part: all data are mapped on RAB. But the RAB characteristics (delay, bit rate) may not be the same for CS and PS part. UTRAN has the total freedom to configure the radio bearers according to the required RAB attributes (ie QoS).

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Page 72

3. UMTS System Description/3.3 Call Scenario

Example : CS call establishment


UE Uu Connection to UTRAN
(RRC Connection establishment)

UTRAN

Iu

CN

Request for service


(RRC) (RANAP)

Authentication and Ciphering / Integrity Setup Establishment of Resources (RAB + Radio Bearer) Alert and Connect
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 73

3. UMTS System Description

QUIZ!

A. Put the correct words in the spaces on the figure below

...

...

...

... .. .

CS networks (PSTN, ISDN)

.. . ...

.. .

.. .

...

...

...

PS networks (internet) .. .

...

...

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Page 74

3. UMTS System Description

Quiz!

B. Which of the following statements concerning the soft(er) handover is true of false? 1/ a soft(er) HO consists of two or more simultaneous radio links between the UE and the UTRAN 2/ a soft HO is under the control of the Drift RNC 3/ a softer HO is performed by Node-B C. Where is performed the radio mobility management? 1/ in the CN 2/ at the RNC 3/ at the Node-B

D. According to the norm, can the RNC from a given manufacturer be compatible with: 1/ the CN of another manufacturer? 2/ the RNC of another manufacturer? 3/ the Node-B of another manufacturer?
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 75

4. WCDMA for UMTS

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Page 76

4. WCDMA for UMTS

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7

Context Spread Spectrum modulation Code Division Multiple Access Rake Receiver Power Control Soft Handover Typical coverage and capacity values
Page 77

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.1 Context

Early 70s CDMA developed for military field for its great qualities of privacy (low probability interception, interference rejection) 1996 CDMA commercial launch in the US This system called IS-95 or cdmaOne was developed by Qualcomm and has reached 50 million subscribers worldwide 2000 IMT-2000 has selected three CDMA radio interfaces: - WCDMA (UTRA FDD) - TD-CDMA (UTRA TDD) - CDMA 2000
In the following material we will only refer to WCDMA (UTRA FDD)
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 78

From military to civil modern radiocommunications

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.1 Context

Why CDMA?
CDMA is very attractive: Better spectrum efficiency than 2G systems Suitable for all type of services (circuit, packet) and for multiservices Enhanced privacy Evolutionary (linked with progress in signal processing field) BUT: Complex system: not easy to configure and to manage Unstable in case of congestion
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 79

4. WCDMA for UMTS

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7

Context Spread Spectrum modulation Code Division Multiple Access Rake Receiver Power Control Soft Handover Typical coverage and capacity values
Page 80

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.2 Spread Spectrum Modulation

A code as a shell against noise


Noise Radio channel
Spreading

Despreading

Transmitter

Receiver

The letter A represents the signal to transmit over the radio interface. At the transmitter the height (ie the power) of A is spread, while a color (i.e a code) is added to A. At the receiver A can be retrieved with knowledge of the code, even if the power of the received signal is below the power of noise due to the radio channel. Page 81 Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.2 Spread Spectrum Modulation

Spectrum spreading
P P

Radio channel Noise


level f f

Spreading

De-spreading

At the transmitter the signal is multiplied by a code which spreads the signal over a wide bandwidth while decreasing the power (per unit of spectrum). At the receiver it is possible to retrieve the wanted signal by multiplying the received signal by the same code: you get a peak of correlation, while the noise level due to the radio channel remains the same, because this is not correlated with the code. The spectrum spreading permits transmission of a signal below the noise level and makes the signal very hard to detect. Spectrum spreading makes CDMA very secure.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 82

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.2 Spread Spectrum Modulation

Transmission Chain

Air Interface NB-Signal Data Modulator Code sequence Demodulator Code Sequence WB-Signal WB-Signal NB-Signal Data

The narrowband data signal is multiplied bit per bit by a code sequence: it is known as chipping. The chip rate of this code sequence is much higher than the bit rate of the data signal: it produces a wideband signal, also called spread signal. At the receiver the same code sequence in phase should be used to retrieve the original data signal.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 83

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.2 Spread Spectrum Modulation

Spreading factor

Signal Spreading Code Tx signal Rx signal Code Despreading Signal

1 1111 0101 0101 0101 0101 1111 1

0 0000 0101 1010 1010 0101 0000 0

0 (bits) 0000 (chips) 0101 1010 1010 0101 0000 0

Radio channel

(In this case, each bit of the signal is spread over 4 chips. The spreading factor is 4) Spreading makes variable bit rates.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

CDMA

adequate

for

services

with

Page 84

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.2 Spread Spectrum Modulation

Processing Gain

Processing Gain De-spreading W Rb

W Processing Gain = 10 Log 10 Rb

The Processing Gain is the gain you have at the receiver by the despreading of the signal (peak of correlation). It enables transmission of the signal below the noise level. A high bit rate signal needs more power to cross the noise level by de-spreading.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 85

4. WCDMA for UMTS

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7

Context Spread Spectrum modulation Code Division Multiple Access Rake Receiver Power Control Soft Handover Typical coverage and capacity values
Page 86

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.3 Code Division Multiple Access

One-cell reuse

The area is divided into cells, but the entire bandwidth is reused in each cell (frequency reuse of one) > Inter-cell interference > Cell orthogonality is achieved by codes

The entire bandwidth is used by each user at the same time > Intra-cell interference > User orthogonality is achieved by codes
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 87

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.3 Code Division Multiple Access

Multiple access (1)

Spreading 1

Transmitter 1

Radio Channel

Spreading1

Spreading 2

Receiver
The receiver aims at receiving Transmitter 1 only.

Transmitter 2

All the users transmit on the same 5 MHz carrier at the same time and interfere with each over. At the receiver the users can be separated by means of (quasi-)orthogonal codes.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 88

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.3 Code Division Multiple Access

Multiple access (2)

Spreading 1

Transmitter 1

Radio Channel

Spreading1

Spreading 2

Receiver
The receiver aims at receiving Transmitter 1 only.

Transmitter 2

If a user transmits with a very high power, it will be impossible for the receiver to decode the wanted signal (despite use of quasiorthogonal codes) CDMA is unstable by nature and requires accurate power control.

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Page 89

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.3 Code Division Multiple Access

Spreading: Channelization and scrambling


cch1 cch 2 cch 3
The channelization code (or spreading code) is signal-specific: the code length is chosen according to the bit rate of the signal. The scrambling code is equipment-specific.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 90

cscrambling

air interfac e Modulator

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.3 Code Division Multiple Access

C C
ch,2,0

ch,4,0

=(1,1,1,1)

Channelization codes (spreading codes)


The code tree is shared by several users (usually one code tree per cell)

= (1,1) C
ch,4,1

= (1,1,-1,-1)

ch,1,0

= (1) C C
ch,2,1 ch,4,2

= (1,-1,1,-1)

= (1,-1) C
ch,4,3

= (1,-1,-1,1)

SF = 1

SF = 2

SF = 4

SF = 8

The channelization codes are OVSF (Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor) codes: their length is equal to the spreading factor of the signal: they can match variable bit rates on a frame-by-frame basis. orthogonality enables to separate physical channels: UL: separation of physical channels from the same terminal DL: separation of physical channels to different users within one cell
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 91

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.3 Code Division Multiple Access

Scrambling codes
The scrambling codes provide separation between equipment: UL: separation of terminals No need for code planning (millions of codes!) There are 214 long and 214 short scrambling codes in uplink DL: separation of cells Need for code planning between cells (but trivial task) There are only long scrambling codes in downlink (512 to limit the code identification during cell search procedure) The long scrambling codes are truncated to the 10 ms frame length. Only one DL scrambling code should be used within a cell.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Another scrambling code may be introduced in one cell if necessary (example : shortage of channelization code), but

Page 92

4. WCDMA for UMTS

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7

Context Spread Spectrum modulation Code Division Multiple Access Rake Receiver Power Control Soft Handover Typical coverage and capacity values
Page 93

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Rake Receiver principle (1)

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.4 Rake Receiver

In a CDMA system there is a single carrier which contains all user signals. Decoding of all these signals by one receiver is only a question of signal processing capacity. A Rake receiver is capable to decode several signals simultaneously in the so called fingers and to combine them in order to improve the quality of the signal or to get several services at the same time. A Rake receiver is implemented in mobile phones and in base stations. A Rake receiver can provide: - multi-service (via handling of multiple physical channels that are carrying the services) Page 94 Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U - soft handover

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.4 Rake Receiver

Rake receiver principle (2)


Delay Adjustment

Multi-code signal

1st Finger 2nd Finger 3rd Finger

Delay 1

Data 1
Code Sequence 1

Delay 2

Code Sequence 2

Data 2
Delay 3 Code Sequence 2 or 3

The components of the multi-code signal are demodulated in parallel each in one finger of the Rake Receiver. The outputs of the fingers: can provide independent data signals can be combined to provide a better data signal(s)
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 95

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.4 Rake Receiver

Rake receiver and multi-service


Spreading 1 Despreading 1

Spreading 2

Radio Channel
Despreading 2

Transmitter

Multimedia receiver

As a first approach, we can say: One service, one code! (*) >> Which codes make it possible to separate the two signals at the receiver?
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 96

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.4 Rake Receiver

Rake Receiver and soft handover


Spreading 1

Base station 1

Despreading 1&2

Radio Channel

Spreading 2

Mobile phone

Base Station 2

>> Which codes make it possible to separate the two signals at the receiver?

Soft handover is possible, because the two mobile stations use the same frequency band. The mobile phone need only one transmission chain to decode both simultaneously.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 97

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.4 Rake Receiver

Rake Receiver and path diversity (1)


Natural obstacles (buildings, hills) cause reflections, diffractions and scattering and consequently multipath propagation. The delay dispersion depends on the environment and is typically: 1 s (300 m) in urban areas 20 s (6000 m) in hilly areas The delay dispersion should be compared with the chip duration 0,26 s (78 m) of the CDMA system. If the delay dispersion is greater than the chip duration, the multipath components of the signal can be separated by a Rake Receiver. In this case, CDMA can take advantage of multipath propagation.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 98

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.4 Rake Receiver

Rake Receiver and path diversity (2)


Direct path
Spreading Despreading

Transmitter

Reflected path

Receiver >> Which codes make it possible to separate the two signals at the receiver?
Despreading

Dispersion <Chip duration The Rake Receiver cannot provide path diversity.

Direct path
Spreading

Transmitter

Reflected path

Receiver

Dispersion > Chip duration The Rake Receiver can provide path diversity to improve the quality of the signal.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 99

4. WCDMA for UMTS

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7

Context Spread Spectrum modulation Code Division Multiple Access Rake Receiver Power Control Soft Handover Typical coverage and capacity values
Page 100

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.5 Power Control

Why Power Control?

MS2 MS1
Node B

Near-Far Problem on the uplink way an overpowered mobile phone near the base station can jam any other mobile phones far from the base station. > Need for very efficient and very fast Power Control on UL > Power Control is also used in DL to reduce interference and consequently to increase the system capacity.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 101

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.5 Power Control

Open Loop
Open loop power control

1 Node B 2 Node B

If UE receives a STRONG DL If UE receives a weak DL signal, signal, then UE will speak low. then UE will speak LOUD. Problem: fading is not correlated on UL and DL due to separation of UL and DL band. Open loop Power Control is inaccurate.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 102

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.5 Power Control

Closed Loop
Closed loop power control

SIR Power down estimation Node B SIR Power down estimation

RNC

SIR target

Power up
SIR estimation

Power ... ...

SIR estimation

The Node-B controls the power of the UE (and vice versa) by performing a SIR estimation (inner loop). The RNC controls parameters of the SIR estimation (outer loop). This SIR estimation is performed each 0,66 ms (1500 Hz command rate). Closed loop Power Control is very fast.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 103

4. WCDMA for UMTS

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7

Context Spread Spectrum modulation Code Division Multiple Access Rake Receiver Power Control Soft Handover Typical coverage and capacity values
Page 104

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.6 Soft Handover

Soft Handover (1)

RNC

Node B Node B Node B

Soft HO
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Softer HO
Page 105

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.6 Soft Handover

Soft Handover (2)


Why do we need soft HO? Imagine that a UE penetrates from one cell deeply into an adjacent cell: > it may cause near-far problem > hard HO is not a good solution, because of the need for the hysteresis mechanism Additional resources due to soft HO: - Additional rake receiver in Node-B - Additional Rake Fingers in UE - Additional transmission links between Node-Bs and RNCs Soft HO provides Diversity (also called Macro-Diversity), but requires more network resource.

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Page 106

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.6 Soft Handover

Soft Handover (3)

w Soft Handover execution:


t Soft Handover is executed by means of the following procedures
Radio Link Addition (FDD soft-add); Radio Link Removal (FDD soft-drop); Combined Radio Link Addition and Removal.

t The cell to be added to the active set needs to have information forwarded by the RNC:
Connection parameters (coding scheme, layer 2 information, ) UE ID and uplink scrambling code, Timing information from UE

t The UE needs to get the following information


Channelization & scrambling codes to be used Relative timing information (Timing offset based on CPICH synchro)
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 107

4. WCDMA for UMTS

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7

Context Spread Spectrum modulation Code Division Multiple Access Rake Receiver Power Control Soft Handover Typical coverage and capacity values
Page 108

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.7 Typical coverage and capacity values

Market perspective Mobile data market forecast Marketing inputs Multi-service environment Voice+data Variable bit rate Different QoS Asymmetric traffic New radio technology W-CDMA

Radio dimensioning process: Whats new?

Capacity

Coverage

Quality

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Page 109

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.7 Typical coverage and capacity values

Concentric coverage

R1 R2 R3

The coverage is determined by the uplink range, because the transmission power of the terminal is much lower than that of the base station.
UE Transmit Power 21 dBm (126 mW) 24 dBm (251 mW)

Service in suburban area Cell radius (uplink limited)

Speech 12 kbps R1 3 km

Packet data 144 kbps R2 2 km

Packet data 384 kbps R3 1,5 km

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Page 110

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.7 Typical coverage and capacity values

Ways of improving coverage


AMR speech Codec it enables to switch to a lower bit rate if the mobile is moving out of the cell coverage area: it is a trade-off between quality and coverage. Multipath diversity it consists of combining the different paths of a signal (due to reflections, diffractions or scattering) by using a Rake Receiver. Multipath diversity is very efficient with W-CDMA. Soft(er) handover the transmission from the mobile is received by two or more base stations. Receive antenna diversity the base station collects the signal on two uncorrelated branches. It can be obtained by space or polarization diversity. Base stations algorithms e.g. accuracy of SIR estimation in power control process Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U
Page 111

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.7 Typical coverage and capacity values

Soft capacity
The capacity is determined by the downlink direction, because: - better receiver techniques can be used in the base station than in the mobile station (but requiring more CPU power). - the downlink capacity is expected to be more important than the uplink capacity because of asymmetric traffic. The downlink capacity has two limitations: - the amount of interference in the air interface Adjacent cells share part of the same interference: there is an additional capacity in a cell, if the number of users in the neighboring cells is smaller. - the loss of code orthogonality The downlink codes originate from a single point and can be synchronized. But, after transmission over multipath channel, part of orthogonality is lost.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 112

4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.7 Typical coverage and capacity values

Parameters influencing capacity


The capacity depends on: - the radio environment (rural, suburban, indoor) - the terminal speeds - the distribution of the terminals - the load of the cell: trade-off capacity/coverage (breathing cells)

High loaded cell High DL interference level DL data throughput 660 kbps (per carrier per sector)

High loaded cell Low DL interference level DL data throughput 1440 kbps (per carrier per sector)

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Page 113

4. WCDMA for UMTS

QUIZ!

A. True or False? Spreading... 1/ consists of increasing the power while decreasing the frequency bandwidth 2/ allows to transmit a signal with a S/N (Signal-to-Noise ratio) smaller than one 3/ enables to retrieve the coded signal at the receiver by using the same code in phase 4/ is used in FDMA system B. Signal 1 has a bit rate of 12 kbps and a coding rate of 1/3, signal 2 has a bit rate of 384 kbps and a coding rate of 1/2: 1/ Which spreading factor should be chosen for each of these signals? 2/ What is the processing gain for each of these signals?

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Page 114

4. WCDMA for UMTS

QUIZ!

C. True of false? WCDMA... 1/ is also called UMTS FDD or UTRA FDD 2/ uses a 1 MHz bandwidth carrier 3/ has a chip rate of 3,84 Mchips/s D. How many carriers are there per operator for WCDMA? 1/ 124 carriers 2/ 62 carriers 3/ 1 to 3 according to the country

E. True or false? A Rake Receiver 1/ can separate simultaneously two signals only if their codes are perfectly orthogonal 2/ can separate simultaneously several signals of 2 different WCDMA carriers 3/ can take advantage of multipath propagation
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 115

4. WCDMA for UMTS

QUIZ!

F. True or false? In WCDMA, power control 1/ is used in uplink and in downlink 2/ is crucial in downlink because of near-far problem 3/ is composed of the open loop and the closed loop 4/ may be performed each WCDMA time slot (1500 Hz command rate) G. True or false? Soft handover... 1/ is highly desirable in WCDMA 2/ require use of more frequencies 3/ require use of more power in uplink 4/ require additional signal processing equipment such as Rake Receiver 5/ require additional transmission links
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 116

5. UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (FDD mode, Release 1999)


Page 117

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

5. UTRAN

UTRAN role and principles


Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1 UE Uu Node B Iub RNC CN

To transfer traffic and control channels between UE and CN


- Common handling of packet-switched and circuit-switched data - Protection of the user data on the air interface (providing of ciphering) - Independence from the applied transport technology on the Iu interface To manage the radio mobility of the user Full control of UE radio mobility with the use of the Iur interface which makes it possible to perform soft HO even with 2 cells/Node-Bs belonging to different RNCs. To make efficient use of limited radio resources Support of WCDMA specific Radio Resource Management (RRM) Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U algorithms.
Page 118

5. UTRAN

Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8

From Radio Bearers to transport channels Radio Protocols Iu Protocols UE identifiers and UE states Signalling procedures The Physical Layer (on the air interface) Radio Resource Management (RRM) Mobility management

UE

Node B

RNC

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Page 119

5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels

Situation
UE

UE

UTRAN

CN Node Teleservice

CN Gateway

UMTS Bearer Service Radio Access Bearer Service (RAB) Radio Bearer Service Iu Bearer Service ... Physical Bearer Service Iu CN Bearer Service Backbone Bearer Service

External Bearer Service

...
Radio Physical Bearer Service Uu
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels

Control plane

Radio Bearers, logical and transport channels


User plane

NAS signalling
RRC Signallin g Radio Bearers Control Logical Channel s

Web browsing Telephon y speech SMS Cell Broadcast


User plane Radio BMCBearers

RRC connection establishme nt


RLC

PDCP

Traffic Logical Channels MAC Transport Channels Phys. UTRAN (Iur)/Iub/Uu

...
MAC Transport Channels Phys. UE
Page 121

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels

Radio Bearers

Signalling Radio Bearers (SRB) SRBs can carry: - layer 3 signalling (e.g. RRC connection establishment) - NAS signalling (e.g location update) There can be up to 4 SRBs per RRC connection (one UE has one RRC connection when connected to the UTRAN). User Plane Radio Bearers RABs are mapped on user plane RBs. One RAB can be divided on RAB sub-flows and each sub-flow is mapped on one user plane RB. e.g the AMR codec encodes/decodes speech into/from three subflows; each sub-flow can have its own channel coding.
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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels

Logical Channels (1)

Control Channels (CCH)


Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) Paging Control Channel (PCCH) Common Control Channel (CCCH) Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH)

UTRAN

Traffic Channels (TCH)


Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) Common Traffic Channel (CTCH)

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels

Logical Channels (2)

UL ( ) / DL ( ) BCCH PCCH

What type of information? System control information e.g cell identity uplink interference level , Paging information e.g CN originated call when the network does not know the location cell of the UE Control information e.g initial access (RRC connection request), cell update Control information (but the UE must have a RRC connection) e.g radio bearer setup, measurement reports, HO T raffic information dedicated to one UE e.g speech, fax, web browsing T raffic information to all or a group of UEs e.g SMS-Cell Broadcast

CCCH DCCH DTCH CTCH

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels

Why Transport Channels?

A transport channel offers a flexible pattern to arrange information on any service-specific rate, delay or coding before mapping it on a physical channel: it provides flexibility in traffic variation it enables multiplexing of transport channels on the same physical channel Transport channels provide an efficient and fast flexibility in radio resource management.

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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels

Structure of a Transport Channel (1)


Transport Format (TF): it may be changed every TTI. Each TF must belong to the Transport Format Set (TFS) of the transport channel

Transport Block: basic unit exchanged over transport channels.

168 360 bits 360 10 ms 168 168 10 ms 168 168 10 ms 168 168 10 ms

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Time Transmission Interval (TTI): periodicity at which a Transport Block Set is transferred by the physical layer on the radio interface

>> The system delivers one Transport Block Set to the physical layer every TTI: what is the delivery bit rate of the transport blocks to the physical layer during the first TTI?
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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels

Structure of a Transport Channel (2)

Transport Format (TF) Semi-static part (can be changed, but long process) Transmission Time Interval (TTI), Coding scheme... Dynamic part (may be changed easily) Size of transport block, Number of transport blocks per TTI Transport Format Set (TFS) It is the set of allowed Transport Formats for a transport channel, which is assigned by RRC protocol entity to MAC protocol entity. MAC chooses TF among TFS. MAC may choose another TF every TTI without interchanging with RRC protocol (fast radio resource control).
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 127

5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels

Example

576 bits 576 576 576 40 ms Static Part TTI Coding scheme CRC Dynamic Part T ransport Block Size T ransport Block Size Set ? T urbo coding, coding rate=1/3 16 bits 1. Complete the table 576 576 576 576 576

2. What is the delivery bit rate of ? the transport blocks 576*B (B=0,1,2,3,4) to the physical layer during the first TTI? 3. How many Transport Format(s) may be chosen for this transport channel? 4. Can you imagine why the transfer has been interrupted during the third TTI?

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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels

Transport Channels

Common Channels
Broadcast Channel (BCH) Paging Channel (PCH) Forward Access Channel (FACH) Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH) Random Access Channel (RACH) Common Packet Channel (CPCH)

UTRAN

Dedicated Channels
Dedicated Channel (DCH)

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Common Transport Channels (1)


BCH: Broadcast Channel A downlink transport channel that is used to carry BCCH. The BCH is always transmitted with high power over the entire cell with a low fixed bit rate. >> The BCH is the only transport channel with a single transport format (no flexibility). Can you explain why? PCH: Paging Channel

5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels

A downlink transport channel that is used to carry PCCH. It is always transmitted over the entire cell. >> Is it possible to carry all types of information on the PCH?

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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels

Common Transport Channels (2)

FACH: Forward Access Channel A downlink transport channel that is used to carry control information. It may also carry short users packets. The FACH is transmitted over the entire cell or over only a part of the cell using beam-forming antennas. The FACH uses open loop power control (slow power control). >> In which case is it interesting to use beam-forming antennas? would it also be relevant to implement this feature for PCH? RACH: Random Access Channel An uplink transport channel that is used to carry control information from the mobile especially at the initial access. It may also carry short user packets. The RACH is always received from the entire cell and is characterized by a limited size data field, a collision risk and by the use of open loop power control (slow power control). >> Why is it interesting to carry short user packets on RACH in spite of limited data field and collision risk (instead of using a dedicated channel)?

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Page 131

Common Transport Channels (3)


DSCH: Downlink Shared Channel A downlink transport channel shared by several UEs to carry dedicated control or user information. When a UE is using the DSCH, it always has an associated DCH, which provides power control. CPCH: Common Packet Channel

5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels

An uplink transport channel that is used to carry long user data packets and control packets. It is a contention based random access channel. It is always associated with a dedicated channel on the downlink, which provides power control.

Transfer of signalling and traffic on a shared basis

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Page 132

Dedicated Transport Channels


DCH: Dedicated Channel

5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels

A downlink or uplink transport channel that is used to carry user or control information. It is characterized by features such as fast rate change (on a frame-by-frame basis), fast power control, use of beam-forming and support of soft HO. >> Two features are only applied on DCH: can you guess which?

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

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Mapping LogicalTransport Channels


Control Logical Channels BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH Traffic Logical Channels DTCH CTCH

5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels

BCH

PCH

RACH

FACH

DSCH

CPCH

DCH Dedicated Transport Channels


Page 134

Common Transport Channels

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels

Control Logical Channels BCCH PCCH CCCH

Mapping Logical Transport Channels Traffic Logical Channels


DTCH CTCH

DCCH

BCH

PCH

RACH

FACH

DSCH

CPCH

DCH Dedicated Transport Channels


Page 135

Common Transport Channels

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels

Complete the gaps!

(1) channels are defined by what type of information (e.g user data, signalling, system information...) is transported over the radio interface. (2) channels are defined by how and with what characteristics (e.g type of coding, required transfer delay, required BER... ) data are transferred over the radio interface. (3) channels are defined by the mechanisms (e.g frequency, code, power, framing...) with which the data are transferred over the physical resources of the air-interface.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 136

5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels

Complete the table!


Traffic class Logical Channel BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH Transport Channel BCH, FACH PCH UL: RACH, DL: FACH RACH, DCH

Signalling 1. 2. 3. 4. User information 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Conversational Interactive Interactive Streaming Background Background

3 UL: 3 coordinatedDCHs DTCHs DL: 3 coordinatedDCHs DTCH UL: RACH, DL: FACH UL: CPCH, DCH DTCH DL: DSCH,DCH UL: CPCH, DCH DTCH DL: DSCH,DCH UL: CPCH, DCH DTCH DL: DSCH,DCH CTCH FACH

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

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5. UTRAN

Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8

From Radio Bearers to transport channels Radio Protocols Iu Protocols UE identifiers and UE states Signalling procedures The Physical Layer (on the air interface) Radio Resource Management (RRM) Mobility management

UE

Node B

RNC

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Page 138

Radio protocol stack


Non Access Stratum Access Stratum Layer 3
Layer 2/PDCP Layer 2/BMC

5. UTRAN/5.2 Radio Protocols

Control plane

User plane Bearers (called RAB in user plane)

RRC
control

control
control
PDCP PDCP

SAP BMC

control

control

Radio Bearers RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC Logical Channels

Layer 2/RLC RLC Layer 2/MAC Layer 1

MAC Transport Channels PHY Physical Channels

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Page 139

Radio Resource Control (RRC)


Bearers Layer 3 RRC

5. UTRAN/5.2 Radio Protocols

Call management Radio mobility management Measurement control and reporting

control control control

Radio Bearers (control plane)

control control

Outer loop power control


PDCP BMC

RLC MAC PHY

RRC is the brain of the radio interface protocol stack.


Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 140

PDCP and BMC protocols


PDCP (Packet Data Convergence Protocol) - in the user plane, only for services from the PS domain - it contains compression methods In R99 only a header compression method is mentioned (RFC2507). Why is header compression valuable? e.g a combined RTP/UDP/IP headers is at least 60 bytes for IPv6, when IP voice service header can be about 20 bytes or less. BMC (Broadcast/Multicast Services) - in the user plane - to adapt broadcast and multicast services from NAS on the radio interface In R99 the only service using this protocol is SMS Cell Broadcast Service (directly ZZA Ed. E.A.U Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT taken from GSM).
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5. UTRAN/5.2 Radio Protocols

Radio Link Control (RLC)

5. UTRAN/5.2 Radio Protocols

Segmentation
Radio Bearers (control plane) Layer 2/ upper part RLC RLC RLC Radio Bearers (user plane) RLC RLC RLC RLC Traffic Logical Channels

Buffering Data transfer with 3 configuration modes: - Transparent (TM) - Unacknowledged (UM) - Acknowledged (AM) Ciphering

RLC

Control Logical Channels

RLC provides segmentation and (in AM mode) reliable data transfer.


Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 142

Medium Access Control (MAC)


Control Logical Channels
Layer 2/ lower part

5. UTRAN/5.2 Radio Protocols

Traffic Logical Channels

Basic data transfer Multiplexing of logical channels Priority handling/Scheduling (TFC selection) of measurements Ciphering

MAC

Transport Channels (common and Reporting dedicated)

MAC can switch a common channel into a dedicated channel if higher bit rate is required (on request of L3-level). MAC can change dynamically Transport Format (bit rate) of each transport channel on a frame basis (each 10 ms) without interchanging with L3-level. MAC provides flexible data transfer.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 143

TFC selection in MAC protocol


Several transport channels can be timecoordinated to be multiplexed on a CCTrCH before mapping on one physical channel (or Transport Format more if necessary).
(TF)

5. UTRAN/5.2 Radio Protocols

MAC
TFC selection

e.g.

DCH1 = {244} DCH2 = {0 ; 148} DCH3 = {0 ; 148}

Transport Format Set (TFS) Transport Format Combination (TFC)

DCH1 DCH2 DCH3

TrCH multiplexing

TFCS = { {244 ; 0 ; 0} , {244 ; 148 ; 0} , {244 ; 0 ; Transport Format Combination Set 148} } (TFCS)

CCTrCH Physical channel Mapping

MAC selects TFC inside TFCS. There is one TFCS per CCTrCH.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

L1
Physical Channel(s)
Page 144

>> Why is the combination {244 ; 148 ; 148} not possible?

The Physical Layer

5. UTRAN/5.2 Radio Protocols

Common Transport Channels Layer 1

Dedicated Transport Multiplexing Channels

of transport ch.

Spreading/modulation RF processing Power control

Physical layer
Common Physical Channels Air Interface

Dedicated Physical Measurements Channels

The physical layer provides multiplexing and radio frequency processing with a CDMA method.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 145

Exercise: MAC protocol (1)


BCCH MAC Control PCCH BCCH CCCH CTCH DCCH DTCH DTCH

5. UTRAN/5.2 Radio Protocols

MAC-d

MAC-b

MAC-c/sh

BCH

PCH FACH FACH RACH CPCH

DSCH DSCH

DCH DCH

Iur or local

Look at this figure and answer the questions on the following pages.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 146

Exercise: MAC protocol (2)


1. On which logical/transport channels will be mapped: - system information broadcasting - paging - telephony speech - internet browsing at a high bit rate - internet browsing at a low bit rate Can you imagine a situation where the UE will use 2 DTCHs (or more) at the same time? 2. Guess the meaning of MAC-b MAC-c/sh and MAC-d. 3. Why is there one MAC-d entity on the UE side and several MAC-d entities on the UTRAN side? 4. What is the link between MAC-c/sh and MAC-d for? 5. What are the 4 main functions of MAC protocol? 6. MAC can multiplex logical channels only if they require the same QoS: true or false?
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 147

5. UTRAN/5.2 Radio Protocols

Exercise: MAC protocol (3)


7. RNTI (Radio Network Temporary Identity) is an UE identity assigned by UTRAN, when the UE is connected to the UTRAN . The parameter RNTI is included in the header of each transport blocks in MAC-c/sh, but not in MAC-d : can you explain the reason? 8. The system can also multiplex transport channels: where does that take place? 9. What is the name of the channel on which several time-coordinated transport channels can be multiplexed? 10. Which entity is responsible for TFC selection? TFCS allocation? 11. Is it possible to multiplex 2 FACHs (or more)? 2 DCHs (or more)? a FACH and a DCH? 12. Will the physical channel configuration be changed (e.g modification of spreading factor) when MAC selects a new TFC inside TFCS? 13. MAC makes measurement reports to RRC: why is it necessary?

5. UTRAN/5.2 Radio Protocols

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5. UTRAN

Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1

UE

Node B

RNC

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8

From Radio Bearers to transport channels Radio Protocols Iu Protocols UE identifiers and UE states Signaling procedures The Physical Layer (on the air interface) Radio Resource Management (RRM) Mobility management
Page 149

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

5. UTRAN/ 5.3 Iu protocols

General model

The same general protocol model is applied for all Iu interfaces:


Radio
Control Plane User Plane

Network Application Protocol Layer Transport Network Layer


Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane

Data Stream(s)
Transport Network User Plane

ALCAP Signaling Bearer(s) Physical Layer

Signaling Bearer(s)

Data Bearer(s)

1. What is the purpose of the separation between the Radio Network Layer and the Transport Network Layer? 2. Why is ALCAP protocol necessary?

Application Protocols:

- NBAP for Iub interface - RNSAP for Iur interface - RANAP for Iu-CS and Iu-PS interfaces
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Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

5. UTRAN/ 5.3 Iu protocols

Iub protocols

Radio Link Establishment

RABs*

RNC
Radio Network Layer Transport Network Layer

RRC Connection Establishment* NAS signalling*


User Plane

Control Plane

NBAP
Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane

Frame Protocols (IubFP)


Transport Network User Plane

ALCAP AAL5 AAL5 ATM Physical Layer AAL2

* at this stage these data streams have been mapped on transport channels by MAC protocol
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Node B
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5. UTRAN/ 5.3 Iu protocols

Iur protocols
Establishment of an additional radio link to an UE (for soft HO) Control Plane Radio Network Layer Transport Network Layer RABs* RRC Connection Establishment* NAS signalling*
User Plane

SRNC

RNSAP
Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane

Frame Protocols (Iur FP)


Transport Network User Plane

... AAL5

ALCAP AAL5 ATM Physical Layer AAL2

* at this stage these data streams have been mapped on transport channels by MAC protocol
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

DRNC
Page 152

5. UTRAN/ 5.3 Iu protocols

UTRAN protocols: general recap


RRC PDCPBMC RLC MAC
Soft(er) combining
Softer combining

RRC PDCP BMC


Uu Iub

RLC

SRNC Soft combining


NBAP ALCAP Iub-FP Phy. (air) ... ... AAL5 AAL5 AAL2
ATM/Physical layer

MAC

Phy. (air)

NBAP ALCAP Iub-FP Iur-FP ALCAPRNSAP ... ... ... ... AAL5 AAL5 AAL2 AAL2 AAL5 AAL5
ATM/Physical layer Iur

UE
Radio Protocols

Node-B
RRC PDCPBMC RLC

DRNC

MAC

Iu Protocols (Radio Network Layer) Iu protocols (Transport Network Layer)


Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

NBAP ALCAP Iub-FP Iur-FP ALCAPRNSAP ... ... ... ... AAL5 AAL5 AAL2 AAL2 AAL5 AAL5
ATM/Physical layer

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5. UTRAN

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8

From Radio Bearers to transport channels Radio Protocols Iu Protocols UE identifiers and UE states Signalling procedures The Physical Layer (on the air interface) Radio Resource Management (RRM) Mobility management

? ?

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

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5. UTRAN/5.4 UE identifiers and UE states

UE identifiers

2 types of UE identification on the radio interface: NAS identifiers - IMSI: International Mobile Subscriber Identity - TMSI: Temporary Mobile Station Identity They are used in the initial access CCCH message UTRAN identifier - RNTI: Radio Network Temporary Identity This is allocated by the UTRAN for each UE in connected mode and used for inband identification in common transport channels (e.g FACH). The RNTI is not used outside the UTRAN.

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5. UTRAN/5.4 UE identifiers and UE states

UE states (1)

out of coverage

RRC Connection Release

UE detached

UE in idle mode

UE in connected mode

just after switch on process Including Cell search procedure RRC Connection Establishment

Why is the idle mode necessary?


Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 156

5. UTRAN/5.4 UE identifiers and UE states

UE states (2)
out of coverage RRC Connection Release

RRC Connection Establishment procedure


CCCH 1

UE UE detached UE in idle mode in connected mode

just after switch on process

RRC Connection Establishment

RNC

- UE in idle mode, - a Common Control Channel (CCCH) is used to initiate the procedure - Setup of a Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH)

CCCH DCCH RNC 2

DCCH

RNC

Which type of transport channel are used to carry CCCH? DCCH?


Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

- UE in connected mode - The DCCH is used during the whole time of the RRC connection to carry signalling dedicated to this particular UE
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5. UTRAN/5.4 UE identifiers and UE states

UE states (3)
UE in connected mode Cell PCH

Cell_DCH state Signalling and traffic data dedicated to the UE (mapped on DCCH and DTCH respectively) are carried on DCH transport channel Cell_FACH state Signalling and traffic data dedicated to the UE (mapped on DCCH and DTCH respectively) are carried on RACH (uplink) and FACH (downlink) transport channels UE in idle mode Cell FACH Cell DCH

URA PCH

Cell_DCH Cell_FACH No traffic UL/DL at expiry of timer 1 Cell_FACH Cell_DCH Traffic volume UL/DL too large
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Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

5. UTRAN/5.4 UE identifiers and UE states

UE states (4)

Cell_PCH state No transmission of signalling and traffic data dedicated to the UE (no DCCH and no DTCH) But the RRC connection is still active (UTRAN keeps RNTI for UE) and UE location at a cell level. - a DCCH (and possibly a DTCH) can be reestablished very quickly (this procedure is initiated by state URA_PCH sending a paging signal PCH) Very similar to cell_PCH state UTRAN keeps the location of the UE at the URA level (set of UMTS cells)
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

UE in idle mode

Cell DCH

UE in connected mode Cell PCH

Cell FACH URA PCH

Cell_FACH Cell_PCH No traffic UL/DL at expiry of timer 2 Cell_PCH Cell_FACH URA_PCH Too many cell reselections Cell/URA_PCH Cell_FACH Incoming DL or UL traffic
Page 159

5. UTRAN/5.4 UE identifiers and UE states

UE identifiers and UE states: complete the table!

UE States idle mode cell_DCH connected mode cell_FACH cell_PCH URA_PCH

CN UTRAN UE Identifiers UE Location UE Identifier UE Location IMSI, TMSI LA, RA

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Page 160

5. UTRAN

Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1

UE

Node B

RNC

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8

From Radio Bearers to transport channels Radio Protocols Iu Protocols UE identifiers and UE states Signaling procedures The Physical Layer (on the air interface) Radio Resource Management (RRM) Mobility management
Page 161

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures

List of basic signaling procedures


A. Broadcast of system information B. Paging B1. Paging Type 1 (in idle mode or in cell_PCH or in URA_PCH states) B2. Paging Type 2 (in cell_FACH or cell_DCH states) C. RRC Connection C1. RRC Connection Establishment (to cell_FACH and to cell_DCH states) C2. RRC Connection Release (in cell_DCH states) D. Radio Link establishment E. Direct Transfer F. Control of RAB, RB, Transport Channel and Physical Channel F1. RAB Establishment F2. Physical Channel Reconfiguration G. Soft HO (Radio Link Addition)
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 162

5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures

How to read call scenario diagrams


Name of the message Logical channel Transport channel RNC
1. RRC Connection Request (CCCH:RACH)
Initial UE identity, Establishment cause, Initial UE capability

UE
R R C

R R C

Network entity

Parameters of the message


Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Protocol entity

Page 163

5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures

A. System Information Broadcasting (1)


The broadcast system information: - may come from CN, RNC or Node-B. - contains static parameters (Cell identity, supported PLMN types...) and dynamic parameters (UL interference level...). - is arranged in System Information Blocks (SIB), which group together elements of the same nature. - can be carried on BCH which is transmitted permanently over the entire cell. >> Do you think the UE needs to read all the SIBs each time a broadcast is repeated?

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Page 164

5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures

A. System Information Broadcasting (2)


UE Node-B
NB AP

RNC
System Information Update Request NB Master/Segment Info AP Block(s), BCCH modification time System Information Update Response NB AP

CN

R R C R R C R R C

System Information Master/Segment Info (BCCH:BCH) Block(s) System Information Master/Segment Info (BCCH:BCH) Block(s) System Information Master/Segment Info (BCCH:BCH) Block(s)

NB AP R R C R R C R R C

>> Why does RRC protocol terminate at Node-B for BCH (not at RNC)?
Page 165

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures

B. Paging
Paging is typically used at core network-originated call. UE in idle mode The network will page the UE in LA (CS domain) or RA (PS domain) UE is in connected mode The network will page the UE: - in the cell (in cell_PCH, cell_FACH, cell_DCH states) - in the URA (in URA_PCH state) Paging Type 1: mapped on PCCH/PCH Paging Type 2: mapped on DCCH/FACH or DCCH/DCH >> Can you guess which Paging Type will be use in idle mode? in cell_PCH state? in cell_FACH state? in cell_DCH state? in URA_PCH state?
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 166

5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures

B1. Paging Type 1


UE 1 UE 2 Node-B 1 Node-B 2 RNC 1 RAN AP RNC 2 1. Paging
CN Domain Indicator, UE identity, Paging cause

CN RAN AP

RAN 1. Paging RAN Idem AP AP R R C 2. Paging Type 1 (PCCH:PCH) R R C

R R C

2. Paging Type1 (PCCH:PCH)

R R C
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Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures

B2. Paging Type 2


UE Node-B SRNC CN

RAN AP

1. Paging
CN Domain Indicator, UE identity, Paging cause

RAN AP

R R C

2. Paging Type 2 (DCCH:FACH or DCH)

R R C

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Page 168

5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures

C. RRC connection
RRC connection is established at the initial access (after cell search procedure when the UE is camping on a cell). After RRC connection establishment: - UE will switch from idle mode to cell_FACH or cell_DCH states. - UE will have a signalling link with UTRAN (on DCCH) UE needs to establish a RRC connection prior to making : - voice call - location update - measurement reporting ...
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 169

5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures

C1. RRC Connection Establishment


UE
R R C

Node-B
1. RRC Connection Request (CCCH:RACH)

RNC

R R Initial UE identity, Establishment cause, Initial UE capability C 2. Allocate RNTI, Select Level 1 and Level 2 parameters (e.g. TFCS, scrambling code) 3. Radio Link Establishment (see Procedure D) 4. RRC Connection Setup (CCCH:FACH)
Initial UE identity, RNTI, capability update requirement, TFS, TFCS, frequency, UL scrambling code, power control info

R R C R R C

R R C R R C

5. RRC Connection Setup Complete (DCCH:RACH or DCH)


Integrity information, ciphering information

>> Can the UE send user information (e.g voice call) after completing this stage?
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5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures

C2. RRC Connection Release (in cell_DCH state)


UE Node-B of DRNC Node-B of SRNC DRNC SRNC CN 1. Iu Release RAN Command RAN Cause AP AP 2. Iu Release RAN Complete RAN AP AP 3. ALCAP Iu Bearer Release R R C R R C 4. RRC Connection Release (DCCH:DCH )
Cause

5. RRC Connection Release Complete (DCCH:DCH )


-

R R C R R C

6. Radio Link Deletion 7. Radio Link Deletion 8. Radio Link Deletion


Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 171

5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures

D. Radio Link (RL) Establishment for a DCH


Node-B
NB AP Start RX Radio Link Setup Request
Cell id, TFS, TFCS, frequency, UL scrambling code, power control info

RNC
NB AP

ALCAP Iub Data Transport Bearer Setup NB AP IubFP IubFP Start TX >> Are NBAP, ALCAP and RRC messages carried on the same transport bearers on Iub?
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 172

Radio Link Setup Response Signalling link termination, transport


layer addressing info

NB AP IubFP IubFP

Downlink synchronisation Uplink synchronisation

5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures

E. Direct Transfer
The mechanism to transfer signalling from higher layers (NAS signaling) through messages of RRC protocol is called Direct Transfer.
UE Node-B SRNC RAN AP R R C 1. Direct Transfer
CN Domain Indicator, NAS PDU

CN RAN AP

R R C

2. Downlink Direct Transfer (DCCH:FACH or DCH)


NAS message

>> Can you mention some examples of use of Direct Transfer?

R R C

1. Uplink Direct Transfer (DCCH:RACH or DCH)


CN node indicator, NAS message

R R C RAN AP 2. Direct Transfer


CN Domain Indicator, NAS PDU

RAN AP
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5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures

F. Control of RAB, RB, Transport and Physical These procedures take place after RRC connectionChannels establishment:
the UE is either on cell_FACH or cell_DCH state. A RAB is mapped on one or more RB(s). A RB establishment consists of: - performing admission control (see RRM: Radio Resource Management) - setting parameters describing RB processing in layer 2 (e.g TFS, TFCS) and in layer 1 (codes, power control) RAB and RB can be reconfigured during an active connection. The transport channels and physical channels parameters are included in the RB but can also be reconfigured separately with transport and physical channel dedicated procedures (Transport Channel Reconfiguration and Physical Channel Reconfiguration).
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 174

5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures

F1. RAB Establishment


UE Node-B RNC RAN AP 1. RAB Assignment Request
RAB parameters, User plane mode, Transport Address, Iu Transport association

CN RAN AP

2. ALCAP Iu Data Transport Bearer Setup 3. Radio Link Establishment (see Procedure D) R R 4. RB Setup (DCCH:FACH or DCH ) R R TFS, TFCS... C 5. RB Setup Complete (DCCH:RACH or DCH C R R ) R R C C RAN AP

6. RAB Assignment Response


-

>> Can the UE send user information (e.g voice call) after completing this stage?
Page 175

RAN AP

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5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures

F2. Physical Channel Reconfiguration


UE Node-B of DRNC NB AP NB AP 1. RL Reconfig. Prepare
DL scrambling code

DRNC NB AP NB AP

SRNC

2. RL Reconfig. Ready
-

3. RNS RNS AP DL scrambling AP RNS AP NB AP R R C R R C 5. RL Reconfig. Commit NB AP R R C R R C


code

4.

RNS AP

6. Physical Channel Reconfiguration (DCCH:DCH )


DL scrambling code

7. Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete (DCCH:DCH )


>> What is the difference between NBAP and RNSAP?

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5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures

G. Soft HO (Radio Link Addition)


UE Node-B of DRNC DRNC SRNC 1. Decision to setup new RL RNS 2. RL Setup Request AP 3. Radio Link Establishment (see Procedure D) 4. ALCAP Iur Data Transport Bearer Setup 5. RL Setup Response RNS RNS AP AP R 6. Active Set Update (DCCH:DCH ) R C 7. Active Set Update Complete (DCCH:DCH )
-

RNS AP

R R C R R C

R R C
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5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures

EXERCICE

w Please complete the procedure diagrams on the following slides by using the elementary procedure previously described

w Duration : 10 minutes

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Page 178

5. UTRAN/5.5 Signalling procedures

UE

UE detached

Node-B

Find the missing procedure names! CN


RNC

Location Update

0. Just after switch on process


UE in idle mode

1. ...
UE in connected mode

MM: Location Updating Request MM: Authentication Response

2. ... MM: Authentication Request

3. Security procedures 4. ...

MM: Location Updating Accept

5. ...
UE in idle mode
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 179

5. UTRAN/5.5 Signalling procedures

Mobile terminated call


UE Node-B

Find the missing procedure names! CN RNC


1. ...

0. Just after switch on process

2. ... RR: Paging Response MM: Authentication Response 4. Security procedures 5. ... CC: Call Confirm 6. ... 7. ... CC: Connect Acknowledge
Page 180

3. ... MM: Authentication Request

CC: Setup

CC: Alerting CC: Connect

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

5. UTRAN

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8

UE From Radio Bearers to transport channels

Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1

Node B

RNC

Radio Protocols Iu Protocols UE identifiers and UE states Signalling procedures The Physical Layer (on the air interface) Radio Resource management (RRM) Mobility management
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Physical Layer Process


Transport Channels

5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer

Channel Coding Radio Frame Segmentation Transport Channel Multiplexing Physical Channel Mapping Spreading
Layer 1

Convolutional coding, Turbo coding 10 ms frame duration 15 time slots CCtrCH DPDCH, DPCCH, PRACH... Channelization codes Scrambling codes QPSK

Modulation

Physical Channels spread over 5 MHz bandwidth


Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 182

Radio Frame Structure


1 Radio Frame :
10ms

5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer

= 15 Time Slots

1 Time slot :

. 0.6666 ms ..

= N bits
(according to the bit rate after channel coding)

1 Bit :

= M chips
(M is equal to the spreading factor)

The bit rate may be changed for each frame (10 ms). Fast power control may be performed for each time slot (0,666 ms).
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 183

5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer

Transport Channel Multiplexing


DCH 2 Channel Coding

DCH 1 Channel Coding

Transport Channel Multiplexing CCTrCH Physical Channel Mapping One Physical Channel
(or more if necessary)

Two transport channels can be mapped onto the same physical channel (for one user).
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 184

5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer

Physical channels

Physical channels are defined by the mechanisms (e.g frequency, code, power, framing...) with which the data are transferred over the physical resources of the airinterface.

Physical channels are defined mainly by: - a specific carrier frequency - a scrambling code - a channelization code - start & stop instants (giving a time duration, measured in integer multiples of chips) Physical channels are sent continuously on the air interface between start and stop instants. Physical channels are separated by means of quasi-orthogonal codes (2 physical channels shall not have the same channelization code / scrambling code combination).
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 185

Uplink Physical Channels


Common Channels
Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH)
Associated with Transport Channels

5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer

Node B

Dedicated Channels
Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH)
Associated with Transport Channels NOT associated with Transport Channels

Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH)

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Page 186

e.g. Uplink DPDCH/DPCCH


DPDCH DPCCH
Npilot bits Ndata bits

5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer

Data

Pilot

NTFCI bits

TFCI

NFBI bits

FBI

NTPC bits

TPC

Tslot = 2560 chips, 10*2k bits (k=0..6)

1 Radio Frame Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #i T = 10 ms

Slot #14

DPDCH carries the dedicated data generated at layer 2 (ie the Dedicated Transport Channel DCH).
f

DPCCH carries the dedicated signalling of the physical layer, which is required to convey DPDCH. DPCCH is not visible above the physical layer, it is not carried by any transport channels. Under long scrambling code.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 187

5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer

e.g. Uplink PRACH

When attempting to access the network, the mobile has no dedicated code yet and must choose randomly a code in a set of codes. Collisions may occur between two mobiles.
radio frame: 10 ms radio frame: 10 ms
5120 chips #0 Access slot #0 Access slot #1 Access slot #7 Access slot #8 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14

Random Access Transmission Random Access Transmission Random Access Transmission Random Access Transmission

A mobile can only begin to transmit at a certain access slot (slotted ALOHA). 15 access slots have been defined (nothing to do with the time slots of the radio frame!).

Access slot #14

The PRACH has a Random Access Transmission to limit risk of collision. It is based on a Slotted ALOHA approach with fast acquisition indication. Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U
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5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer

Downlink Physical Channels

Common Channels
Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH) Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH) Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH)

Associated with Transport Channels

Node B

Synchronisation Channel (SCH) Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) Page Indicator Channel (PICH) Acquisition Indication Channel (AICH)
NOT associated with Transport Channels

Dedicated Channels
Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH) Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH)
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Associated with Transport Channels NOT associated with Transport Channels


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5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer

e.g. Downlink DPDCH/DPCCH


DPDCH DPCCH
N pilot bits N data2 bits

DPDCH
N data1 bits

DPCCH
N TPC bits

Data1

TPC

N TFCI bits

TFCI

Data2

Pilot

Tslot = 2560 chips, 10*2k bits (k=0..7)

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #i
One radio frame, Tf = 10 ms

Slot #14

Similar to uplink, but DPDCH and DPCCH are time-multiplexed. The SF may range from 256 to 8.

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Page 190

e.g. Downlink PCCPCH


256 chips ( Tx OFF) Data 18 bits Tslot = 2560 chips , 20 bits

5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #i 1 radio frame: Tf = 10 ms

Slot #14

The Primary CCPCH carries the BCH, which provides system- and cell-specific information (e.g set of uplink scrambling codes) The P-CCPCH is a fixed rate (30 kbps, SF=256) DL physical channel, which provide a timing reference for all physical channels (directly for DL, indirectly for UL). CCPCH is scrambled under the Primary Scrambling code.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 191

5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer

e.g. CPICH (pilot)

Pre-defined symbol sequence Tslot = 2560 chips , 20 bits = 10 symbols

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #i 1 radio frame: Tf = 10 ms

Slot #14

CPICH (or Pilot or Beacon) The pilot carries a pre-defined symbol sequence at a fixed rate (SF=256). It is a reference: - to aid the channel estimation at the terminal (time or phase reference) - to perform handover measurements and cell Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U selection/reselection (power reference)
Page 192

e.g SCH and the cell search procedure


Slot #0 Primary SCH Secondary SCH acp acs
i,0

5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer

Slot #1 acp acs


i,1

Slot #14 acp ac s


i,14

256 chips 2560 chips One 10 ms SCH radio frame

SCH (Synchronisation Channel) It can be detected by the UE just after switch on, as the SCH consist of a 256 modulated code sequence which is the same for every cell in the system. It is used by the UE in the cell search procedure to get the (downlink) scrambling code of the cell. After cell search procedure, the terminal can read system and cellspecific BCH information.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 193

BCH PCH FACH RACH CPCH DSCH DCH

Mapping TransportPhysical Channels P-CCPCH Primary Common Control Physical Channel


S-CCPH
Secondary Common Control Physical Channel

5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer

PRACH PCPCH PDSCH DPDCH

Physical Random Access Channel Physical Common Packet Channel Physical Downlink Shared Channel Dedicated Physical Data Channel

Physical channels not mapped on transport channels:


DPCCH SCH CPICH PICH AICH
Dedicated Physical Control Channel (uplink and downlink) Synchronisation Channel Common Pilot Channel Page Indicator Channel Acquisition Indication Channel
Page 194

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Example 1: UL 64 kbps data (1)


In this example, a RB (Radio Bearer) is mapped (in RLC) on DTCH which is mapped (in MAC) on DCH. The DCH has the TFS (Transport Format Set):
Transport block size Transport block set size CRC Coding TTI
#4 640 #3 640 #2 640 #1 640 640 640 640 640

5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer

640 bits 4*640 bits 16 bits Turbo coding, coding rate = 1/3 40 ms
640 640 640 640 640 640 640 640

40 ms

This example can be applied for ISDN service.


Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 195

Example 1: UL 64 kbps data (2)


Transport block CRC attachment TrBk concatenation Turbo coding R=1/3 Tail bit attachment 1st interleaving Radio frame segmentation Rate matching
#1 1971
#1
1971+N RM1

5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer

#1 640 #1 640

CRC

#4 640 #4 640 2624 7872 7872 7884

CRC

16

16

Tail

12

#4 1971
#4
1971+N RM4

What is the radio frame length? Can you deduce the spreading factor (SF)?

To TrCh Multiplexing (see further)


Extracted from 3GPP 25.944
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 196

Example 2: UL 3,4 kbps data (1)


In this example, a SRB (Signalling Radio Bearer) is mapped (in RLC) on DCCH which is mapped (in MAC) on DCH. The DCH has the TFS (Transport Format Set):
Transport block size Transport block set size CRC Coding TTI 148 bits 0, 148 bits 16 bits CC, coding rate = 1/3 40 ms

5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer

148 40 ms

148

148

>> Assuming that RLC and MAC overhead in a transport block is 12 bits, can you determine the bit rate of this SRB?
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 197

Example 2: UL 3,4 kbps data (2)


Transport block
148
CRC

5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer

CRC attachment

148 TrBks (B =0,1)

16

TrBks concatenation Tail bit attachment Convolutional Coding, CR = 1/3 1st interleaving Radio frame Segmentation Rate matching
#1 129*B #1

164 164*B 516*B 516*B #2 129*B #2 #3 129*B #3

Tail

8*B

#4 129*B #4

What is the radio frame length? Can you deduce the spreading factor?

129*B +NRM1

129*B +NRM2

129*B +NRM3 129*B +NRM4

Extracted from 3GPP 25.944

To TrCh Multiplexing (see further)


Page 198

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

UL 64 kbps data TrCH multiplexing 2nd interleaving Physical channel mapping ?? kbps DPDCH 15 kbps DPCCH
#1 #2 #3

UL TrCH multiplexing of 64 kbps and 3,4 kbps data


#4 #1 #2 #3 #4 #1 #2 #2 #3 #3 #4 #4

5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer

UL 3,4 kbps data

#1

CFN=4N

CFN=4N+1

CFN=4N+2

CFN=4N+3

CFN=4N

CFN=4N+1

CFN=4N+2

CFN=4N+3

>> On which physical channel are the UL 64 kbps data and the UL 3,4 kbps data? what is the spreading factor mapped? what is the DPDCH bit rate? >> What is carried on DPCCH ?
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 199

5. UTRAN

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8

From Radio Bearers to transport channels Radio Protocols Iu Protocols UE identifiers and UE states Signalling procedures The Physical Layer (on the air interface) Radio Resource Management (RRM) Mobility Management

no yes

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Page 200

5. UTRAN/5.7 Radio Resource Management (RRM)

RRM purposes

RRM is a set of algorithms to manage radio resources: Maximise the amount of radio resources available Power control algorithms Handover algorithms Allocation of radio resources Which type of transport channel, transport format should be chosen to meet QoS requirements? Admission Control In which conditions can a new user be admitted? Load Control (congestion control) What should be done to avoid congestion? In RRM all layers are involved under RRC control.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 201

5. UTRAN/5.7 Radio Resource Management (RRM)

RRM functions

w UE dedicated functions, implemented in SRNC and Node B:


t Selection of radio bearer parameters according to RAB requirements t Closed loop power control t Handover control t RRC states management according to UE traffic volume t DL dynamic scheduling on DCH

w UTRAN dedicated functions, implemented in CRNC:


t t t t Radio admission control Code allocation Radio load control Open loop power control
Page 202

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

5. UTRAN/5.7 Radio Resource Management (RRM)

Transport channel allocation strategies


Short packets Bursty traffic to be sent immediately

UL / DL RACH / FACH Common channels low setup time, but continuous transmission not maintained no soft HO and no fast PC Shared channels CPCH / DSCH no guarantee of delay no soft HO, but fast PC DCH / DCH Dedicated channels bit rate can be changed during transmission (TFS) soft HO and fast PC Medium packets Bursty and delayinsensitive traffic Long packets Constant and variable bit rate traffic with low delay requirement (LCD) High bit rate
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 203

Admission and Load Control


Both procedures are handled by CRNC. They are estimated separately for uplink and downlink directions. Admission Control This algorithm is executed when a radio bearer is to be setup or modified. It is based on: Power transmission criteria (noise increase in UL, transmit capacity in DL) Number of active users in the frequency band (code management) And performed according to: The type of required QoS The current system load Load Control (Congestion Control) This algorithm ensures that the system is not overloaded and remains stable. In case of congestion some actions can be taken. Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U But overload situations should normally be exceptional.

5. UTRAN/5.7 Radio Resource Management (RRM)

Page 204

5. UTRAN

Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7

UE

Node B

RNC

From Radio Bearers to transport channels Radio Protocols Iu Protocols UE identifiers and UE states Signalling procedures The Physical Layer (on the air interface) Radio Resource Management (RRM)

5.8

Mobility management
Page 205

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

General description (1/2)

5. UTRAN/5.8 Mobility management

The mobility management enables a user to have access to the subscribed services on the whole coverage of the usual network and possibly visited networks. It is performed as long as the UE remains switched on. It needs a lot of radio and network resources. UE in idle mode (network mobility)
Wherever the UE is located in the network coverage: - the UE should have an access point to the network in the uplink >> Cell reselection mechanisms - the network should be able to reach the UE in the downlink (paging) >> Location Area (LA) / Routing Area (RA) update mechanisms

UE in connected mode (radio mobility management)


A connection to the UTRAN (RRC connection) has been established: this connection should remain, when the UE moves from one cell to another. Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA orE.A.U >> Handover (HO) Ed. cell update mechanisms

Page 206

General description (2/2)


UE in idle mode
This mode is entered after just after switch on process. The UE location is: - known by the CN at LA or RA level - not known by the UTRAN
UE UTRAN

5. UTRAN/5.8 Mobility management

Detache d

Just after switch on process


Idle mode

UE in connected mode

RRC connection establishment This mode is entered after RRC connection establishment. The UE location is: Connecte d mode - known by the CN at a LA or RA level (furthermore the MSC or the Uu SGSN knows the SRNC of the UE) - known by the UTRAN at a cell or URA level.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 207

UE in idle mode (1/2)


When moving across the network, the UE may have to perform a cell reselection, if the initial cell on which it is camped is no longer available or is no longer the best suited. The cell reselection consists of a selection of candidate cells and a ranking of these cells according to radio criteria. The cell reselection is performed autonomously by the UE, but the network can influence it by changing the radio parameters used in radio criteria. These radio parameters are transmitted in the Broadcast Channel Page 208 (BCH). Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

5. UTRAN/5.8 Mobility management

UE in idle mode (2/2)

5. UTRAN/5.8 Mobility management

VLR

...
HLR

...

SGSN

Location Area (LA)

VLR

SGSN

Routing Area (RA)

When camping on a cell, the terminal must register its LA and/or its RA. When the terminal moves across the network, it must update its LA (RA) which is stored in VLR (SGSN) in the Core Network. LA (RA) Update is performed periodically or when entering a new LA (RA).
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 209

UE in connected mode (1/3)


MM mechanisms Cell_DCH Cell_FACH Cell_PCH URA_PCH hard HO soft HO hard HO cell update cell update URA update Effect during the call very short cut no cut very short cut suspended suspended suspended

5. UTRAN/5.8 Mobility management

Cell update (URA update) consists of updating the MS location information stored in the SRNC. A UTRA originated paging message will therefore be sent only in this cell (this URA) and not in a whole LA or RA.
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U Page 210

UE in connected mode (2/3)


Soft HO inter-cell (softer HO, managed by Node-B) inter Node-B inter-RNC (SRNS relocation) Hard HO cell 1 cell 2 intra CDMA-carrier not recommended for dedicated channels, but necessary for common channels for which soft HO is not applied inter CDMA-carrier one operator can have two CDMA carriers or more between two different operators inter-mode FDD-TDD (not provided in R99) inter-system UMTS-GSM: necessary to provide continuous coverage UMTS-CDMA2000 (in the US?) Cell reselection Inter-system : UMTS/GPRS Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U (inter/intra carrier, inter/intra RNC)

5. UTRAN/5.8 Mobility management

Page 211

UE in connected mode (3/3)


A hard handover consists of forwarding a call on another channel which is running on a different carrier. The terminal must make measurements on other frequencies (FFD, GSM or TDD frequencies) whilst holding the on-going connection : - Dual receiver - Compressed mode (or slotted mode) simple receiver, but complicated handover operation the information is compressed time periodically (a few ms), in order to perform measurements on the other frequencies without losing data
Downlink 10ms frame Compresse d frame Idle perio d
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5. UTRAN/5.8 Mobility management

UTRA cell

GSM cell

simple handover operation, but expensive receiver

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

5. UTRAN/5.8 Mobility management

Exercise

1. The cell reselection is easier than the initial cell selection (performed just after switch on): can you find the reason? 2. What is the difference between the cell reselection and the cell update (performed in cell_PCH state)? 3. If there were no LA/RA update mechanisms, what would happen? 4. Is it better to have small or large LA? 5. Why is soft HO not provided in cell_FACH state? 6. In which case is it be better for the network to move a UE to URA_PCH state rather than to cell_PCH state?
Page 213

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Appendix
Just after switch on process AMR codec NBAP elementary procedures RANAP elementary procedures

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Page 214

Appendix/Just after switch on process

PLMN selection

PLMN selection
List of availabl 1 e PLMNs UE switche d on Selected 2 PLMN

1 After switch on, the UE:

- scans the entire frequency bandwidths of UTRAN FDD and GSM (cell search procedure for UTRAN FDD ) - monitors the broadcast channels (BCCH for UTRAN FDD) to get the PLMN identifiers. Hence the UE can establish a list of PLMNs which are available in its location.

Cell selection

In the list of available PLMNs, the UE selects: - the HPLMN (Home PLMN) if it is available - otherwise another PLMN (national or international) according to priority rules possibly stored in the USIM

Attachment

Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Page 215

Appendix/Just after switch on process

Attachment procedure

PLMN selection

3 In the selected PLMN, the UE:

- selects the best cell according to radio criteria - initiates attachment procedure on the During the attachment procedure (called IMSI 4 selected cell
5

Cell selection
Attach4 ment result

attach for CS domain, GPRS attach for PS domain), the UE indicates its presence to the PLMN for the purpose of using services: - authentication procedure - storage of subscriber data from the HLR in the VLR (or in the SGSN for PS domain)

Attachment 3 request

Attachment
5

- allocation of the TMSI (P-TMSI for PS domain)

Indication of service to the UE


Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

The result of the procedure is notified to the UE: - if successful, the UE can access services - if it fails, the UE can only perform emergency calls
Page 216

AMR codec (for CS domain)


C s la s A
8 1 6 5 7 5 6 1 5 8 5 5 4 9 4 2

Appendix/AMR codec

A Rm d M oe
A R 2 0 M _1 .2 A R 0 0 M _1 .2 A R .9 M _7 5 A R .4 M _7 0 A R .7 M _6 0 A R .9 M _5 0 A R .1 M _5 5 A R .7 M _4 5

S u e c d g b -ra e o rc o in it t
1 .2 2 0 1 .2 0 0 7 5 .9 7 0 .4 6 0 .7 5 0 .9 5 5 .1 4 5 .7 k it ( ME R b /s GS F ) k it b /s k it b /s k it ( -6 1 b /s IS 4 ) k it ( D F ) b /s P C-E R k it b /s k it b /s k it b /s

C s la s B
13 0 9 9 8 4 8 7 7 6 6 3 5 4 5 3

C s la s C
6 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

The AMR (Adaptative Multirate) speech codec: - offers 8 AMR modes between 4,75 kbits/s and 12,2 kbits/s - is capable of switching its bit rate every 20 ms upon command of the RNC - is located in the UE and in the transcoder (which is located in the CN) Page 217 Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Appendix/NBAP elementary procedures

NBAP elementary procedures

NBAP Functions (see 3GPP 25.433)


Cell Configuration Management. This function gives the CRNC the possibility to manage the cell configuration information in a Node B. Common Transport Channel Management. This function gives the CRNC the possibility to manage the configuration of Common Transport Channels in a Node B. System Information Management. This function gives the CRNC the ability to manage the scheduling of System Information to be broadcast in a cell. Resource Event Management. This function gives the Node B the ability to inform the CRNC about the status of Node B resources. Configuration Alignment. This function gives the CRNC and the Node B the possibility to verify that both nodes has the same information on the configuration of the radio resources. Measurements on Common Resources. This function allows the CRNC to initiate measurements in the Node B. The function also allows the Node B to report the result of the measurements. Radio Link Supervision. This function allows the CRNC to report failures and restorations of a Radio Link. Compressed Mode Control [FDD]. This function allows the CRNC to control the usage of compressed mode in a Node B. Measurements on Dedicated Resources. This function allows the CRNC to initiate measurements in the NodeB. The function also allows the NodeB to report the result of the measurements. DL Power Drifting Correction (FDD). This function allows the CRNC to adjust the DL power level of one or more Radio Links in order to avoid DL power drifting between the Radio Links.
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Appendix/RANAP elementary procedures

RANAP elementary procedures

RANAP Functions (some of them (see 3GPP 25.413))


Relocating serving RNC. This function enables to change the serving RNC functionality as well as the related Iu resources (RAB(s) and Signalling connection) from one RNC to another. Overall RAB management. This function is responsible for setting up, modifying and releasing RABs. Release of all Iu connection resources. This function is used to explicitly release all resources related to one Iu connection. SRNS context forwarding function. This function is responsible for transferring SRNS context from the RNC to the CN for intersystem forward handover in case of packet forwarding. Controlling overload in the Iu interface. This function allows adjusting the load in the Iu interface. Sending the UE Common ID (permanent NAS UE identity) to the RNC. This function makes the RNC aware of the UE's Common ID. Paging the user. This function provides the CN for capability to page the UE. Transport of NAS information between UE and CN. This function has three sub-classes: Controlling the security mode in the UTRAN. This function is used to send the security keys (ciphering and integrity protection) to the UTRAN, and setting the operation mode for security functions. Controlling location reporting. This function allows the CN to operate the mode in which the UTRAN reports the location of the UE.
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Data volume reporting function. This function is responsible for reporting unsuccessfully

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Appendix/RSNAP elementary procedures

RSNAP elementary procedures

RSNAP Functions (some of them (see 3GPP 25.423))


Radio Link Management. This function allows the SRNC to manage radio links using dedicated resources in a DRNS; Physical Channel Reconfiguration. This function allows the DRNC to reallocate the physical channel resources for a Radio Link; Radio Link Supervision. This function allows the DRNC to report failures and restorations of a Radio Link; Compressed Mode Control [FDD]. This function allows the SRNC to control the usage of compressed mode within a DRNS; Measurements on Dedicated Resources. This function allows the SRNC to initiate measurements on dedicated resources in the DRNS. The function also allows the DRNC to report the result of the measurements; DL Power Drifting Correction [FDD]. This function allows the SRNC to adjust the DL power level of one or more Radio Links in order to avoid DL power drifting between the Radio Links; CCCH Signalling Transfer. This function allows the SRNC and DRNC to pass information between the UE and the SRNC on a CCCH controlled by the DRNS; Paging. This function allows the SRNC to page a UE in a URA or a cell in the DRNS; Common Transport Channel Resources Management. This function allows the SRNC to utilise Common Transport Channel Resources within the DRNS (excluding DSCH resources for FDD);
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Relocation Execution. This function allows the SRNC to finalise a Relocation previously prepared Page 220 via other interfaces.

Related Documentation Abbreviations and Acronyms

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Related documentation

English - WCDMA for UMTS, Harri Holma and Antti Toskala, Wiley 2000, ISBN 0 471 72051 8 - UMTS Mobile communications for the future, Wiley 2001, ISBN 0 471 49829 7 - Alcatel Telecommunications Review, 1st Quarter 2001 (Find your way with 3G) - 3GPP specifications: ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/Specs/ Francais - UMTS les rseaux mobiles de troisime gnration, Editions Eyrolles 2001 (translation of WCDMA for UMTS ) - UMTS les origines, l'architecture, la norme, Pierre Lescuyer, Editions Dunod 2001, ISBN 2 10 005195 4 - Revue des Tlcommunications dAlcatel , 1er trimestre 2001 (entirement Page 222 consacre la 3G) Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

Abbreviations and Acronyms (1)


AAL ACELP ADN ALCAP AMR ATM
BCCH

ATM Adaptation Layer Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction Abbreviated Dialling Number Access Link Control Application Part Adaptive Multi Rate Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Broadcast Control Channel

CCCH

Common Control Channel

BCH BHCA BER BLER BMC BM-IWF BSC BSS BTS CAMEL CC

Broadcast Channel Busy Hour Call Attempts Bit Error Rate Block Error Rate Broadcast / Multicast Control Broadcast Multicast InterWorking Function Base Station Controller Base Station (sub)System Base Transceiver Station Customized Application for Mobile Enhanced Logic Call Control

CCTrCH CDMA CDR CN CPCH CRNC CS CTCH DCA


DCCH

Coded Composite Transport Channel Code Division Multiple Access Call Detail Record Core Network Common Packet Channel Controlling RNC Circuit Switched Common Traffic Channel Dynamic channel Allocation
Dedicated Control Channel

DCH DHO DHT DRAC DRNC DS DSCH DTCH

Dedicated Channel Diversity HandOver Diversity HandOver Trunk Dynamic Resource Allocation Control Drift RNC Direct Sequence Downlink Shared Channel Dedicated Traffic Channel
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Abbreviations and Acronyms (2)


EDGE ERAN Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution IETF EDGE Radio Access Network (all-IP) IMEI FACH Forward Access Channel IMSI FBI FeedBack Information IP FDD Frequency Division Duplex IR FDD-DS FDD-Direct Sequence (FDD1) ISDN FDD-MC FDD-Multiple Carrier (FDD2) L1,L2,L3 FER Frame Error Rate LA FP Frame Protocol LCS FTP File Transfer Protocol LLC GERAN GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network LQC GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node M3UA GPRS General Packet Radio Service MAC GSM Global System for Mobile Communications MBS GSN GPRS Support Node (ie SGSN or GGSN) MC GTP GPRS Tunneling Protocol MExE GTP-U GPRS Tunneling Protocol-User Plane MM HO HandOver MSC HPLMN Home PLM MSP
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Internet Engineering Task Force International Mobile Equipment Identity International Mobile Subscriber Identity Internet Protocol Incremental Redundancy Integrated Services Digital Network Layer 1, Layer 2, Layer 3 Location Area Location Services Logical Link Control Link Quality Control SS7 MTP3 User Adaptation layer Medium Access Control Multi-standard Base Station Multiple Carrier Mobile Execution Environment Mobility Management Mobile-services Switching Center Multiple Subscriber Profile
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Abbreviations and Acronyms (3)


MTP3 Message Transfer Part (broadband) MTP-3B Message Transfer Part level 3 NAS Non Access Stratum NBAP Node-B Application Part ODMA Opportunity Driven Multiple Access OSA Open service Architecture OTDOA-IPDL Observed Time Difference of Arrival Idle Period Downlink OVSF Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor
PCCH Paging Control Channel

PS QOS QPSK RA RAB


RACH

Packet Switched Quality Of Service Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Routing Area Radio Access Bearer
Random Access Channel

PCH PDA PDC PDP PDU PLMN PRACH

Paging Channel Personal Digital Assistant Personal Digital Cellular (2G Japan) Packet Data Protocol Protocol Data Unit Public Land Mobile Network Physical Random Access Channel

RAN RANAP RB RL RLC RNC RNS RNSAP RNTI RRC RRM

Radio Access Network RAN Application Part Radio Bearer Radio Link Radio Link Control Radio Network Controller Radio Network Sub-System RNS Application Part Radio Network Temporary Identity Radio Resource Control Radio Resource Management

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Abbreviations and Acronyms (4)


SAP SAT SDU SF SGSN SHO SIR SMS SPU SRNC SSCOP Service Access Point SIM Application Toolkit Service Data Unit Spreading Factor Serving GPRS Support Node Soft HandOver Signal to Interference Ratio Short Message Service Signaling Processing Unit Serving RNC Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol SSCP Signaling Connection Control Part STM Synchronous Transfer Mode TC Transcoder TCP Transport Control Protocol TD-CDMATime Division & CDMA TDD Time Division Duplex TDMA Time Division Multiple Access
Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. E.A.U

TF TFC TFCI TFCS TFS TMSI TPC UDP UICC UMTS USIM USSD URA URAN USB UTRAN

Transport Format Transport Format Combination Transport Format Combination Indicator Transport Format Combination Set Transport Format Set Temporary Mobile Station Identity Transmission Power Control User Datagram Protocol UMTS Integrated Circuit Card Universal Mobile Telecommunication System UMTS Subscriber Identity Card Unstructured Supplementary Service Data UTRAN Registration Area UMTS Radio Access Network (ETSI) Universal Radio Access Network (3GPP) Universal Serial Bus UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network

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Abbreviations and Acronyms (5)


VC VHE VoIP VP WAP W-CDMA WIM Virtual Channel Virtual Home Environment Voice over IP Virtual Path Wireless Application Protocol Wideband Code Division Multiple Access WAP Identity Module

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Abbreviations and Acronyms (Standard


Organizations)
3GPP 3GPP2 3GIP ANSI ARIB CWTS ETSI IETF IMT ITU T1 TIA TTA TTC UWCC W3C 3rd Generation Partnership Project (WCDMA) 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (cdma2000) 3rd Generation partnership for Internet Protocol American National Standard Institute (USA) Association of Radio Industries and Business (Japan) China Wireless Telecommunication Standard group European Telecommunication Standard Institute Internet Engineering Task Force International Mobile Telecommunication International Telecommunication Union Committee T1 telecommunication of the ANSI (USA) Telecommunication Industry Association (USA) Telecommunication Technology Association (Korea) Telecommunication Technology Committee (Japan) Universal Wireless Communications Committee World Wide Web Consortium

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