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CHAPTER EIGHT

Consumer Attitude Formation and Change

Learning Objectives
1. To Understand What Attitudes Are, How They Are Learned, as Well as Their Nature and Characteristics. 2. To Understand the Composition and Scope of Selected Models of Attitudes. 3. To Understand How Experience Leads to the Initial Formation of Consumption-Related Attitudes. 4. To Understand the Various Ways in Which Consumers Attitudes Are Changed. 5. To Understand How Consumers Attitudes Can Lead to Behavior and How Behavior Can Lead to Attitudes.
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Attitude

A learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object.

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Chapter Eight Slide

What are Attitudes?


The attitude object (Is it a product category, a specific brand, or a particular model? ) Attitudes are a learned predisposition (Direct experience, word of mouth, ads) Attitudes have consistency (Quite consistent, not necessarily permanent and can change over time) Attitudes occur within a situation (In different situations we behave differently)

Wendy s Offers Salads To Differentiate Itself

Structural Models of Attitudes


Tricomponent Attitude Model Multiattribute Attitude Model The Trying-to-Consume Model Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model

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Chapter Eight Slide 6

A Simple Representation of the Tricomponent Attitude Model - Figure 8.3

Cognition

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Chapter Eight Slide 7

The Tricomponent Model


Cognitive Component (Think)
The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from various sources (Beliefs)

Affective Component (Feel)


A consumer s emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand (Good/ favorable vs. Bad Feelings)

Conative Component (Do)


The likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object (Intentions to buy)

Discussion Questions
Explain your attitude toward your college/university based on the tricomponent attribute model. Be sure to isolate the cognitive, affective, and conative elements.

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Chapter Eight Slide

Multiattribute Attitude Models

Attitude models that examine the composition of consumer attitudes in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs.

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Chapter Eight Slide 10

Multiattribute Attitude Models


Types
The attitude-towardobject model The attitude-towardbehavior model Theory-of-reasonedaction model Attitude is function of the presence of certain beliefs or attributes. Useful to measure attitudes toward product and service categories or specific brands. For example, if you are buying a home/car, there is a list of attributes that the home/car must have
Chapter Eight Slide 11

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Multiattribute Attitude Models


Is the attitude toward behaving or acting with Types respect to an object, The attitude-towardrather than the attitude object model toward the object itself The attitude-toward Corresponds closely to behavior model actual behavior Theory-of-reasoned The question is now action model how likely are you to purchase brand X rather than how highly do you Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall rate brand X Chapter Eight Slide 12

Consumer Characteristics, Attitude, and Online Shopping

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Chapter Eight Slide 13

Multiattribute Attitude Models


Types
The attitude-towardobject model The attitude-towardbehavior model Theory-of-reasonedaction model Includes cognitive (think), affective (feel), and conative (do) components Includes subjective norms in addition to attitude or how a consumer is influenced by others

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Chapter Eight Slide 14

A Simplified Version of the Theory of Reasoned Action - Figure 8.5

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Chapter Eight Slide 15

Theory of Trying to Consume

An attitude theory designed to account for the many cases where the action or outcome is not certain but instead reflects the consumers attempt to consume (or purchase). Not having enough money, or environmental reasons, such as not being able to go to a particular store
Chapter Eight Slide 16

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AttitudeAttitudeToward-theToward-theAd Model

A model that proposes that a consumer forms various feelings (affects) and judgments (cognitions) as the result of exposure to an advertisement, which, in turn, affect the consumers attitude toward the ad and attitude toward the brand.

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Chapter Eight Slide 17

A Conception of the Relationship Among Elements in an Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model Figure 8.6

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Chapter Eight Slide 18

Issues in Attitude Formation


How attitudes are learned
Conditioning and experience (Classical & Operant) Knowledge and beliefs (Reward & Outcomes from behavior)

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Chapter Eight Slide 19

Issues in Attitude Formation


Sources of influence on attitude formation
Personal experience Influence of family Direct marketing and mass media or internet

Personality factors (High need for cognition will require lots of information in ads vs. Low need for cognition requires attractive models or well-known celebrity)
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New Customers Will Try the Product, Existing Customers will be Rewarded.

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Chapter Eight Slide 21

Strategies of Attitude Change


Changing the Basic Motivational Function Associating the Product with an Admired Group or Event (Charities, donations) Resolving Two Conflicting Attitudes (Two things with one solution e.g., soft on hands tough on grease) Altering Components of the Multiattribute Model (Bifocal glasses to Bifocal lenses) Changing Beliefs about Competitors Brands (Express vs. Ariel)
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Changing the Basic Motivational Function


Ego-defensive how the product would make them feel more secure and confident Valueexpressive reflect the consumer s values, lifestyle, and outlook

Utilitarian how the product is useful to us

Knowledge understand more about the world around them

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Chapter Eight Slide 23

Clorox Uses A Utilitarian Appeal

Suave Uses Ego Defensive Appeal

AC Delco Uses a ValueExpressive Appeal

A Knowledge Appeal

Attitude Change
Altering Components of the Multiattribute Model
Changing relative evaluation of attributes (Paying more doesn t means you are paying more) Changing brand beliefs ( stile bond is expensive, but in reality it ends up saving time & money) Adding an attribute (Mentoos/Gummy Bears are chewable as compare to other mints/vitamins) Changing the overall brand rating (Ariel repositioning it self)

Changing Beliefs about Competitors Brands


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Chapter Eight Slide 28

They Might Have a More Favorable Attitude.

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Chapter Eight Slide 29

Encouraging Trial

The Consumer Will Have a More Positive Attitude Overall from the New Attribute.

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Chapter Eight Slide 31

How Is the Absence of an Ingredient Likely to Lead to a Favorable Attitude Toward a Product?

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Chapter Eight Slide 32

When It Was An Unfavorable Attribute

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Chapter Eight Slide 33

Changing the Overall Brand Rating

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Chapter Eight Slide 34

By Showing Better Wear Protection

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Chapter Eight Slide 35

Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)

A theory that suggests that a persons level of involvement during message processing is a critical factor in determining which route to persuasion is likely to be effective (Central route for high involvement vs. peripheral route for low involvement)
Chapter Eight Slide 36

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Elaboration Likelihood Model

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Chapter Eight Slide 37

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Holds that discomfort or dissonance occurs when a consumer holds conflicting thoughts about a belief or an attitude object.

Reducing Cognitive Dissonance

Postpurchase Dissonance

Cognitive dissonance that occurs after a consumer has made a purchase commitment. Consumers resolve this dissonance through a variety of strategies designed to confirm the wisdom of their choice.

Attribution Theory

A theory concerned with how people assign casualty (blame or credit) to events and form or alter their attitudes as an outcome of assessing their own or other peoples behavior (Donating to Edhi or Sponsoring events)

SelfPerception Theory

A theory that suggests that consumers develop attitudes by reflecting on their own behavior (Internal attribution vs. External attribution) e.g., digital photography & editing

Defensive Attribution

A theory that suggests consumers are likely to accept credit for successful outcomes (internal attribution) and to blame other persons or products for failure (external attribution). e.g., digital photography & editing

Issues in Attribution Theory


Self-Perception Theory
Foot-in-the-Door Technique (If you donate $25, you could donate lot more if asked properly)

Attributions toward Others (Sincerity or Question their motives) Attributions toward Things (Product/Services or Why do I like that software or that movie so much?)

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Chapter Eight Slide 44

How we test our attributions?


Distinctiveness (They behave differently because of the person/product present) Consistency Over Time (Every time the above happens) Consistency Over Modality (The reaction is same even when situation changes) Consensus (The action is perceived the same way by the other consumers)
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