PUMPS

Principles and Practices

presented by
P.Saravanan P.Raghuram

M/s Terra Pumps, Coimbatore.

Terra

TM

Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries, Coimbatore.

Basic Principles
A machine which increases the pressure of the fluid it handles. Provide sufficient pressure to move the fluid through the system at the desired flow rate. OBJECTIVE To transfer a liquid from a source to a required destination e.g. filling a high level reservoir

r

h h0 [

FORCED VORTEX ‡ Produced by the application of to circulate liquid in a system. external force. v = [r Terra h ² h0 = w2r2/ 2g
TM

Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries, Coimbatore.

Terra

TM

Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries, Coimbatore.

.Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. Coimbatore.

Water Column Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. . Coimbatore.

Higher Column of water Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. Low Column of water . Coimbatore.

. Friction is the force that slows down fluid particles ² Pressure drop Flow rate is the amount of volume that is displaced per unit time. Coimbatore. (l/s or m3/hr) Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries.Pump Characteristics Pressure is the driving force responsible for the movement of the fluid.

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In an open system.Pressure Pressure provides the driving force to overcome friction and elevation difference. Coimbatore. Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries.. Pressure is increased when fluid particles are forced closer together. The pump provides the pressure. .

Friction Friction is always present. even in fluids. Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. Friction can become significant for long pipes. In short pipes which have a high flow rate and small diameter. . Coimbatore. it is the force that resists the movement of objects.

Coimbatore. Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. Rougher the pipe. Friction will also be high for viscous fluids and fluids with suspended particles. the higher the friction ² Pipe surface roughness. Pump has to overcome this friction ² depends on pipe size.Friction Friction occurs between fluid layers that are traveling at different velocities within the pipe ² Viscosity. .

Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. etc) required to get the fluid from point A to B. . Each one has a particular effect on the fluid streamlines. y's. Coimbatore.Friction Another cause of friction is all the fittings (elbows. tees.

energy that is lost to the environment due to the movement of the liquid through pipes and fittings in the system. Velocity energy . .available to a liquid when it is at a certain height.Energy/Head Pressure .weight of the liquid produces a force that is distributed over a surface which is pressure ² Static Pressure.energy that moving objects have. Elevation energy . Coimbatore. Friction energy . Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries.

Pressure energy D Velocity energy Elevation energy D Velocity energy .

.Energy/Head Pump Energy = Friction Energy + Elevation Energy Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. Coimbatore.

Elevation Energy EE = weight of the object W x distance d Friction energy FE = force of friction F x distance the liquid is displaced or the pipe length l Head is defined as the energy divided by weight The amount of energy used to displace a object divided by its weight. the friction head FH = FE/W = F x l / W Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. . Coimbatore.Head The amount of energy the pump has to provide to overcome friction. For elevation energy. the elevation head EH = W x d / W = d For friction energy.

Head Unit of this energy is metre!! In a tube attached to the discharge side of a pump. the liquid will rise in the tube to a height that exactly balances the pressure at the pump discharge. Coimbatore. . Part of the height of liquid in the tube is due to elevation head and the other is the friction head Both are expressed in metres(feet) and this is how you can measure them. Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries.

Coimbatore.Static head Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. .

. Static head = Discharge static head ² Supply static head Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. Coimbatore.Static head The suction tank fluid provides pressure energy to the pump suction which helps the pump.

Static head Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. Coimbatore. .

.Static head Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. Coimbatore.

Coimbatore.Flow rate Depends on elevation difference or static head Effect of static head and friction. . Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries.

Coimbatore. Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. Flow rate will be limited by the friction in the system.Flow rate If the liquid surface of the suction tank is at the same elevation as the discharge end of the pipe then the static head will be zero. .

.Flow rate Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. Coimbatore.

Coimbatore.Flow rate siphon Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. .

.Flow rate Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. Coimbatore.

Flow rate Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. Coimbatore. .

You can get more head from a pump by increasing it·s speed or it·s impeller diameter or both .home owners cannot make these changes and to obtain a higher total head. Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. a new pump must be purchased. .Flow rate PUMP SPECIFICATIONS Not the maximum total head that the pump can deliver since this occurs at zero flow. the maximum height you need to reach with respect to the suction tank fluid surface and the friction loss in your system. Coimbatore. Purchase a pump that provides slightly more head and flow than you require and you will adjust the flow with the use of appropriate valves.

Coimbatore. .Flow rate Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries.

Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. . less the flow.Flow rate Smaller the pipe. Impeller size and its speed determine the flow rate. Coimbatore.

Coimbatore.Flow rate Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. .

. Coimbatore.Flow rate Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries.

Coimbatore. .Types of Pumps Dynamic Pressure type Self priming pumps Centrifugal pumps Submersible pumps Bore well Open well Terra TM Positive displacement type Rotary pumps Reciprocating pumps Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries.

.Centrifugal Pump Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. Coimbatore.

. Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. Diffuser . Coimbatore.A set of fixed vanes(integral to casing) that reduces turbulence by promoting a more gradual reduction in velocity.Centrifugal Pump PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION Impeller / Diffuser Priming Impeller ² forced vortex Sets up low pressure at eye K in pressure and velocity Kinetic to potential energy Volute casing (L! ³ ³ To maintain constant velocity To reduce velocity Guide vanes in the stationary diffuser (h = 80%).

Coimbatore. . The fluid particles in the pump are expelled from the tips of the impeller vanes at high velocity. loosing some of their velocity energy. This decrease in velocity energy increases pressure energy. the decrease in velocity energy serves to increase pressure energy.Centrifugal Pump A centrifugal pump is a device whose primary purpose is to produce pressure by accelerating fluid particles to a high velocity providing them with velocity energy. this is the principal of energy conservation in action. Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. Unlike friction which wastes energy. Then they slow down as they get closer to the discharge connection.

Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. Similar to centrifugal pump. . The water is pressurized inside the cup using centrifugal force. Coimbatore. the more water comes out the small hole.Centrifugal Action The faster you spin.

.Centrifugal Pump Pressure(head) developed depends on Impeller diameter Number of impellers Size of impeller eye Shaft speed Capacity(flow rate) depends on Exit width of the impeller Flow rate = velocity of flow x outlet area between the vanes Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. Coimbatore.

Centrifugal Pump Power = flow rate x pressure Hydraulic power(Ph) output(kWh) = flow rate(l/s) x pressure(m) Ph = Q (m3/s) x Total head.hs (m) x Pump shaft power Ps = Ph / L (kg/m3) x g (m/s2) / 1000 pump Electrical Power required(kW) = Ps / Lmotor TM Terra Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. hd . Coimbatore. .

The pump produces excess velocity energy because it operates at constant speed. the excess velocity energy is transformed into pressure energy and the pressure goes up.Flow Rate Change How does the flow rate change when the discharge pipe end elevation is changed or when there is an increase or decrease in pipe friction? These changes cause the pressure at the pump outlet to increase when the flow decreases. there will be an increase in pressure at the pump discharge because there is no corresponding reduction in the impeller speed. . Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. If changing something in the system causes the flow to decrease (for example closing a discharge valve). Coimbatore.

Coimbatore.Performance Characteristic Curve Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. .

Preferable to use the difference in pressure between the inlet and outlet of the pump. Why can't we just use discharge pressure? Do not know how you will use the pump and the flow rate you require. . Total head is related to the discharge pressure of the pump. the lesser is the flow from the pump.Total Head Not positive acting ² will not pump the same volume always. Greater the depth of the water. Discharge pressure depends on the pressure available on the suction side of the pump. the less it will pump. When it pumps against increasing pressure. Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. Coimbatore.

Coimbatore. Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. TOTAL HEAD . .Total Head The amount of pressure that a pump can produce will depend on the density of the fluid.the difference in head between the inlet and outlet of the pump.

Total Head How is Head related to Density? The fluid in the measuring tube of the discharge or suction side of the pump will rise to the same height for all fluids regardless of the density. The pump produces pressure and the difference in pressure across the pump is the amount of pressure energy available to the system. more pressure will be produced at the pump discharge than if the fluid were pure water. Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. If the fluid is dense. . Coimbatore.

Coimbatore.Total Head Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. .

.Total Head Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. Coimbatore.

If the discharge pipe diameter changes then the velocity will change for the same flow rate D friction in that portion of pipe. . Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. If the velocity is less. then the friction loss will be less. Depends on velocity of water.Total Head FRICTION HEAD FH = FE/W = F x l / W Standard tables of Friction Head loss for different piping. Coimbatore.

Coimbatore.Performance Characteristic Curve Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. .

.Selection of a Centrifugal Pump Determine the flow rate Determine the static head Determine the friction head Calculate the total head Select the pump Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. Coimbatore.

Selection of a Centrifugal Pump
DETERMINE THE FLOW RATE

To size and select a centrifugal pump, first determine the flow rate. Home owner - approximately 0.6 L/s. Industrial setting - the flow rate depends on production level.

Terra

TM

Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries, Coimbatore.

Selection of a Centrifugal Pump
DETERMINE THE STATIC HEAD

This a matter of taking measurements of the height between the suction tank fluid surface and the discharge pipe end height or the discharge tank fluid surface elevation.

Terra

TM

Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries, Coimbatore.

Selection of a Centrifugal Pump
DETERMINE THE FRICTION HEAD

Depends on the flow rate, the pipe size and the pipe length. This is calculated from the standard values in tables. For fluids other than water the viscosity will be an important factor.

Terra

TM

Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries, Coimbatore.

.Selection of a Centrifugal Pump CALCULATE THE TOTAL HEAD The total head is the sum of the static head (remember that the static head can be positive or negative) and the friction head. SELECT THE PUMP You can select the pump based on the pump manufacturer·s catalogue information using the total head and flow required as well as suitability to the application. Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. Coimbatore.

Can operate at ±15% on total head. the pump is at its most efficient and there will be minimal vibration and noise (min.P.E. radial force on impeller). Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. Coimbatore. . At that flow rate.Pump Rating The manufacturer will rate the pump at its optimum total head and flow. this point is also known as the best efficiency point or B.

Best Efficiency Point Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. . Coimbatore.

Pump Performance Curves Net Positive Suction Head NPSH required for the pump at a specific flow. speed and impeller diameter. Coimbatore. . Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. total head.

The pump casing carries a reserve of water that helps create a vacuum that will lift the fluid from a low source.Self Priming Pump Does not require priming or a initial filling with liquid. Coimbatore. Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. .

.Positive displacement pump. Definite delivery . Sucks in water and delivers in the reverse stroke. Will provide its rated flow no matter what system you install it in. Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. to avoid pulsations. Uses an accumulator on the delivery side.Reciprocating Pump A piston slides inside a cylinder to produce low pressure. Coimbatore. Used in fire fighting.

Jet Pump Jet centrifugal pump / Jet reciprocating pump 3 STAGES Water is leaked from delivery into the suction pipe. Sucks water due to low pressure. Water comes out at high velocity through a nozzle. High velocity at the nozzle pushes the jet of water. Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. . Resulting in low pressure around the nozzle. Coimbatore. Reaches the suction head of centrifugal/reciprocating pump. Does not require priming.

Coimbatore.Submersible Pump Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. .

The advantage of this type of pump is that it can provide a significant lifting force as it does not rely on external air pressure to lift the fluid.no.Submersible Pump A pump which has a hermetically sealed motor close-coupled to the pump body. Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. of stages. Coimbatore. . A series of centrifugal pumps . The whole assembly is submerged in the fluid to be pumped.

Coimbatore.Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. .

Coimbatore.External Gear Pump Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. .

. Coimbatore.Internal Gear Pump Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries.

Coimbatore.Thank You Terra TM Pumps manufactured by Agri Pump Industries. .

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