Executing Models for Ultra-Large Networks: Parallel Discrete Event Simulation and Beyond

Richard Fujimoto College of Computing and the Georgia Tech Modeling and Simulation Research and Education Center

) ± Computation consists of sequence of event computations. others .Network Simulation Tools ‡ Most network simulation tools based on discrete event simulation techniques ± State changes occur at discrete points in simulation time (message generated. Opnet. number of events proportional to the amount of traffic being simulated ± Several software packages available: NS. processed in time stamp order ± Amount of computation proportional to the number of events. UCLA. Rutgers/GT. GloMoSim/Qualnet. packet departure. etc. packet arrival. many others ‡ Some work in fluid flow models ± UMass.

build models over engine ± TeD (Georgia Tech).106 nodes. Renesys). Cincinnati) ‡ Extend sequential network simulation software ± Instantiate instance of simulator for each subnet/protocol layer. Verification and validation) ± Provides a more familiar environment to current users ± Inherits limitations of sequential simulator ± Easier to integrate heterogeneous simulation models ± Parallel and Distributed NS [PDNS]. Cincinnati. some work with GloMoSim. other work at Univ. 106 . Calgary). GloMoSim (UCLA). TeleSim (Univ.107 events/sec (simple. Qualnet (Scalable Network Solutions). RPI. packet level) .Parallel Network Simulation ‡ Build parallel network simulator ³from scratch´ ± Build parallel simulation engine. build infrastructure to interconnect simulators ± Leverages prior investments in sequential network simulation models (Software. Ultra-Large Scale Simulation Framework (Univ. Opnet ‡ 105 . Opnet (Georgia Tech). Scalable Simulation Framework (Dartmouth.

Simulation of the Internet (Riley/Ammar 2002) ‡ Scenario (conservative) ± ± ± ± 108 network nodes Mix of link speeds (56 Kbps to 2.4 Gbps) 50% utilization host-router links. 10% router-router links 1% hosts have a connection to another host ‡ Simulating one second of network operation (packet level) requires ± ± ± ± 3x1011 events 4 days CPU time (106 events/second) 300 terabytes memory 14 terabytes secondary storage (per second of simulation time) .

and it gets worse«* 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 ‡ 25% annual growth in host count ‡ traffic doubles every 6 onths ‡ speed doubles every 1.5 years (Moore¶s law) o puters won¶t be big/fast enough in the foreseeable future arallel si ulation is necessary. but not sufficient * Riley and Ammar (2002) .

attacks.. instabilities) ± Generate scenarios to stress test the network ‡ After-the-fact evaluation of incidents (e. network deployment.g. ‡ Find breaking points in existing/planned networks (anticipated heavy workloads.Role of Simulation ‡ Design and analysis of scalable networks ± Protocol design & evaluation. etc. major failures): use simulation to observe unobservable network state and behaviors ± Couple with data measurement ± Reproduce incidents ± Develop and evaluate countermeasures ‡ On-Line Simulation to rapidly optimize or diagnose and repair networks ± Automatically detect and address problems on-line as they begin to occur . attacks.

and then open the file again.On-line Simulation to Diagnose/Repair Networks Real-time monitoring tools characterize network traffic flows The image cannot be displayed. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. or the image may have been corrupted. If the red x still appears. Restart your computer. Operational Network Back-end CPU farm at remote high-performance computing site Reconfigure network to meet QOS objectives for time critical traffic Graphical display of simulation outputs Fast on-line simulations forecast behavior of alternate network configurations .

What¶s the solution? ± Compression techniques ± Out-of-core simulation ‡ What about multiple simulation runs? ± Most experiments require multiple runs ± The runs usually have much in common ± Can this be exploited? .Some Research Questions ‡ How big is ³big enough´? ± Methodologies and techniques to analyze very ultra-large networks ‡ How precise a network model is needed? ± Certain information will be unknown ‡ How far can we go with parallel simulation? Ultra-large computers (103 processors and beyond)? ± No shortage of cycles. but can they be exploited? ‡ Memory remains a problem.

execution. output analysis ± Self-validating simulators? ‡ Multi-resolution models: How accurate? How big? ± Fluid models simulating background traffic. model construction. coarser models of others ‡ Is widespread model composeability and reuse possible ± ³Big bag´ of simulation models (available on the web) developed using different simulation packages that can be easily composed . experiment design.Some Research Questions (cont. faster-then-real-time performance ± Automated scenario generation. packet level models simulating delay sensitive traffic ± Detailed models of critical subnets.) ‡ On-line simulation ± What data to collect? How much? ± Ultra-fast model execution: Real-time.

Related Conferences & Workshops ‡ Grand Challenges in Modeling and Simulation Conference ± SCS Western Multiconference ± San Diego ± January 28-30. 2002 ‡ Dagstuhl Workshop ± Dagstuhl castle ± Germany ± August 26-30. 2002 .

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