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** Everyone loves logic.
**

There is a person only a mom could

love.

Every sufficiently large odd number

can be written as the summation of

three primes.

**Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 1
**

Predicate Calculus

Propositional Logic – uses statements

Predicate Calculus – uses predicates

Predicates must be applied to a subject in order to be

true or false

Subject / Predicate

John (j) / went to the store. S()

The sky (s) / is blue. B()

P(x)

Means this predicate represented by P

Applied to the object represented by x

S(j) = John went to the store

B(s) = The sky is blue.

Game Time: Test your understanding

Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 2

Quantification

∃x – There exists an x (at least one,

some)

∀x – For all x’s

**Usually specified from a domain
**

∃x ∈ Z – There exists an x in the integers

∀x ∈ R – For all x’s in the reals

Domain – set where these subjects come

from

**Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 3
**

Quantifier Example

** Let Q(x) be the statement “x<2”,
**

where the domain consists of all real

numbers. ∀xQ(x)=?

False

What if domain is Z (integers) ?

What if domain is negative real

number?

** Therefore, depends on the domain
**

Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 4

Another Example

Let P(x) be “x ≥ 0”

∀x ∈ D, such that P(x)

∀xP(x)=?

D = {1,2,3,4,5,6}

D = negative R

D=Z

Game Time: Test your understanding

**Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 5
**

Translation

A student of mine is wearing a blue

shirt.

Domain: people who are my students S

Quantification: There is at least one

Predicate: wearing a blue shirt

∃x ∈ S such that B(x)

where B(x) represents “wearing a blue shirt”

** All of my students are in class.
**

Domain: people who are my students S

Quantification: All of them

Predicate: are in class

∀x ∈ S such that C(x)

where C(x) represents “being in class”

Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 6

Negation of Quantified

Statements

~ (∃x ∈ people such that Here(x))

≡ ∀x ∈ people such that ~

H(x)

~(There is a person who is here.) ≡

For all people, each person is not here.

Same in meaning as "There is no person

here."

**~ (∀x ∈ people such that H(x))
**

≡ ∃x ∈ people such that ~

H(x)

~(For all people, each person is here.) ≡

There is some person who September

Predicate Calculus is not 16,

here.

2008 7

Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 8

Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 9

Nested Predicate

Translation

A student of mine is wearing a blue

shirt.

Domain: all people P

Quantification: There is at least one

Predicates: "wearing a blue shirt" and "is my student"

∃x ∈ P such that B(x) ^ S(x)

B(x) represents "wearing a blue shirt"

S(x) represents "being my student“

**Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 10
**

Nested

Quantification

∃b∈B ∃c∈C, S(b,c)

∃c∈C ∃b∈B, S(b,c)

∀b∈B ∀c∈C, S(b,c)

∀c∈C ∀b∈B, S(b,c)

**Where C={all chairs}, B={all bears}, and
**

S(b,c) represents “b sitting in c”

Game Time: Test your understanding

Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 11

Mixed Multiple

Quantification

∀c∈C ∃b∈B, S(b,c)

∀b∈B ∃c∈C, S(b,c)

∃b∈B ∀c∈C, S(b,c)

∃c∈C ∀b∈B, S(b,c)

**Where C={all chairs}, B={all bears}, and
**

S(b,c) represents “b sitting in c”

Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 12

Negations

of Nested Quantified

Statements

~(∀c∈C ∃b∈B, S(b,c))

∃c∈C ∀b∈B, ~S(b,c)

**Where C={all chairs}, B={all bears},
**

and S(b,c) represents “b sitting in c”

**Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 13
**

Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 14

∃x∈R such that x2=2

** Which of the following are equivalent
**

ways of expressing the statement?

The square of each real number is 2.

Some real numbers have square 2.

The number x has square 2, for some

real number x.

If x is a real number, then x2 = 2.

Some real number has square 2.

There is at least one real number

whose square is 2.

**Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 15
**

∀ integers n, if n2 is even

then n is even

Which of the following are equivalent ways

of expressing the statement?

a. All integers have even squares and are even.

b. Given any integer whose square is even, that

integer is itself even.

c. For all integers, there are some whose square

is even.

d. Any integer with an even square is even.

e. If the square of an integer is even, then that

integer is even.

f. All even integers have even squares.

**Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 16
**

Examples from Lewis

Carroll

∀ students S, if S is in CMSC 250, then S

has taken CMSC 381.

** If a student is in CMSC 250 , then that
**

student has taken CMSC 381.

All students in CMSC 250 have taken

CMSC 381.

Every student in CMSC 250 has taken

CMSC 381.

Let P(x) is “S is in CMSC 250”, Q(x) is “S

has taken CMSC 381.”

∀x(P(x) →Q(x))

Game Time: Test your understanding

Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 17

Degenerate or

Vacuous

Predicates Cases

B(s) “student s is wearing blue”

I(s,c) “student s is in class c”

** ∀s B(s) – all my students are wearing
**

blue

∀s ∀c I(s,c)

∀s ∃c I(s,c)

∃c ∀s I(s,c)

**If there are no students …
**

Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 18

Variants of Quantified

Conditional Statements

Statement: ∀x ∈ D, P(x) → Q(x)

Contrapositive: ∀x ∈ D, ~Q(x) →

~P(x)

Converse: ∀x ∈ D, Q(x) → P(x)

Inverse: ∀x ∈ D, ~P(x) → ~Q(x)

** Same logical variants apply to
**

existentially quantified conditional

Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 19

Rules of Inference for

Quantified Statements

Universal Modus Universal Modus Tollens

Ponens ∀x ∈ D, P(x) →Q(x)

∀x ∈ D, P(x) →Q(x) ~Q(a)

P(a) a∈D

a∈D ∴ ~P(a)

∴ Q(a)

Universal Instantiation Existential Generalization

∀x ∈ D, P(x) P(c)

a∈D c∈D

∴ P(a) ∴ ∃x ∈ D, P(x)

Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 20

Rules that DON'T exist

or need more

clarification

Existential Modus Ponens - Doesn't

exist

Existential Modus Tollens - Doesn't exist

**Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 21
**

Errors in Deduction

Converse Error Inverse Error

∀x∈D, P(x) → Q(x) ∀x∈D, P(x) → Q(x)

Q(a) ~P(a)

∴ P(a) ∴ ~Q(a)

**Called: Asserting Called: Denying the
**

the consequence hypothesis

P(x): it is raining

Q(x): I will carry

umbrella

D: all the time

Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 22

Direct Proofs by

Deduction

∀x ∈ D, P(x) → Q(x)

~Q(a) where a ∈ D

therefore: ∃x ∈ D, ~P(x)

∀x ∈ D, P(x) → Q(x)

∀x ∈ D, R(x) → ~P(x)

P(b) where b ∈ D

therefore: Q(b) ^ ~R(b)

**Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 23
**

Direct Proofs by

Deduction

∀x ∈ D, P(x) → Q(x)

∀x ∈ D, ~P(x) v R(x) R P Q

P(b) where b ∈ D

therefore: ∃x ∈ D, Q(x) ^ R(x)

∀x ∈ D, P(x) → Q(x)

∀x ∈ D, P(x) → R(x)

Use Venn Diagram

**Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 24
**

Valid Arguments?

No good car is cheap. No good car is cheap.

A Volvo is a good car. A Pinto is cheap.

∴ A Volvo is not cheap. ∴ A Pinto is not good.

** No good car is cheap. No good car is cheap.
**

A Subaru is not A Focus is not a good

cheap. car.

∴ A∀x, if x is

Subaru is a good car, then

a good x is not

∴ A Focus cheap.

is cheap.

car.

∀x(P(x) → Q(x))

Game Time: Test your understanding

Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 25

More Translation

Examples

Everybody is older than somebody.

Let Q(x, y) is “x is older than y”

∀x∈P, ∃y∈P such that x is older than y

∀x∈P, ∃y∈P, Q(x,y)

** There is a person only a mom
**

could love.

How to translate this?

Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 26

More Practice in

Translation

There is a person only a mom could love.

Development:

There is at least one person (only a mom could love).

There is at least one person (if anyone loves him it must be a

mom)

There is at least one person (if anyone loves him then that

person is a mom)

∃x∈P ∀s∈P, L(s,x) → M(s)

L(s,x) means "s loves x"

M(s) means "s is a mom“

**Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 27
**

Read at your own time

A(c,s) = "child c attends

school

∃c ∃s A(c,s)

s" combo which makes it true

find one child/school

one child attends some school somewhere

∀c ∀s A(c,s)

must be true for all child/school combos

all children must attend all schools

∀c ∃s A(c,s)

for all children select any one school to which that child attends

all children attend some school

∀s ∃c A(c,s)

for all schools select any one child to which that school attends

all schools have at least one child

∃s ∀c A(c,s)

select any one school and assert that all children attend that one

school

there is a school that all children attend

∃c ∀s A(c,s)

select any one child and assert that all schools are attended by that

one child

there is a child who attends all schools

Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 28

More Read at your own time

A(c,s) = "child c attends school

s"Negation of “Every child attends school”.

~[∀c ∃s A(c,s)]

At least one child did not attend school.

~[∀c ∃s A(c,s)]

It is not the case that all children attend

school.

∃c ~[∃s A(c,s)]

There is one child for whom it is not the case

that there exists a school which he/she

attends.

∃c ∀ s ~A(c,s)

There is one child for whom all schools are

ones that he/she does not attend.

Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 29

True or false? … Why?

∀x∈Z+, ∃y∈Z+ such that x = y + 1 (T)

∀x∈Z, ∃y∈Z such that x = y + 1 (T)

** ∀x∈R+, ∃y∈R+ such that xy = 1 (T)
**

∀x∈R, ∃y∈R such that xy = 1 (F)

** ∀x∈Z+ and ∀y∈Z+, ∃y∈Z+ such that z = x – y
**

(F)

∃x∈R+ such that ∀y∈R+, xy < y (F)

Predicate Calculus September 16, 2008 30

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