Project Management Institute Newtown Square, Pennsylvania USA
SECTION I: The Project Management Framework
Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Project Management Context Chapter 3: Project Management Processes
Chapter 1: Introduction
Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)
The sum of knowledge within the profession of project management. The knowledge of (both published and unpublished) widely applied, proven traditional practices and knowledge of less frequently used innovative and advanced practices.
Project Versus Operations
Work Involves either operations or projects. A Project is a temporary (Start and Stop points) endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service. Projects are a means for organizations to respond to those requests that cannot be addressed within the organization's normal operational limits. The objective of a project is to attain the objective and close the project. The objective of an ongoing non-projectized operation is normally to sustain the business.
. A projects outcome (deliverable) product or service typically continue even though the project ends. The presence of repetitive elements within project completion does not change the fundamental uniqueness of the project work.Unique Product/Service/Result
A product or service resulting from a project may be unique even if the category to which it belongs is large.
the characteristics that distinguish the product or service must be progressively elaborated. particularly if the project is performed under contract.g.
. Progressively means "proceeding in steps.´ e.Progressive Elaboration
Because the product of each project is unique. Progressive elaboration of product characteristics must be carefully coordinated with proper project scope definition." Elaborated means "worked out with care and detail. developed thoroughly. continuing steadily by increments.
. tools.PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Project management is the application of knowledge. controlling. executing. and techniques to lead a project from start to finish
Project management is accomplished through the use of the processes such as: initiating. planning. tools. The project team manages the work of the projects. and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.
± Use of PM knowledge. skills. skills. and closing.
. cost. and quality.Work of the Projects
Competing demands for: scope. risk. Identified requirements. Stakeholders with differing needs and expectations. time.
Project Management Knowledge Areas
Project Integration Management Project Plan Development Project Plan Execution Integrated Change Control Project Scope Management Initiation Scope Planning Scope Definition Scope Verification Scope Change Control Project Time Management Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Schedule Control
Project Cost Management Resource Planning Cost Estimating Cost Budgeting Cost Control
Project Quality Management Quality Planning Quality Assurance Quality Control
Project Human Resource Management Organizational Planning Staff Acquisition Team Development
Project Communications Management Communications Planning Information Distribution Performance Reporting Administrative Closure
Project Risk Management Risk Management Planning Risk Identification Qualitative Risk Analysis Quantitative Risk Analysis Risk Response Planning Risk Monitoring and Control
Project Procurement Management Procurement Planning Solicitation Planning Solicitation Source Selection Contract Administration Contract Closeout
Relationship of Project Management to Other Management Disciplines
. executing.General Management
General management encompasses planning. and controlling the operations of an ongoing enterprise. staffing. organizing.
. but are not needed or present in all projects.Application Areas
Application areas are categories of projects that have common elements significant in such projects.
A program is a group of projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits not available from managing them individually.
± Programs of projects to increase donations to charitable organizations. ± Programs of projects to complete types of construction endeavors.
Projects are frequently divided into more manageable components or subprojects and treated as completely distinct but related projects.
e.g. sequencing and assigning priority to current projects relative current organizational resources.Project Portfolio Management
Project portfolio management refers to the selection and support of projects or program investments.
Chapter 2: The Project Management Context
Each project phase is marked by completion of one or more deliverables.
The project life cycle defines the beginning and the end of a project.
± ± Determine if the project should continue into its next phase. The conclusion of a project phase is generally marked by a review of both key deliverables and project performance to date. Detect and correct errors.
. ± Who should be involved in each phase.
Project life cycles generally define:
± What technical work should be done in each phase.Project Life Cycle
The collection of phases that are performed in completing a project.
Typical Project Life Cycle
Project Phase Deliverables
A deliverable is a tangible. Deliverables from the preceding phase are usually approved before work starts on the next phase. or a working prototype. verifiable work product such as a feasibility study. a detail design.
± Sponsor²the individual or group within or external to the performing organization that provides the financial resources. they may also exert influence over the project and its results. ± Project team members²the group that is performing the work of the project.Project Stakeholders
Project stakeholders are individuals and organizations that are actively involved in the project. Key Stakeholders
± Project manager²the individual responsible for managing the project. ± Performing organization²the enterprise whose employees are most directly involved in doing the work of the project.
. in cash or in kind.
Stakeholder expectations must be carefully managed since stakeholders often have very different and conflicting objectives for the project. or whose interests may be positively or negatively affected as a result of project execution or project completion. for the project. ± Customer²the individual or organization that will use the project's product or service.
Organizational Influences to Projects
Organizational Systems. Organizational Structure.
. Project Office. Organizational Cultures and Styles.
± Organizations that have adopted management by projects.
Nonproject-based organizations often lack management systems designed to support project needs efficiently and effectively.Project-based Organizations
Project-based organizations are organizations whose operations consist primarily of projects.
± Organizations that derive their revenue primarily from performing projects for others.
. norms. in their view of authority relationships.Organizational Cultures/Styles
Organizational culture is reflected in their shared values. etc. in their policies and procedures. and expectations.
Functional Structure Matrix Structure Projectized Structure
Matrix Organizational Structure
Matrix organizations are a blend of functional and projectized characteristics. Strong matrices have many of the characteristics of the projectized organization²full-time project managers with considerable authority and full-time project administrative staff. and the project manager role is more of a coordinator or expediter than a manager. Weak matrices maintain many of the characteristics of a functional organization.
Organizational Structure Influences on Projects
team building. sales and marketing. and other techniques.Key General Management Skills
Finance and accounting. and operational planning. Strategic planning. compensation. research and development. Managing oneself through personal time management. organizational behavior. benefits. Managing work relationships through motivation. delegation. Organizational structures. and other techniques. and career paths. conflict management. personnel administration. supervision.
. stress management. and manufacturing and distribution. tactical planning.
bureaucratic. and resource barriers to change.Leading
Establishing direction²developing both a vision of the future and strategies for producing the changes needed to achieve that vision. Motivating and inspiring²helping people energize themselves to overcome political.
. Aligning people²communicating the vision by words and deeds to all those whose cooperation may be needed to achieve the vision.
± Vertical (up and down the organization) and horizontal (with peers and partner organization). Communicating Dimension Examples
± Written and oral.
. ± Formal (reports. etc. ± Internal (within the project) and external (to the customer. the media. etc. etc.) and informal (memos.). briefings. the public. ad hoc conversations. listening and speaking.).Communicating
Communicating involves the exchange of information.
Negotiating involves conferring with others to come to terms with them or reach an agreement. Negotiation Item Examples
± ± ± ± ± Scope. and schedule objectives. cost.
. Contract terms and conditions. or schedule. Assignments. cost. Changes to scope. Resources.
and then making a choice from among them.Problem Solving
Problem solving involves a combination of problem definition and decision-making.
± Problem definition requires distinguishing between causes and symptoms to determine the essential reasons for a problem. ± Decision-making includes analyzing the problem to identify viable solutions.
. ± Politics is about getting collective action from a group of people who may have quite different interests. to change the course of events.Influencing the Organization
Influencing the organization involves the ability to "get things done. and to get people to do things that they would not otherwise do. to overcome resistance.
± Power is the potential ability to influence behavior." Influencing the organization also requires an understanding of the mechanics of power and politics.
All projects exist within a social-economicenvironmental setting that may influence various aspects of the project. Prominent social-economic-environmental influences.
± Standards and Regulations ± Internationalization ± Cultural Influences
or characteristics for products."
. processes or services with which compliance is not mandatory. that provides. rules. guidelines.Standard
A standard is a "document approved by a recognized body. for common and repeated use.
with which compliance is mandatory. including the applicable administrative provisions. process or service characteristics. which lays down product.Regulation
A regulation is a "document."
Culture is the "totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns.
. beliefs. arts. institutions. and all other products of human work and thought.
Chapter 3: Project Management Processes
± Product-oriented processes specify and create the project's product.Project Processes
A process is "a series of actions bringing about a result. and complete the work of the project.³ Project processes typically consist of project management processes and product-oriented processes. organize.
Project management processes and product-oriented processes overlap and interact throughout the project.
± Project management processes describe.
Controlling processes²ensuring that project objectives are met by monitoring and measuring progress regularly to identify variances from plan so that corrective action can be taken when necessary. Executing processes²coordinating people and other resources to carry out the plan. Planning processes²defining and refining objectives and selecting the best of the alternative courses of action to attain the objectives that the project was undertaken to address.
.Project Management Processes
Initiating processes²authorizing the project or phase. Closing processes²formalizing acceptance of the project or phase and bringing it to an orderly end.
they are overlapping activities that occur at varying levels of intensity throughout each phase of the project. one-time events. the links are iterated²planning provides executing with a documented project plan early on. Project management process groups are not discrete. and then provides documented updates to the plan as the project progresses. Process group interactions also cross phases such that closing one phase provides an input to initiating the next.
.Process Group Linkages
The process groups are linked by the results they produce²the result or outcome of one often becomes an input to another. Among the central process groups.
Process Group Links within a Project Phase
Arrows Depict Information Flows
Overlap of Process Groups within a Project Phase
Process Group Interaction between Project Phases
Initiating Processes Planning Processes
Initiating Processes Planning Processes
Controlling Processes Executing Processes Controlling Processes Executing Processes
Outputs²documents or documentable items that are a result of the process.Process Elements
Inputs²documents or documentable items that will be acted upon.
. Tools and techniques²mechanisms applied to the inputs to create the outputs.
. Project or phase initiation is the process wherein a suggestion or idea is transformed into an actual project.Initiating Processes
Authorizing the project or phase (part of project scope management).
Planning processes include core processes and facilitating processes. Planning is an ongoing effort throughout the life of the project.
Activity Sequencing²identifying and documenting interactivity dependencies.Core Planning Processes
Scope Planning²developing a written scope statement as the basis for future project decisions. more manageable components. Activity Duration Estimating²estimating the number of work periods that will be needed to complete individual activities. Activity Definition²identifying the specific activities that must be performed to produce the various project deliverables.
. Scope Definition²subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller.
activity durations. and resource requirements to create the project schedule. Cost Budgeting²allocating the overall cost estimate to individual work packages. etc.) and what quantities of each should be used to perform project activities. Project Plan Development²taking the results of other planning processes and putting them into a consistent.Core Planning Processes
Schedule Development²analyzing activity sequences. Resource Planning²determining what resources (people. coherent document. equipment.
. Risk Management Planning²deciding how to approach and plan for risk management in a project. materials. Cost Estimating²developing an approximation (estimate) of the costs of the resources required to complete project activities.
. Staff Acquisition²getting the human resources needed assigned to and working on the project. and assigning project roles. and reporting relationships. Communications Planning²determining the information and communications needs of the stakeholders: who needs what information. Risk Identification²determining which risks are likely to affect the project and documenting the characteristics of each. when will they need it. responsibilities. and how will it be given to them. documenting. Organizational Planning²identifying.Planning Facilitating Processes
Quality Planning²identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them.
how much to procure.
. and when. Quantitative Risk Analysis²measuring the probability and impact of risks and estimating their implications for project objectives. Procurement Planning²determining what to procure.Planning Facilitating Processes
Qualitative Risk Analysis²performing a qualitative analysis of risks and conditions to prioritize their effects on project objectives. Solicitation Planning²documenting product requirements and identifying potential sources. Risk Response Planning²developing procedures and techniques to enhance opportunities and to reduce threats to the project's objectives from risk.
± Source Selection²choosing from among potential sellers. ± Contract Administration²managing the relationship with the seller. ± Team Development²developing individual and group skills/competencies to enhance project performance. ± Information Distribution²making needed information available to project stakeholders in a timely manner.
± Project Plan Execution²carrying out the project plan by performing the activities included therein.
. ± Solicitation²obtaining quotations.Executing Processes
Executing processes include core processes and facilitating processes. or proposals as appropriate. bids. ± Quality Assurance²evaluating overall project performance on a regular basis to provide confidence that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards. offers.
Cost Control²controlling changes to the project budget. progress measurement. and forecasting. Performance Reporting²collecting and disseminating performance information. Schedule Control²controlling changes to the project schedule. ensuring the execution of risk plans. Risk Monitoring and Control²keeping track of identified risks.
. Scope Change Control²controlling changes to project scope. This includes status reporting. monitoring residual risks and identifying new risks. Quality Control²monitoring specific project results to determine if they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance. Integrated Change Control²coordinating changes across the entire project. and evaluating their effectiveness in reducing risk. Scope Verification²formalizing acceptance of the project scope.Controlling Processes
Controlling processes include core processes and facilitating processes.
Contract Closeout²completion and settlement of the contract. gathering. including resolution of any open items. including evaluating the project and compiling lessons learned for use in planning future projects or phases. and disseminating information to formalize phase or project completion.
. Administrative Closure²generating.
Mapping Of Project Management Processes and PMBOK Knowledge Areas