Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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1 1
Survey of Radio Propagation Models for
Mobile Communication
Presented by
Salini Patnaik
Roll# EC200157231
At
NIST,Berhampur
Under the guidance of
Mr. Rowdra Ghatak
Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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2 2
Hightier
Lowtier
Satellite
High Mobility
Low Mobility
Wide Area
Regional Area
Local Area
Different Communication System
Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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3 3
INTRODUCTION:
•
Various propagation
models can actually address
both problems.
BAS E
STATION
RADIO
TOWER
The objective here is to
design a suitable receiver
that
will receive the transmitted
signal, distorted due to the
multipath and dispersion
effects of the channel, and
that will decode the
transmitted signal.
Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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4 4
DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGIES
•
Path Loss:
Where P
t
and P
r
the transmitted and received power
•
Power Delay Profile:
Where h(t) = impulse response
•
TimeDelay Spread
• Coherence Bandwidth : B
c
=1/50τ
RMS
Where B
C
= Coherence bandwidth
τ
RMS
= RMS Delay
r
t
P
P
log 10 ) dB ( PL ·
∫
∞
∞ −
·
dt  ) t ( h 
 ) t ( h 
) t ( P
2
2
Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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5 5
TYPES OF FADING:
•
Largescale fading
•
Frequencyselective fading
•
Flat fading
•
Fast fading and slow fading
BASIC PROPAGATION MECHANISMS :
•
Reflection
•
Diffraction
•
Scattering
Transmission
through a
dielectric slab
T
R
1st Fresnel zone
Obstruction
Diffraction
Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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6 6
OUTDOOR CASE
•
OKUMURA et al MODEL
L
50
(db) = L
F
+A
mu
(f,d)G(h
te
)  G(h
re
)G
AREA
Where
L
50
is the median value of the propagation path loss
L
F
is the freespace propagation loss
A
mu
, is the median attenuation in the medium relative to free space at frequency f
d corresponds to the distance between the base and the mobile unit.
G(h
te
) and G(h
re
) are the gain factors for the BTS antenna and the MS antenna.
h
te
and h
re
are the effective heights (in meters )of the BTS and the MS antennae.
G
AREA
is the gain generated by the environment in which the system is operating.
EMPIRICAL OR STATISTICAL MODELS FOR PATH LOSS
Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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7 7
•
HATA MODEL
L
50
(urban)(dB) = 69.55 + 26.16log f
c
 13.82 log h
re
a(h
re
,)
+ (44.9  6.55 log h
re
)logd
Where
f
c
is the frequency (in MHz), which varies from 150 MHz to 1500MHz.
h
te
and h
re
are the effective heights of the basestation and the mobile
antennas (in meters), respectively.
d is the distance from the base station to the mobile antenna,
a(h
re
) is the correction factor for the effective antenna height of the mobile
unit, which is a function of the size of the area of coverage.
Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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8 8
•
COST231Walfischlkegami Model
Where
L
0
represents the freespace loss.
L
rts
is the “rooftoptostreet diffraction and
scattering loss.”
L
msd
is the “multiscreen diffraction loss.”
¹
'
¹
≤ +
> + + +
·
0 L L L
0 L L L L L
L
msd rts 0
msd rts msd rts 0
b
for
for
Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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9 9
INDOOR CASE
•
It can be affected by the layout in a building.
•
When electromagnetic radiation is incident on a wall or
a flow in an oblique fashion, less power will be
transmitted through the wall than would occur at normal
incidence .
Transmitter
Propagation in Indoor Case
Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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10 10
SITESPECIFIC MODELS FOR PATH LOSS
RAYTRACING TECHNIQUE
•
Technique based on Geometrical Optics (GO)
•
Fermat principle and the principle of the local field are two
basic concepts extensively used by the ray models .
•
The Fermat principle states that a ray follows the shortest path
from a source point to a field point.
•
The principle of the local field states that the highfrequency
rays produce reflection, refraction, and diffraction when
hitting a surface.
•
Two types of raytracing methods :
•
Image method
•
Bruteforce raytracing method
Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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11 11
Image Method
•
This method generates the images
of a source at all planes
•
These images then serve as
secondary sources for the
subsequent points of reflections.
• It can only handle simple
environments.
• Ground reflections and rays over
rooftops are neglected .
• A threshold must be set with
respect to the number and order of
reflection and diffraction rays that
can be considered.
Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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12 12
BruteForce RayTracing Method
•
This method considers a
bundle of transmitted rays
that may or may not reach
the receiver.
•
A finite sample of the
possible directions of the
propagation from the
transmitter is chosen. A
ray is launched for each
such direction.
Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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13 13
•
There are two kinds of methods to obtain the rays at the source
point.
•
2D ray tracing approach:At the source, rays are launched along
different directions with the same sector angle,Φ , in a plane .
•
An intersection with a surface of an object is represented by a
node in the tree.
•
The incident ray is decomposed into an objectreflected ray and
an objectpenetrated ray .
•
3D ray tracing approach:The transmitter and receiver are
modeled as point sources .
•
In order to determine all possible rays that may leave the
transmitter and arrive at the receiver in three dimensions, all
possible angles of departure and arrival at the transmitter and
receiver are considered.
Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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14 14
•
Applicable when transmitting and receiving antennas are
often inevitably installed close to structures with complex
material .
•
properties for which no asymptotic solutions are available.
•
Advantages of the FDTD method are its accuracy. It also
gives signalcoverage information throughout a given area
•
Disadvantage of FDTD is that it requires large amounts of
computer memory.
FDTD model FDTD model
Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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15 15
MomentMethod Models
•
Method of Moments(MOM) model is better when higher
precision is required and when the size of the buildings is
smaller.
•
Due to limitations of computer memory and CPU time,the
MOM is usually applied for analyzing objects that are tens of
wavelengths in size.
Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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16 16
Artificial NeuralNetwork Models
•
Key feature of the neural network is the intrinsic parallelism,
allowing for fast evaluation of the solutions .
•
The inputs were the frequency, the heights of the antenna for
the base and mobile stations, respectively, and the distances
between them. The output was the field strength.
•
Multilayered ANN suffers from slow convergence and
unpredictable solutions during learning .
•
Radialbasis function (RBF) neural networks that have a
“linearinthe parameters” representation were proposed to
overcome multilayered ANN problem.
Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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17 17
•
Vector ParabolicEquation Model
•
As a parabolic version of Maxwell’s equations, it allows
a full treatment of threedimensional electromagnetic
scattering .
•
Fast FarField Approximation Model
•
The method has been applied to gently undulating
terrains and more hilly terrain.
•
Waveguide Model
•
In large metropolitan areas the city streets act as a type of
waveguiding structure for the propagating signal .
•
the statistical propagation characteristics in such a
Waveguide are expressed in terms of multiple ray fields
approaching the observer.
Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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18 18
•
Boltzmann Model
•
It describes a physical system in terms of the motion of
fictitious microscopic particles on a lattice .
•
MODELS FOR SMALL SCALE FADING
Ricean Distribution:
Where
r is the amplitude of the envelope of the received signal,
2σ
2
is the predicted mean power of the multipath signal
A denotes the peak amplitude of the dominant signal, and
Io (Ar/σ
2
) is the modified Bessel function of the first kind
•
Rayleigh Distribution:
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
<
≥ ≥
,
`
.

σ ]
]
]
]
σ
+
σ
2
0 r 0
0 r , 0 A
Ar
I
2
A r
exp
r
) r ( p
0
2
2 2
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
<
∞ ≤ ≤
]
]
]
]
σ
−
σ
0 r 0
r 0
2
r
exp
r
) r ( p
2
2
2
Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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19 19
•
LogNormal Fading Model
Where m is the median value, and
σ is the standard deviation of the corresponding
normal distribution
•
Suzuki Model:
[ ]
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
σ
−
−
π σ
·
2
2
2
2
m ) r ln(
exp
2 r
1
) r ( p
) t ( ) t ( ) t (
2
2
2
1
µ + µ · ξ
Where ξ (t) can be regarded as the envelope of one complex
valued normal random process, λ (t)
The requirement of statistical independence between is
identical to the µ
1
(t) and µ
2
(t) demand for a symmetrical
power spectrum for L(t).
Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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20 20
STATISTICAL MODELS OF TIMEDELAY SPREAD:
•
TwoRay Rayleigh Fading Model
The impulse response of the model is represented by:
h(t)=α
1
exp[jθ
1
(t)]δ (t)+ α
2
exp[jθ
2
(t)]δ (tτ )
Where α
1
and α
2
are independent random variables and have a
Rayleigh PDF.
θ
1
and θ
2
are also two independent random variables, and
their density functions are uniformly distributed over [0,2π ].
τ is the time delay between the two rays.
•
Saleh and Valenzuela Model
•
Proved that the statistics of the channel impulse response
were independent of the polarizations of the transmitting
and the receiving antennas if there was no lineof sight
path between them.
Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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21 21
∀
∆  k Model
•
This model takes into account the clustering property of paths
caused by the grouping property of scatters .
•
DiscreteTime Model
•
In this model, the time axis is divided into small time
intervals, called “bins.”
•
Each bin is assumed to contain either one multipath
component or no multipath component.
Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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22 22
DETERMINISTIC MODELS OF TIMEDELAY SPREAD
•
Ray Tracing Model
•
Have the ability to incorporate antenna radiation patterns.
•
VRP Model
•
It assumed some virtual reflection points (VRF's), located
at the intersection points along the LOS on streets and at
building walls.
•
It did not consider the effects of traffic and moving
humans.
Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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23 23
Conclusion:
•
Propagation models play a key part in any analysis or
design that strives to mitigate interference.
•
Despite the enormous efforts to date, much work remains
in under standing and predicting the characteristics of
mobile communications channels.
Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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REFERENCES
[1] Sarkar Tapan “A Survey Of Various Propagation Models For
Mobile Communication”, IEEE Transactions On Antenna and
Propagation,Vol.45,pp 5182
[2] M.O. Al Nuaimi “Prediction Models And Measurements Of
Microwave Signals Scattered From Buildings”, IEEE
Transactions On Antenna and Propagation Vol.45, pp 5182.
[3] Theodore S. Rappaport “Wireless Communication Principles
and Practices”, chapter 1, pp. 122, chapter 2, pp. 2655.
Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
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25 25
THANK YOU
THANK YOU
Technical Seminar Presentation  2004
National Institute of Science & Technology
Different Communication System
Satellite Regional Area Lowtier Hightier
Local Area Wide Area High Mobility Low Mobility
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
2
2004
National Institute of Science & Technology
INTRODUCTION: The objective here is to design a suitable receiver that will receive the transmitted signal.
BAS E STATION
RADIO TOWER
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
3
. and that will decode the transmitted signal.Technical Seminar Presentation . distorted due to the multipath and dispersion effects of the channel. • Various propagation models can actually address both problems.
2004
National Institute of Science & Technology
DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGIES • Path Loss:
Pt PL( dB ) = 10 log Pr Where Pt and Pr the transmitted and received power
 h( t ) 2
∞
• Power Delay Profile: P( t ) =
Where h(t) = impulse response • TimeDelay Spread • Coherence Bandwidth : Bc=1/50τ RM S Where BC = Coherence bandwidth τ RM = RMS Delay S 4
−∞
 h( t ) 2 dt ∫
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
.Technical Seminar Presentation .
2004
National Institute of Science & Technology
TYPES OF FADING: • • • • Largescale fading Frequencyselective fading Flat fading Fast fading and slow fading
Transmission through a dielectric slab
BASIC PROPAGATION MECHANISMS : • • • Reflection Diffraction Scattering
T
1st Fresnel zone
R
Diffraction
Obstruction
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
5
.Technical Seminar Presentation .
is the median attenuation in the medium relative to free space at frequency f d corresponds to the distance between the base and the mobile unit.
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
6
. GAREA is the gain generated by the environment in which the system is operating.G(hre )GAREA
Where L50 is the median value of the propagation path loss LF is the freespace propagation loss Amu . hte and hre are the effective heights (in meters )of the BTS and the MS antennae.d)G(hte ) .Technical Seminar Presentation . G(hte ) and G(hre ) are the gain factors for the BTS antenna and the MS antenna.2004
National Institute of Science & Technology
EMPIRICAL OR STATISTICAL MODELS FOR PATH LOSS OUTDOOR CASE • OKUMURA et al MODEL
L50 (db) = LF +Amu (f.
6.9 . respectively. d is the distance from the base station to the mobile antenna. hte and hre are the effective heights of the basestation and the mobile antennas (in meters).13.Technical Seminar Presentation .55 + 26.16log fc . a(hre ) is the correction factor for the effective antenna height of the mobile unit.
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
7
. which varies from 150 MHz to 1500MHz.) + (44.2004
National Institute of Science & Technology
• HATA MODEL
L50 (urban)(dB) = 69.82 log hre a(hre .55 log hre )logd
Where fc is the frequency (in MHz). which is a function of the size of the area of coverage.
2004
National Institute of Science & Technology
• COST231Walfischlkegami Model
L0 + Lrts + Lmsd for Lrts + Lmsd > 0 Lb = for Lrts + Lmsd ≤ 0 L0
Where L0 represents the freespace loss.” 8
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
.Technical Seminar Presentation . Lrts is the “rooftoptostreet diffraction and scattering loss.” Lmsd is the “multiscreen diffraction loss.
When electromagnetic radiation is incident on a wall or a flow in an oblique fashion.
Propagation in Indoor Case 9
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
.2004
National Institute of Science & Technology
INDOOR CASE • • It can be affected by the layout in a building. less power will be transmitted through the wall than would occur at normal Transmitter incidence .Technical Seminar Presentation .
• Two types of raytracing methods : •Image method •Bruteforce raytracing method 10
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
.National Institute of Science & Technology
Technical Seminar Presentation . • The Fermat principle states that a ray follows the shortest path from a source point to a field point.2004 SITESPECIFIC MODELS FOR PATH LOSS RAYTRACING TECHNIQUE • Technique based on Geometrical Optics (GO) • Fermat principle and the principle of the local field are two basic concepts extensively used by the ray models . and diffraction when hitting a surface. refraction. • The principle of the local field states that the highfrequency rays produce reflection.
• Ground reflections and rays over rooftops are neglected .2004
National Institute of Science & Technology
Image Method
• This method generates the images of a source at all planes • These images then serve as secondary sources for the subsequent points of reflections. • A threshold must be set with respect to the number and order of reflection and diffraction rays that can be considered.
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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.Technical Seminar Presentation . • It can only handle simple environments.
• A finite sample of the possible directions of the propagation from the transmitter is chosen.2004
National Institute of Science & Technology
BruteForce RayTracing Method • This method considers a bundle of transmitted rays that may or may not reach the receiver.Technical Seminar Presentation .
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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. A ray is launched for each such direction.
in a plane . 3D ray tracing approach:The transmitter and receiver are modeled as point sources . The incident ray is decomposed into an objectreflected ray and an objectpenetrated ray .Φ . 13
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
.2004
National Institute of Science & Technology
• • • • • •
There are two kinds of methods to obtain the rays at the source point. In order to determine all possible rays that may leave the transmitter and arrive at the receiver in three dimensions. An intersection with a surface of an object is represented by a node in the tree. all possible angles of departure and arrival at the transmitter and receiver are considered. 2D ray tracing approach:At the source.Technical Seminar Presentation . rays are launched along different directions with the same sector angle.
Technical Seminar Presentation . • Advantages of the FDTD method are its accuracy. • properties for which no asymptotic solutions are available. 14
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
.2004
National Institute of Science & Technology
FDTD model • Applicable when transmitting and receiving antennas are often inevitably installed close to structures with complex material . It also gives signalcoverage information throughout a given area • Disadvantage of FDTD is that it requires large amounts of computer memory.
the MOM is usually applied for analyzing objects that are tens of wavelengths in size.2004
National Institute of Science & Technology
MomentMethod Models •Method of Moments(MOM) model is better when higher precision is required and when the size of the buildings is smaller. • Due to limitations of computer memory and CPU time.Technical Seminar Presentation .
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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• The inputs were the frequency.
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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.Technical Seminar Presentation . allowing for fast evaluation of the solutions . • Radialbasis function (RBF) neural networks that have a “linearinthe parameters” representation were proposed to overcome multilayered ANN problem. respectively.2004
National Institute of Science & Technology
Artificial NeuralNetwork Models • Key feature of the neural network is the intrinsic parallelism. • Multilayered ANN suffers from slow convergence and unpredictable solutions during learning . and the distances between them. the heights of the antenna for the base and mobile stations. The output was the field strength.
it allows a full treatment of threedimensional electromagnetic scattering . Waveguide Model • In large metropolitan areas the city streets act as a type of waveguiding structure for the propagating signal . 17
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
. Fast FarField Approximation Model • The method has been applied to gently undulating terrains and more hilly terrain.Technical Seminar Presentation .2004
National Institute of Science & Technology
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• •
Vector ParabolicEquation Model • As a parabolic version of Maxwell’s equations. • the statistical propagation characteristics in such a Waveguide are expressed in terms of multiple ray fields approaching the observer.
2004
National Institute of Science & Technology
•
Boltzmann Model • It describes a physical system in terms of the motion of fictitious microscopic particles on a lattice . r ≥ 0
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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. and Io (Ar/σ 2) is the modified Bessel function of the first kind • Rayleigh Distribution:
r r2 exp − 2 p( r ) σ 2 2σ 0 0≤r≤∞ r <0
exp 2 p( r ) σ 2σ 0
I0 2 σ
A ≥ 0. 2σ 2 is the predicted mean power of the multipath signal A denotes the peak amplitude of the dominant signal. • MODELS FOR SMALL SCALE FADING Ricean Distribution: r r 2 + A 2 Ar Where r <0 r is the amplitude of the envelope of the received signal.Technical Seminar Presentation .
2004
National Institute of Science & Technology
•
LogNormal Fading Model
[ ln( r ) − m] 2 p( r ) = exp − 2 2 2σ r 2π σ 1
Where m is the median value. 19
2 ξ( t ) = µ 1 ( t ) + µ 2 ( t ) 2
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
.Technical Seminar Presentation . and σ is the standard deviation of the corresponding normal distribution • Suzuki Model: Where ξ (t) can be regarded as the envelope of one complex valued normal random process. λ (t) The requirement of statistical independence between is identical to the µ 1(t) and µ 2(t) demand for a symmetrical power spectrum for L(t).
2004
National Institute of Science & Technology
STATISTICAL MODELS OF TIMEDELAY SPREAD: • TwoRay Rayleigh Fading Model The impulse response of the model is represented by: h(t)=α 1exp[jθ 1(t)]δ (t)+ α 2exp[jθ 2(t)]δ (tτ ) Where α 1 and α 2 are independent random variables and have a Rayleigh PDF. 20
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
. τ is the time delay between the two rays. and their density functions are uniformly distributed over [0. • Saleh and Valenzuela Model • Proved that the statistics of the channel impulse response were independent of the polarizations of the transmitting and the receiving antennas if there was no lineof.sight path between them. θ 1 and θ 2 are also two independent random variables.2π ].Technical Seminar Presentation .
k Model • This model takes into account the clustering property of paths caused by the grouping property of scatters .2004
National Institute of Science & Technology
∀ ∆ . the time axis is divided into small time intervals.Technical Seminar Presentation . called “bins. • DiscreteTime Model • In this model.” • Each bin is assumed to contain either one multipath component or no multipath component.
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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• It did not consider the effects of traffic and moving humans.2004
National Institute of Science & Technology
DETERMINISTIC MODELS OF TIMEDELAY SPREAD • Ray Tracing Model • Have the ability to incorporate antenna radiation patterns.
•
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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.Technical Seminar Presentation . located at the intersection points along the LOS on streets and at building walls. VRP Model • It assumed some virtual reflection points (VRF's).
Technical Seminar Presentation . much work remains in under standing and predicting the characteristics of mobile communications channels. Despite the enormous efforts to date.
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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.2004
National Institute of Science & Technology
Conclusion: • • Propagation models play a key part in any analysis or design that strives to mitigate interference.
Technical Seminar Presentation .45.2004
National Institute of Science & Technology
REFERENCES [1] Sarkar Tapan “A Survey Of Various Propagation Models For Mobile Communication”. pp. 122. 2655. [3] Theodore S.pp 5182 [2] M.
Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
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. Rappaport “Wireless Communication Principles and Practices”. IEEE Transactions On Antenna and Propagation.45. chapter 1.Vol. Al Nuaimi “Prediction Models And Measurements Of Microwave Signals Scattered From Buildings”. pp. pp 5182. chapter 2. IEEE Transactions On Antenna and Propagation Vol.O.
2004
National Institute of Science & Technology
THANK YOU
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Presented by :Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
.Technical Seminar Presentation .