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A Lesson in the “Math + Fun!” Series

May 2005

Special Numbers

Slide 1

**About This Presentation
**

This presentation is part of the “Math + Fun!” series devised by Behrooz Parhami, Professor of Computer Engineering at University of California, Santa Barbara. It was first prepared for special lessons in mathematics at Goleta Family School during the 2003-04 and 2004-05 school years. The slides can be used freely in teaching and in other educational settings. Unauthorized uses are strictly prohibited. © Behrooz Parhami Edition First Released May 2005 Revised Revised

May 2005

Special Numbers

Slide 2

What is Special About These Numbers? Numbers in purple squares? Numbers in green squares? Circled numbers? May 2005 Special Numbers Slide 3 .

Atoms in the Universe of Numbers H2O Two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom Prime number (atom) Composite number (molecule) Are the following numbers atoms or molecules? For molecules. write down the list of atoms: 2 7 12 17 22 3 8 13 18 23 4 9 14 19 24 5 10 15 20 25 May 2005 12 = 22 × 3 Molecule 13 = 13 Atom 14 = 2 × 7 Molecule 15 = 3 × 5 Molecule 6 Atom 19 = 19 Molecule 27 = 33 11 30 = 2 × 3 × 5 16 32 = 25 MoleculeMolecule Atom 47 = 47 21 50 = 2 × 52 Molecule 70 = 2 × 5 × 7 Molecule Special Numbers Slide 4 .

no matter how high we go. but there are always more primes. May 2005 Special Numbers Slide 5 . Primes become rarer as we go higher.Is There a Pattern to Prime Numbers? Primes appear to be randomly distributed in this list that goes up to 620.

000. so he started writing numbers in a spiral and discovered that prime numbers bunch together along diagonal lines May 2005 Primes pattern for numbers up to about 60. notice that primes bunch together along diagonal lines and they thin out as we move further out Slide 6 Special Numbers .Ulam’s Discovery 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 74 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 64 75 44 21 20 19 18 17 36 63 76 45 22 7 6 5 16 35 62 77 46 23 8 1 4 15 34 61 78 47 24 9 2 3 14 33 60 79 48 25 10 11 12 13 32 59 80 49 26 27 28 29 30 31 58 81 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 Stanislaw Ulam was in a boring meeting.

Just as water molecules bunch together to make a snowflake.144. prime numbers bunch together to produce Ulam’s rose. May 2005 Special Numbers Slide 7 .Ulam’s Rose Primes pattern for numbers up to 262.

Explaining Ulam’s Rose Table of numbers that is 6 columns wide shows that primes. all fall in 2 columns 2 8 14 20 26 32 38 44 50 56 62 68 74 80 86 92 3 9 15 21 27 33 39 45 51 57 63 69 75 81 87 93 4 10 16 22 28 34 40 46 52 58 64 70 76 82 88 94 5 11 17 23 29 35 41 47 53 59 65 71 77 83 89 95 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 7 13 19 25 31 37 43 49 55 61 67 73 79 85 91 97 Special Numbers Slide 8 The two columns whose numbers are potentially prime form this pattern when drawn in a spiral 6k – 1 6k + 1 Pattern May 2005 . except for 2 and 3.

Activity 1: More Number Patterns Color all boxes that contain multiples of 5 and explain the pattern that you see. 2 8 14 20 26 32 38 44 50 56 62 68 74 80 86 92 Special Numbers 3 9 15 21 27 33 39 45 51 57 63 69 75 81 87 93 4 10 16 22 28 34 40 46 52 58 64 70 76 82 88 94 5 11 17 23 29 35 41 47 53 59 65 71 77 83 89 95 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 7 13 19 25 31 37 43 49 55 61 67 73 79 85 91 97 Slide 9 . 2 8 14 20 26 32 38 44 50 56 62 68 74 80 86 92 May 2005 3 9 15 21 27 33 39 45 51 57 63 69 75 81 87 93 4 10 16 22 28 34 40 46 52 58 64 70 76 82 88 94 5 11 17 23 29 35 41 47 53 59 65 71 77 83 89 95 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 7 13 19 25 31 37 43 49 55 61 67 73 79 85 91 97 Color all boxes that contain multiples of 7 and explain the pattern that you see.

May 2005 Color all the even numbers that are not multiples of 3 or 5. Use two different colors for odd multiples (such as 9 or 15) and for even multiples (such as 6 or 24). but not 10 or 12. Slide 10 Special Numbers . For example. 4 and 14 should be colored.73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 74 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 64 75 44 21 20 19 18 17 36 63 Activity 2: Number Patterns in a Spiral 76 45 22 7 6 5 16 35 62 77 46 23 8 1 4 15 34 61 78 47 24 9 2 3 14 33 60 79 48 25 10 11 12 13 32 59 80 49 26 27 28 29 30 31 58 81 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 74 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 64 75 44 21 20 19 18 17 36 63 76 45 22 7 6 5 16 35 62 77 46 23 8 1 4 15 34 61 78 47 24 9 2 3 14 33 60 79 48 25 10 11 12 13 32 59 80 49 26 27 28 29 30 31 58 81 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 Color the multiples of 3.

Perfect Numbers A perfect number equals the sum of its divisors. except itself 6: 28: 496: 1+2+3=6 1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14 = 28 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 31 + 62 + 124 + 248 = 496 An abundant number has a sum of divisors that is larger than itself 36: 60: 100: 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 6 + 9 + 12 + 18 = 55 > 36 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 10 + 15 + 20 + 30 = 96 > 60 1 + 2 + 4 + 5 + 10 + 20 + 25 + 50 = 117 > 100 A deficient number has a sum of divisors that is smaller than itself 9: 23: 128: May 2005 1+3=4<9 1 < 23 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 32 + 64 = 127 < 128 Special Numbers Slide 11 .

3.For each of the numbers below. . and decide whether the number is deficient. 2. . . 2. add them up. 13. 4). or perfect. abundant. Are all powers of 2 deficient? May 2005 Special Numbers Slide 12 . 8 (divisible by 1. . 72 = 49. write down its divisors. or Perfect? Challenge questions: Are prime numbers (for example. Deficient. ) abundant or deficient? You can find powers of 2 by starting with 2 and doubling in each step. 8) are deficient. 7. ) abundant or deficient? Are squares of prime numbers (32 = 9. and 16 (divisible by 1. . It is easy to see that 4 (divisible by 1 and 2). Number Divisors (other than the number itself) 12 18 28 30 45 Sum of divisors Type Activity 3: Abundant. . 2. 4.

has 120.Why Perfect Numbers Are Special Some things we know about perfect numbers There are only about a dozen perfect numbers up to 10160 All even perfect numbers end in 6 or 8 Some open questions about perfect numbers Are there an infinite set of perfect numbers? (The largest.000 digits) Are there any odd perfect numbers? (Not up to 10300 ) 10160 = 10 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 May 2005 Special Numbers Slide 13 . discovered in 1997.

e. May 2005 Special Numbers Slide 14 . You now have two numbers. (Example: 198 + 891 = 1089) The answer is always 1089.1089: A Very Special Number Follow these instructions: 1.. but not 333 or 332. Take any three digit number in which the first and last digits differ by 2 or more. Reverse the number you chose in step 1. 2.g. 335 would be okay. Subtract the smaller number from the larger one. Add the answer in step 3 to the reverse of the same number. (Example: 533) 3. (Example: 533 – 335 = 198) 4.

You know that 2 × 2 = 2 + 2.Special Numbers and Patterns Why is the number 37 special? 3× 6× 9× 12 × 37 = 111 37 = 222 37 = 333 37 = 444 and and and and 1+1+1=3 2+2+2=6 3+3+3=9 4 + 4 + 4 = 12 Here is an amazing pattern: 12 = 1 112 = 121 1112 = 12321 11112 = 1234321 111112 = 123454321 When adding or multiplying does not make a difference. these may be new to you: 1 1/2 × 3 = 1 1/2 + 3 1 1/3 × 4 = 1 1/3 + 4 1 1/4 × 5 = 1 1/4 + 5 May 2005 Special Numbers Playing around with a number and its digits: 198 = 11 + 99 + 88 153 = 13 + 53 + 33 1634 = 14 + 64 + 34 + 44 Slide 15 . But.

Continue these patterns and find out what makes them special. 1 1+3 1+3+5 1+3+5+7 1+3+5+7+9 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11 + 13 1 3+5 7 + 9 + 11 13 + 15 + 17 + 19 21 + 23 + 25 + 27 + 29 31 + 33 + 35 + 37 + 39 + 41 43 + 45 + 47 + 49 + 51 + 53 + 55 May 2005 Activity 4: More Special Number Patterns 1 1+2+1 1+2+3+2+1 1+2+3+4+3+2+1 1+2+3+4+5+4+3+2+1 1× 14 × 142 × 1428 × 14285 × 142857 × 1428571 × 14285714 × 142857142 × 1428571428 × 7 + 3 = 10 7 + 2 = 100 7 + 6 = 1000 7 + 4 = 10000 7 + 5 = 100000 7 + 1 = 1000000 7 + 3 = 10000000 7 + 2 = 100000000 7 + 6 = 1000000000 7 + 4 = 10000000000 Slide 16 Special Numbers .

Activity 5: Special or Surprising Answers Can you find something special in each of the following groups? What’s special about the following? 12 × 27 × 39 × 42 × 483 = 5796 198 = 5346 186 = 7254 138 = 5796 What is special about 9? 1 × 9 + 2 = ___ 12 × 9 + 3 = ____ 123 × 9 + 4 = _____ What is special about 327? 327 × 1 = _____ 327 × 2 = _____ 327 × 3 = _____ Do the following multiplications: 3 × 51249876 = ____________ 9 × 16583742 = ____________ 6 × 32547891 = ____________ Special Numbers Slide 17 Do the following multiplications: 4 × 1738 = _______ 4 × 1963 = _______ 18 × 297 = _______ 28 × 157 = _______ 48 × 159 = _______ May 2005 .

Here are some examples: 12 Twelve 21 Twenty-one 80 Eighty 3547 Three thousand five hundred forty-seven 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Zero One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eight Five Four Nine One Seven Six Ten Three Two Zero Three Nine One Five Ten Seven Zero Two Four Eight Six Special Numbers One Two Six Ten Zero Four Five Nine Three Seven Eight Eight Four Six Ten Two Zero Five Nine One Seven Three Slide 18 May 2005 .Numbers as Words We can write any number as words.

from the end Length order Evens and odds (in alpha order) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Zero One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eight Five Four Nine One Seven Six Ten Three Two Zero Three Nine One Five Ten Seven Zero Two Four Eight Six One Two Six Ten Zero Four Five Nine Three Seven Eight Eight Four Six Ten Two Zero Five Nine One Seven Three If we wrote these four lists from “zero” to “one thousand.Activity 6: Numbers as Words Alpha order Alpha order.” which number would appear first/last in each list? Why? What about to “one million”? May 2005 Special Numbers Slide 19 .

Activity 7: Sorting the Letters in Numbers Spell out each number and put its letters in alphabetical order (ignore hyphens and spaces). You will discover that 40 is a very special number! 0 eorz 1 eno 2 otw 3 eehrt 4 foru 5 efiv 6 isx 7 eensv 8 eghit 9 einn May 2005 10 ent 11 eeelnv 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 enttwy 21 eennottwy 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Special Numbers 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Slide 20 .

June 9. May 2005 Special Numbers Slide 21 . 2005 It is believed that we use decimal (base-10) numbers because humans have 10 fingers.Next Lesson Not definite. at this point: Thursday. because the two digits 0 and 1 that are needed are easy to represent with electronic signals or on/off switches. How would we count if we had one finger on each hand? 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 Computers do math in base 2.

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