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Definitions of Nursing

The word nurse originated from the Latin word nutrix, meaning to nourish . Most definitions of nurse and nursing describe the nurse as a person who nourishes, fosters, and protects and who is prepared to take care of sick, injured, and aged people (Taylor, 2008).

The act of utilizing the environment of the patient to assist him in his recovery (1860).
Clean + Well-ventilated + Quiet Environment = Recovery

The unique function of the nurse is to assist individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will, or knowledge, and to do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible (1966).

Nursing practice is a dynamic, caring, helping relationship in which the nurse assists the client to achieve and obtain optimal health (1987).

Nursing encompasses autonomous and collaborative care of individuals of all ages, families, groups and communities, sick or well and in all settings. Nursing includes the promotion of health, prevention of illness, and the care of ill, disabled, and dying people. Advocacy, promotion of a safe environment, research, participation in shaping health policy and in patient and health systems management, and education are also key nursing roles (2002).

Direct, goal oriented, and adaptable to the needs of the individual, the family, and the community during health and illness (1973).

Nursing is the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems (1980).

The most recent ANA definition of nursing acknowledges four essential features of contemporary nursing practice:  Attention to the full range of human experiences and responses to health and illness without restriction to a problem-focused orientation  Integration of objective data knowledge gained from an understanding of the client or group s subjective experience  Application of scientific knowledge to the processes of diagnosis and treatment  Provision of a caring relationship that facilitates health and healing (ANA, 1995).

Scope of Nursing Practice

Nurses provide care for three types of clients:
y Individuals y Families y Communities

Nursing practice involves four areas .

Pr m ti g H lth
y Health is a state of optimal functioning or well

being. Wellness is another term with essentially the same meaning as health.

y Motivation: The desire to increase a person s well-being

and health potential.

y Nurses promote health by maximizing the patient s

own individual strengths. Identifying the patient s strengths is a component of preventing illness, restoring health and facilitating coping with disability or death.

y Health promotion is the framework for nursing

activities. Through knowledge and skill, the nurse accomplishes the following:
5 Facilitates

decisions about lifestyle that enhance quality of life and encourage acceptance of responsibility for one s own health 5 Increases health awareness 5 Teaches self-care activities 5 Encourages health promotion by providing information and referrals.

Preventing Illness
y Objectives: to reduce the risk of illness; to promote good health habits; and to maintain optimal functioning. y Motivation: To avoid or achieve early detection of illness or to maintain function within the constraints of an illness. y Nurses prevent illness primarily by teaching and by personal example. Such activities include the following:
5 Educational

Programs 5 Community programs and resources 5 Literature, television, radio, or Internet information 5 Health assessments

Restoring ealt
y Activities to restore health encompass those traditionally considered

to be the nurse s responsibility.

y Focus on the individual with illness and range from early detection of

a disease to rehabilitation and teaching during recovery. Such activities include:

5 5

5 5 5 5

Performing diagnostic measurements and assessments Referring questions and abnormal findings to other healthcare providers Providing direct care of the person who is ill Collaborating with other healthcare providers Planning, teaching, and carrying out rehabilitation for illnesses Working in mental health and chemical-dependency programs

Facilitating Coping Wit Disability and Deat

y Nurses also facilitate patient and family coping with

altered function, life crisis, and death. y Nurses can facilitate an optimal level of function through maximizing the person s strengths and potentials. y Nurses provide care to both patients and families during end-of-life care. y Nurses are active in hospice programs, which assist patients and their families in preparing for death and in living as comfortably as possible until death occurs.

Four Essential Co petencies

1. Cognitive Skills
y Cognitive skilled nurses think about the nature of things sufficiently to make sense: of their world and to grasp conceptually what is necessary to achieve valued goals. y They are able to accomplish the following:
 Offer a scientific rationale  Select nursing interventions that are most likely to yield

the desired outcomes  Use critical thinking

2. Technical Skills
y Technically skilled nurses manipulate equipment skillfully. They are able to accomplish the following:
 Use technical equipment with sufficient competence

and ease  Creatively adapt equipment and technical procedures

3. Interpersonal Skills
y Interpersonally skilled nurses establish and maintain caring relationships. They are able to accomplish the following:
 Use interactions with patients, their S.O. and

colleagues  Elicit the personal strengths and abilities of patients and their S.O.  Provide the healthcare team with knowledge about the patient s valued goals and expectations  Work collaboratively with the healthcare team.

4. Ethical/Legal Skills
y Ethically and legally skilled nurses conduct themselves in a manner consistent with their personal moral code and professional role responsibilities. They are able to accomplish the following:
y Be trusted to act in ways that advance the interests of y y y y y

patients Be accountable for their practice to themselves, the patients, the care giving team and society. Act as effective patient advocates Mediate ethical conflicts Practice nursing faithful to the tenets of professional codes of ethics and appropriate standards of practice Use legal safeguards

Roles and Functions of t e Nurse

Caregiver assists the client physically and psychologically while preserving the client s dignity.

Communicator identifies client problems and then communicates these verbally or in writing to other members of the health team.

Teacher helps the clients learn about their health and health care procedures they need to perform. Client Advocate protect the client. Counselor helps a client to recognize and cope with stressful psychological or social problems, to improve interpersonal relationships, to promote personal growth.

Change Agent assists clients to make modification in their own behavior. Manager manages the nursing care of individuals, families and communities. The nursemanager also delegates nursing activities to ancillary workers and other nurses. Research Consumer uses research to improve client care.

Leader influences others to work together. Case Manager works with the multidisciplinary health care team to measure the effectiveness of the case management plan and monitor outcomes. Expanded Career Roles nurse practitioner, clinical nurse specialist, nurse midwife, nurse educator, nurse researcher, nurse administrator, nurse entrepreneur, and nurse anesthetist.

The Metaparadig

for Nursing

y Four major concepts in nursing:

the recipient of nursing care b. Environment internal and external surroundings that affect the client c. Health the degree of wellness or well being that the client experiences. d. Nursing the attributes, characteristics, and actions of the nurse providing care on behalf of, or in conjunction with the client.
a. Person or client