Propagation Model Calibration -2G (900/1800 Urban & Suburban

)

Ranjit Kumar Karna

Purpose and Output
To produce calibrated propagation model for use in Aircom Enterprise Asset 6.2 The Models are for use in Radio Network Planning in GSM 900/1800 MHz. The use of calibrated models provides assurance in the choice of transmitting sites and expected signal coverage and calculation of interference. Four Propagation Models will be produced after Model Tuning Process 
Standard Macrocell type 3, clutter type Suburban, frequency band 1800MHz.  Standard Macrocell type 3, clutter type Urban, frequency band 1800MHz.  Standard Macrocell type 3, clutter type Suburban, frequency band 900MHz.  Standard Macrocell type 3, clutter type Urban, frequency band 900MHz.

2

20 July, 2011

Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint

Collection of Drive data from modal sites selected by Operator(Ncell)-export to . This tuned Prop Model is based on the actual measurement carried out in Urban and Suburban Clutters in Kathmandu. the distance from the base stations. terrain and the effect of local clutter.2 at Ncell office .2. 2011 Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint . Production of a report to describe the propagation model and processes. In the fulfillment of the main objectives set out by Ncell RNP&O.FMT Drive data conversion into .a radio network planning tool. MT procedure has undertaken the following tasks:       Clutter Analysis. The models highlight the dependency of the received signal level on the base station heights. Modal Type Analysis and Modal Sites Selection. Prediction analysis using the new models with the Drive-Test Plot at non-Modal sites. Model calibration Urban & Suburban for 900/1800MHz.Model Tuning Process At Ncell. 3 20 July. The data processing and model tuning was carried out in Aircom Enterprise Accet 6. Field Measurements File Processing File Import Filtering Calibration Aircom Enterprise Accet 6. includes advanced survey analysis & processing capabilities.hd (header) and . frequency. previous Propagation Models were based on the theoretical formulations only. which have been utilized in the development of a generic model from the survey data. available at Ncell. Topographical terrain and clutter databases of 5m meters resolution.dat (measurement). have been employed in this process. The clutter database comprises of xx clutter categories.

Suburban: Suburban & Village  Capacity of Local Network: >250 sites  Operational Band: 900. 1800. Modal Type Analysis:  Recommended usage ‡ Sites in environments where the distance from the site is greater than approximately 500m ‡ Base station antenna heights in the range of 15-200m ‡ Receiver heights in the range of 1-10m  Mapping data needed ‡ Terrain DTM height raster data ‡ Terrain clutter raster data 4 20 July. which utilize detailed topographical terrain height and clutter database. 2011 Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint .Clutter and Modal Type Analysis Clutter Type Analysis:  Location: Kathmandu (Two Regions Inside Ring Road: Mostly Urban. 2100 MHz  Cell Type: Macrocell Modal Sites Selection: Sites selected by Ncell Engineers have been used to develop generic models. Outside Ring Road: Mostly Suburban and Villages)  Common Clutter Sub-Types: Urban: Low. Medium & Dense Urban. The sites chosen in each morphology were meant to be representative of the antenna heights so as to enable good modeling of antenna height gain. The sites for the model calibration process were selected with the help of local Ncell Engineers due to their extensive knowledge of the local terrain and morphology. The number of sites selected for each class would ensure that sufficient data points would be collected to calibrate the models.

The sites chosen in each morphology were meant to be representative of the antenna heights so as to enable good modeling of antenna height gain.CZ KAT083CZ KAT210CZ KAT065AX KAT122AX 5 20 July. The sites for the model calibration process were selected with the help of local Ncell Engineers due to their extensive knowledge of the local terrain and morphology. The number of sites selected for each class would ensure that sufficient data points would be collected to calibrate the models.Survey Measurement Methodology Modal Sites Selection: Sites selected (by Ncell Engineers) have been used to develop generic models. Clutter Type KAT018CZ Suburban KAT089BY KAT002CZ Urban KAT075AX KAT108AX KAT096AX KAT013AX KAT037AX Cell ID KAT043AX KAT100BY KAT022AX KAT112CZ KAT064AX KAT194CZ KAT045BY KAT118AX. which utilize detailed topographical terrain height and clutter database. 2011 Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint .

Survey Measurement Methodology Selected Sites Location : Suburban and Urban Suburban Urban 6 20 July. 2011 Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint .

(1) BCCH of testing cells was set out of common list in order to prevent the impact of interference from other cells. survey(DT) routes for each cell were identified. (2) Disable Hopping( BBH/SFH) (3) Disable Power Control 7 20 July.  Although all drive-test routes were pre-defined for a maximum radius of about 3-4 km. a low gain omni-directional antenna is used. Mechanical and electrical tilts were set to 0 in order to extend coverage area and to decrease impact of the tilt evaluation. This was done to ensure that the propagation model can accurately predict far-field pathloss. for model tuning. After drive-tests they were set to initial positions. 2011 Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint . The measurement routes were selected to provide a mixture of main roads and side roads tangential and arbitrary orientation with respect to the selected cell and the particular antenna configuration of each sector. ‡ Recommendations: During drive-test. but in our case we were using sectorized antenna Andrew DBXLH-6565B-VTM. drive-test teams were instructed to continue driving further away from the site if signal strength had not fallen below level of -110dBm.Survey Measurement Methodology Route Selection  After all the sites were selected. Transmitter Configuration  Normally.

2011 Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint .FMT): Open the export (.FMT) per cell. ‡ ‡ ‡ Remove RSS less than -110 and higher than -40dBm from Excel Now Keep only three columns in excel as Longitude. Location (Longitude/Latitude) and RxLevel. Now we have two files (. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Example_KAT018 C. Latitude and RxLevel Modify the excel as: Add first RxLevel by string start in 1st Row and similar for last row with finish . MS. Load them into Asset (measurement files) and better to Associate them.dat) file names and according to site database within it for each cell as attached.dat) as measurement file. Frame Number.hd 8 20 July. Save this file in Notepad with extension as (.FMT) in excel which has Time.hd) for each cell.Survey Measurement Methodology Survey Data Conversion.fmt) exports for each cell. Create header files (.dat & . Filtering and Processing  Drive-Test/Survey Data Export to (. Remember: only one (.hd ) including (. Then do it for all (.dat Example_KAT018 C.

‡ In order to ease visual assessment. ‡ The measurements should exactly match the map data. Such limits are used to consider only sufficient readings.Survey Measurement Methodology  Filtering due to Signal Strength: All samples with RSS less than -110dBm should not be considered during calculation. readings with RSS higher than -40dBm should be removed due to saturation as well. while they are affected by noise. 2011 Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint . including clutter and road vectors. the same legend of signal strength will be used for coverage prediction and measurements. ‡ To avoid successive readings from same location (or at locations that are not further away). ‡ The legend used as 9 20 July. the measurements should be re-sampled using averaging distance 1m.  Filtering to Adjust to Digital Map: During the model calibration process two types of an assessment the model accuracy were used numerical. based on errors between measured and predicted values and visual comparison of overlapping layers of the coverage and drive-test data.

. 2011 Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint . ‡ Survey/Recorded Data Map with Map Data: Before After The layer with recorded CW data is not matching with map data.00003 (DLL). in order to fit survey data to map. Latitude + 0.0001 (DLL). the coordinates of each sample were adjusted Longitude + 0. So. The significant errors of the prediction will occur in this case.Survey Measurement Methodology  Filtering to Adjust to Digital Map: contd. 10 20 July.

Survey Measurement Methodology  Survey Data Filtering . all CW measurements near the site should be cancelled from the tuning process. 2011 Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint . Following figures show distribution/regression of the samples against distance from site for each model separately.Distance Evaluation In order to avoid the saturation of signal. Sub Urban 1800 Sub Urban 900 Urban 1800 Urban 900 11 20 July.

12 20 July. so our readings will be associated with the existing site database. so as other models can be done. 2011 Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint . 1800 MHz). Below is the measurement loading to Aircom Asset ( Suburban.Survey Measurement Methodology  Survey Data Filtering Loading into Tool and Averaging : In order to get an accurate prediction the data headers of log-files should be prepared in correct way.

averaged and map-adjusted data have been successfully loaded into Aircom Asset. Filtered out. 2011 Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint . It could be done in the tool. Measurements averaging into Aircom Asset (1m).Survey Measurement Methodology  Survey Data Filtering Loading into Tool and Averaging : Now it is needed to average the recorded samples for exclusion unnecessary point. Now drivetest/survey data is ready to be used in the calibration process. 13 20 July.

Hms . Heff .Multiplying factor for log(Heff)log(d). K7 .Intercept and Slope. Clutter_loss . K6 .Multiplying factor for diffraction loss calculation. K3 . These factors correspond to a constant offset (in dB) and a multiplying factor for the log of the distance between the base station and mobile. This is the multiplying factor for the log of the effective antenna height. Bullington.Calibration Process  Path Loss Definition and Objectives Path Loss Formula PL (dB) = K1 + K2*log(d) + K3(Hms) + K4*log(Hms) + K5*log(Heff) + + K6*log(Heff) *log(d) + k7(diff) + Clutter_loss            14 D . K5 . K4 . Deygout or Japanese Atlas knife edge techniques. Correction factor used to take into account the effective mobile antenna height.Distance from the base station to the mobile station (km).Multiplying factor for Hms. This figure may be specified either globally or for individual clutter categories. K1 and K2 .Mobile Antenna Height Factor.Effective base station antenna height (m). Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint 20 July. Diff .Effective Antenna Height Gain.Diffraction loss calculated using either the Epstein-Peterson.Height of the mobile station above ground (m).Clutter specifications taken into account in the calculation process. 2011 .

0 -2.55/-2.9/160. 2011 Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint .88 0.8 15 20 July. km Effective antenna height algorithm Diffraction loss algorithm K1 K2 K1 near K2 near Near distance K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 Value (900MHz/1800MHz) 1.7/0.9 44.9 0.Calibration Process  Initial (default) parameters for Standard Macrocell Model (type 3): Non-calibrated model Parameter definition Mobile Rx height.5 8493 Relative Epstein-Peterson 150.55 0.82 -6.0 0. m Earth radius.0 -13.0 0.

5521 0.5980 0.4 5.5 -13.4 9.5 -4.2 9.5 6.6 17. 7751 33 54 121 459 2229 197 3065 17209 -9.4 6.8 10.2 -6. KAT002Z KAT013X KAT022X KAT045Y KAT065X KAT075X KAT108X KAT112Z KAT118X KAT118Z KAT122X TOTAL Clutter Type OPEN SEMIOPEN_AREA PARKS VILLAGES INDUSTRIAL_ZONES SUBURBAN LOW_URBAN MEDIUM_URBAN DENSE_URBAN 3164 2162 3477 2546 2620 2973 2201 2469 3916 2468 3122 31118 # bins -4.5685 0.2 15.0 7.3 11.1 -15.8 8. coef.2 -4.3 7.6 -5.1 9.7 6.9 11.1 17. CELL ID # bins Mean Error RMS Error STD Error Corr.1648 0.1 10.7 8.5288 0.7 8.7 -3.2 6.Calibration Process  Prediction with Initial Default Parameters: Prediction with initial default parameters is done against cellid for four models and clutter types to see the errors in prediction of Std.5 RMS Error 14.6 10.2371 0.5376 0.5432 0.3930 0.4606 16 20 July.7 2.6 12.8 7.0 10.1 11.1 10.2995 0.4 6.5 14.6 STD Error -0.8 -5.6006 0.9 10.5114 0.7 -2.7 13.1 6. 2011 Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint .8 11. Deviation and Correlation coefficient.4 -7.0231 0.3 10.5857 -0.5 -5.6 6.7 -1. coef.4257 Corr.4 21.3098 0.7 3.6481 0.0 -14.3526 0.7 10.3 7.7139 0.0 0.4 -3.3 10.7576 0.5 -3.4 Mean Error 15.6 -3.0 9.9 -2.5 12.

K7. The optimum value of K1 at this stage is 158. K7=0.0. K2=54.Calibration Process  Tuning of the model: The calibration process consists of steps as: Iterative estimation of K1.1. height and separation and final analysis of models performance. Errors in clutter type will not be considered at this step. recorded at non-LOS areas. final values for K2 and K7 were found.35 is calculated for each clutter. With this value we have following results of error evaluation. The rest of models will be calibrated in same way. these steps will be done for model urban 1800MHz.1. because K7 (diffraction loss coefficient) must be tuned only for measurements. K1 will require further fine-tuning following the influence of the clutter type tuning. 17 20 July. Tuning of K7 Likely to K1 and K2 during tuning K7 the lowest RMS error will be found. ‡ Tuning of K1 The purpose of tuning K1 is to reach the lowest RMS. Errors in clutter type will not be considered at this step. Before this Non-LOS measurements were deactivated to avoid impact of diffraction loss. 2011 Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint . K2. Before this LOS measurements were deactivated and NLOS were activated. The optimum value of K7 at this stage is 0.1. With this value we have following results of error evaluation. For instance. K7=0. Tuning of K2 Likely to K1 during tuning K2 the lowest RMS error will be found. Before this Non-LOS measurements were deactivated to avoid impact of diffraction losses. This was done. With this value we have following results of error evaluation. At this stage. The optimum value of K2 at this stage is 54.0. clutter offsets. K2=54. ‡ Errors in prediction against Cell-ID with K1=158.35.0.35 is calculated for each model. ‡ Errors in prediction against Clutter Type with K1=158. Few iterations have been done to get this value.

6 9.3 10.4 1.2 -0.35 (open area only) CELL ID # bins Mean Error RMS Error STD Error Corr. 2011 7751 -2. We have so much measurements in open area. So all other clutters were deactivated and following table is produced.0 7.9 RMS Error 14.8367 0. The majority of bins are about urban areas and open as well.0 7.7607 0.0. They will be kept as 0 at this stage.1.4 -10. because the driven roads belongs to this type. For semi_open area and parks the number of bins is too low (less than 100).2 5.5 STD Error 0.0 5.5 0. K2=54.4 7.7 9.5 6.1 5.5708 0. Anyway. In this case. so the accuracy of prediction will be improved. Errors in prediction against cell id and clutter type with K1=158. KAT002Z KAT013X KAT022X KAT045Y KAT065X KAT075X KAT108X KAT112Z KAT118X KAT118Z KAT122X TOTAL Clutter Type 1063 389 1497 518 873 766 263 292 408 457 1225 7751 # bins -3.7 Mean Error 14. So. first stage of clutter offsets tuning is normalization its values to open type only.4 5.4889 Corr. coef.5499 0. OPEN 18 20 July.6420 0.4 8.5 10. now its mandatory to find optimum value of clutter offsets in order to have minimum errors for each of them.0805 0.2 -1.9 -4.3 -2.5 9. so tuning of clutter offsets for them is not possible.4266 0. K7=0.7 13.4575 0.0 5.0 8.5 7.7051 0.9 9.4889 Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint .5 9.Calibration Process  Tuning of clutter offsets Different clutter types produce different errors level.7536 0.3 -0.6 6.7009 0.9 9. impact of clutter penetration will be taken into account.0 9.5 6.2 5.9 0. coef.3 -7.0 -2.

4945 0.2 8.5366 0.5998 19 20 July. K7=0.0 0.8 9. K2=54. In next performance assessment involving clutter influence.6 8. taking into account all clutter types.5 Corr.0.2 4.8 9.Calibration Process  Tuning of clutter offsets (contd.3 4.5 7.0 0. the mean errors of every clutter type should be considered via clutter offset. it is required to substract overall mean error specified from the table for each clutter class.2765 0.5 7.4 6.35 (open area only) According to new value of K1=155.7770 -0.6858 0.  In order to involve clutter influence on propagation loss. 2011 Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint .) Overall mean error of the model now must be substracted from value of K1 in order to get it normalised to the open clutter type. Errors in prediction against Cell-ID and Clutter Type with K1=155.4 models performance must be assessed once again.4986 0. 0.2 6. Errors in prediction against Cell-ID and Clutter Type with K1=150.. K2=54.0 -0.5 5. Clutter Type OPEN SEMIOPEN_AREA PARKS VILLAGES INDUSTRIAL_ZONES SUBURBAN LOW_URBAN MEDIUM_URBAN DENSE_URBAN # bins 7751 33 54 121 459 2229 197 3065 17209 Mean Error -0.0 RMS Error 9. coef.0 -0.2 8.2 6. With such set of values for clutter offset model performance indicators are following.4.4887 0.0 8.0.0 -0.5 8.0 0. For this.0 -0.4 6.2931 0.5 STD Error 9.35  At the next stage its required to substract every clutter types error from zero and define it as a clutter offset. K7=0.0 0.9.

0 20. m 0.0 20 20 July. medium_urban = 20m.0 30.0 15.0 30.0 10.0 9.0 20. Clutter Type OPEN SEMIOPEN_AREA PARKS SPARSE_FOREST DENSE_FOREST VILLAGES INDUSTRIAL_ZON ES SUBURBAN LOW_URBAN MEDIUM_URBAN DENSE_URBAN Clutter height. 2011 Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint . As a result of this stage. because they define common clutter settings. low_urban = 10m etc.0 15.0 10.) model shows totally different results in compare with the model without clutter height consideration. Aircom Asset performs a diffraction loss calculation over the edge of clutter and therefore requires the clutter height and the distance between the edge of the clutter and mobile end point.0 10.0 0.0 10.0 20.0 0.0 20. These values are same for all types of model.0 20.Calibration Process  Tuning of clutter height and separation distance The influence of clutter heights and separation distance will further enhance the prediction accuracy and decrease the level of error.0 20. m Separation distance. following table was achieved.0 10.0 13. keeping overal error value as low as possible. With starting values of clutter heights (like dense_urban = 30m. The point is to find optimum values of height of each clutter type.0 0.0 10. Same procedure was accomplished for separation distance calibration.

0 0. So. The reason is implementation of clutter height and separation distance.6 4.7 -0. Same action should be done with the K1 in order to achieve overall mean error equals to 0.0 -13.6 21 20 July.05 3.0 0. 2011 Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint .88 0.3 1.00. So K1 will be 145.0 0.8 7.0 0.35 Offset Value 1.0 54.82 -6.4 1.0 -2. its required to substract every clutter types error from zero and define it as a clutter offset once again. (Below table for urban 1800MHz) Parameter definition K1 K2 K1 near K2 near Near distance K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 Clutter type OPEN SEMIOPEN_AREA DENSE_FOREST VILLAGES INDUSTRIAL_ZONES SUBURBAN LOW_URBAN MEDIUM_URBAN DENSE_URBAN Value 145.Calibration Process  Clutter Offset Assessment with Clutter Height & Separation Distance Consideration: Mean error of each clutter type is non-zero again as well as overall error now.55 0.7 3.

5 7.Calibration Process  Assessment of Model Performance Indicators after Clutter Offset Calibration Errors in prediction against Cell-ID with K1=145.5037 0.5 2.0 -0.5 5.00. coeff. K7=0.5242 0.1 9.5 6.2 -5.6467 0.1 0.7 8.7 6.2 6.7 4.3 8.7295 0.4 STD Error 8.6467 0.0 0.6 -4.5 6. clutter settings on.2 6.5 7. 0. 0.0.7842 0.1 0.1 9.0 -0.0 RMS Error 8.0 0. K2=54.0 RMS Error 6.7 8.6 6.35.5 5.7438 0.3 7.2 7.0.6 7.6233 0.0 -0.4 7.6 5. K2=54.5 6.6233 0.8 8.2949 0. coeff.2 0.5370 0.5067 0.5 6.7474 0.1 9.2765 0.1 6.5747 0.4 Corr.0 0. K7=0.6 STD Error 6.5 0.7 6.6382 Errors in prediction against Clutter Types with K1=145.7035 0.1 7.5 -0. CELL ID KAT002Z KAT013X KAT022X KAT045Y KAT065X KAT075X KAT108X KAT112Z KAT118X KAT118Z KAT122X TOTAL # bins 3164 2162 3477 2546 2620 2973 2201 2469 3916 2468 3122 31118 Mean Error 0.6487 22 20 July.00. clutter settings on Clutter Type OPEN SEMIOPEN_AREA PARKS VILLAGES INDUSTRIAL_ZONES SUBURBAN LOW_URBAN MEDIUM_URBAN DENSE_URBAN # bins 7751 33 54 121 459 2229 197 3065 17209 Mean Error -0. 2011 Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint .6 Corr.8 -1.1 9.1 6.2 7.0 0.2 4.6889 0.7504 0.0 -0.1 6.4 7.5 0.7414 -0.6 8.35.3 7.4 8.1 5.1 4.

Calibration Process  Assessment of Model Performance and Calibrated Model Parameters Its important to perform the visual comparison in planning tool like Assest.82 -6.0 -13.05 3.0 0.3 1.7 -0.55 0. For this.88 0.7 3.0 0.0 0.8 7.4 1.0 0.6 23 20 July.35 Offset 1.0 54.0 -2.6 4. a cell is selected. additional verification drive-test was conducted too as shown below: (Urban 1800)-KAT089Y prediction against real drive-test presentation Parameter definition K1 K2 K1 near K2 near Near distance K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 Clutter type OPEN SEMIOPEN_AREA DENSE_FOREST VILLAGES INDUSTRIAL_ZONES SUBURBAN LOW_URBAN MEDIUM_URBAN DENSE_URBAN Value 145. 2011 Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint .

6 2.4 3.0 -13.0 -2.7 5.Calibration Process  Assessment of Model Performance and Calibrated Model Parameters (Sub Urban 1800MHz)-KAT089Y prediction against real drive-test presentation Parameter definition K1 K2 K1 near K2 near Near distance K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 Clutter type OPEN SEMIOPEN_AREA PARKS SPARSE_FOREST DENSE_FOREST VILLAGES INDUSTRIAL_ZONES SUBURBAN LOW_URBAN MEDIUM_URBAN DENSE_URBAN Value 143.2 48.8 1.35 Offset 2.0 0. 2011 Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint .88 0.6 24 20 July.82 -6.5 0.6 5.55 0.0 0.9 7.4 3 -2.1 -9.3 0.

0 0.82 -6.0 -3.0 0.KAT107A prediction against real drive-test presentation Parameter definition K1 K2 K1 near K2 near Near distance K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 Clutter type OPEN SEMIOPEN_AREA PARKS VILLAGES INDUSTRIAL_ZONES SUBURBAN LOW_URBAN MEDIUM_URBAN DENSE_URBAN Value 147.55 0.55 0.0 -2.5 -4.25 Offset 1.Calibration Process  Assessment of Model Performance and Calibrated Model Parameters (Urban 900MHz).4 3.9 7.3 1. 2011 Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint .7 48.2 25 20 July.4 0.0 2.5 0.0 -13.2 7.

4 0.25 Offset 1.0 0.2 7.0 0.9 7.82 -6.4 3.0 -13.0 -2.Calibration Process  Assessment of Model Performance and Calibrated Model Parameters (Sub Urban 900MHz)-KAT223B prediction against real drive-test presentation Parameter definition K1 K2 K1 near K2 near Near distance K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 Clutter type OPEN SEMIOPEN_AREA PARKS VILLAGES INDUSTRIAL_ZONES SUBURBAN LOW_URBAN MEDIUM_URBAN DENSE_URBAN Value 147.2 26 20 July.5 0.7 48.3 1.0 -3.0 2.55 0.55 0.5 -4. 2011 Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint .

Conclusion 4 Prediction Models. 2011 Graphical Guidelines for PowerPoint .2 for GSM and 2 for DCS in Urban and Sub-Urban produced 27 20 July.

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