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STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

MOMENT DISTRIBUTION METHOD

INTRODUCTION
  

 

Also called Hardy Cross Method. Analysis of statically indeterminate beams and frames. From the 1930s until when computers began to be widely used in the design and analysis of structures, the moment distribution method was the most widely used method in practice. Called moment distribution due to the fact that moment is distributed in all joints. This is an iterative process. The method only accounts for flexural effects and ignores axial and shear effects.

IMPORTANT TERMS
 

Stiffness: It is the moment required to produce unit rotation at one end while the farther end is fully restrained. Carry over factor: It is defined as the factor by which the moment at simply supported end is multiplied to get the moment carried over to the other end. Carry over moment: The moment developed at the fixed far end when the other end is subjected to unit rotation is termed as carry over moment. Distribution factor: It is the factor by which the applied moment is multiplied to obtain the end moment of any member.

SIGN CONVENTION


Once a sign convention has been chosen, it has to be maintained for the whole structure. i) All clockwise moments are taken as positive and anticlockwise as negative. ii) Upward forces are considered positive.

FIXED END MOMENTS


Sl no. 1 2 3 Type Of Load FEM MfA = MfB= PL/8 MfA = Pab2/L2 MfB = Pa2b/L2 MfA=MfB=wL2/12

Stiffness (k)


Distribution Factor
 

For fixed beam, k=(4EI)/L For hinged beam, k=(3EI)/L

For fixed end =0 For simply supported end=1

Applying Moment Distribution Method To Continuous Beam With Fixed Ends


    

Assuming all ends are fixed, find the fixed end moments developed. Calculate distribution factor for all members meeting at a joint. Carry over half the distributed moment. Balance joint by distributing balancing moments. Sum up all the moments.

Example
A continuous beam of constant cross section and material shown in figure is perfectly restrained at the ends. Compute the moments over the supports by moment distribution method. Draw BMD & SFD.
5kN A 4m 6m 12I 2m B 1.5kN/m 4m 12I C

Step 1:
Finding FEM:
4m 6m 5kN 2m 1.5 kN/m 4m

MFAB= Pab2/L2 = 2.22kNm MFBA = Pa2b/L2 = 4.44kNm

MFBC = MFCB= wL2/12 = 2kN/m

Step 2:
Distribution Factors:
JOINTS MEMBERS k= I/L k D.F

BA B BC

12I/6 5I 12I/4

0.4

0.6

Step 3:
Distribution Table:
JOINT MEMBER DF A AB 0 B BA BC 0.4 0.6 C CB 0

FEM Distribution Carry Over Final Moments

-2.22 0 -0.49 -2.71

4.44 -2 -0.98 -1.46 0 0 3.46 -3.46

2 0 -0.73 1.27

Step 4: BM Diagram
4m A 6m 5kN 2m B 1.5kN/m C 4m

3.46 6.67 2.71 3 1.27

Step 5: Calculation of reactions


5kN A 2.71 RA 4m 6m RB1 RB2 2m B 3.46 4m RC 3.46 1.5kN/m 1.27

V=0, +ve RA + RB1 -5 = 0 RA + RB1 = 5 MB = 0, +ve -2.71-(52)+3.46+ (RA 6) = 0 RA =1.54kN RB1 = 3.46kN

V=0, +ve RB2 + RC = (1.54) MC = 0, +ve (RB2 4)-3.46+1.27-(1.542)=0 RB2 = 3.5475kN RC = 2.45kN

Step 6: Shear Force Diagram


5kN B A 1.54 4m 2m 3.46kN 3.55kN 4m 1.5kN/m C 2.45kN

1.54

+ve

3.55 +ve 3.46 -ve -ve 2.45