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OPTICAL INSTRUMENT

By : Dewi Cahyaning P . ( 06 ) Fania Feby Ramadhani ( 11 ) Fira Salsabila ( 13 ) Ulfah Hasna Hasibah ( 21 )

Optical Instrument

MICROSCOPE

PROJECTOR

TELESCOPE

Microscope
The device which function to observe very small object (micro)

Parts of Microscope
Ocular Lens Tube Coarse Adjustment Fine Adjustment Arm Stage Objective Lens Revolver

Stage Clips Condenser Diaphragm

Base

Mirror

Part O P Ocular Lens T I Mirror C Diaphragm Objective Lens M C A I E Stage Clips H N Arm C Stage Coarse Adjustment Fine Adjustment Condenser Revolver Microscope Tube Base

Function To magnify the image of object . Search, collect and direct the light to the object. the amount of light which Control

reflected to eye. Magnify the image of object on revolver. To clip the object. As holding place of microscope when it lifted. to put the object. Place To move the tube quickly To move the tube slowly To focus the light to the object Place where objective lens stick on. To connect objective lens with ocular lens. To support the microscope

Ocular Lens

2Fob

Fob Fob 2Fob Fok

Objective Lens

Properties of the Images Objective Lens Ocular Lens

:
Real Reverse Enlarge

Virtual

Reverse

Enlarge

MAGNIFICATION OF OBJECTIVE LENS


Mob = Sob Sob
How to find Sob and Sob ?

1 fob

1 Sob

1 Sob

M ob = Magnification of objective lens S ob = Distance of the image to the objective lens S ob = Distance of the object to the objective lens

Magnification of Ocular Lens


Mok = Sok Sok
How to find Sok and Sok ?

= fok

1 Sok

1 Sok

M ok = Magnification of ocular lens S ok = Distance of the image to the ocular lens S ok = Distance of the object to the ocular lens

Magnification of Microscope
2Fob Fob Fob S ob S ob S ok Mmik Mob Mok Sob lens Sob lens Sok = = = = Magnification of microscope Magnification of objective lens Magnification of ocular lens Distance of the image to the objective 2Fob S ok Fok

Mmik = Mob Mmik = Sob Sob

x x

Mok Sok Sok

= Distance of the object to the objective = Distance of the image to the ocular lens

When Eye Does not Accomodate

2F ob 2F ob

F ob F ok S ok F ob

S ok S ok lens

qS ok is infinite Sok = Fok () qS ok is located on f ok . = Distance of ima ge by ocular lens


= Distance of object in fr ont of ocular

Ocular as magnifying glass. So, they have same formulate

When Eye Does not Accomodate lens in microscope has the same function

Mok = Sn fok
Mok Sn fok

Mmik = Mob x Mok Mmik = Mob x Sn

= Magnification of ocular lens = Near point of eye Mmik = Sob = Focal length of ocular lens Sob

fok

x Sn fok

When Eye Accommodates Maximally

2Fob Sn

Fob Fob 2Fob S ok S ok Fok

qSok is located on near point of eye (Sn).

Sok = Sn

Sok fok f

= Snx + S

Sok Sn Sok ocular Fok

= Distance of image by ocular lens = Near point of eye = Distance of object in front of lens = Focal length of ocular lens

When Eye Accomodates Maximally


Ocular lens in microscope has the same functionas magnifying glass. So, they have same formulate
Mmik = Mob x Mok Sn x + 1 fok Sn + 1 fok

Mok

= Sn + 1 fok

Mmik = Mob x Mmik = Sob Sob

M ok = Magnification of ocular lens Sn = Near point of eye f ok = Focal length of ocular lens

Distance Between Objective & Ocular Lens

2Fob

Fob Fob Sob d = Sob + S


ok

2Fob Sok

Fok

d = Sob + Sok
d lens Sob Sok = distance between objective lens and ocular = distance of image to the objective lens = distance of object in front of ocular lens

Distance Between Objective & Ocular Lens

When Eye Accomodates Maximally d = S ob + Sok d = S ob + Sn x fok fok + Sn

When Eye doesnt Accommodate d = Sob + Sok

Question 1:

The focal length of an objective lens of a microscope is 1,25 cm, while the focal length of its ocular lens is 2,5 cm. If the observer has normal eyes which dont accommodate and the distance of the object is 1,5 cm, find the magnification and the distance between ocular and objective lens of that microscope! Known : fob = 1.25 cm fok = 2.5 cm Sob = 1.5 cm Sn = 25 cm (because the eyes are normal)
If the eyes dont accommodate

Asked : a. Mmik b. d

a. Sob

Answer
1 + 1 = 1 Mok = Sn fok = 25 2.5 = 10 times = Mob x Mok = 5 x 10 = 50 times

Sob fob 1 + 1 = 1 1,5 Sob 1.25 1 = 1 1 Sob 1.25 1.5 1 = 6 5 Mmik Sob 7.5 7 .5 1 = 1 Sob 7.5 Sob = 7,5 cm b. d = d = d = Mob = Sob = 7,5 = 5 d = times Sob 1 ,5

Sob + Sok Sob + fok 7, 5 + 2,5 10 cm

Question 2

An object put on 6 cm in front of the objective lens of a microscope. The focal length of the objective lens is 4 cm, while the focal length of the ocular lens is 10 cm. Calculate the magnification and the distance between ocular and objective lens of that microscope when the normal eyes accommodate maximally! K now n : fob fo k Sob Sn = = = = 25 4 cm 1 0 cm 6 cm cm ( because

the eyes are normal )

A ske d

: a. M m i k b. d

If the eyes accommodate maximally

Answer
a. Sob 1 6 1 Sob 1 Sob 1 Sob Sob 1 Mok = Sn + 1 M = Mob x Mok = 1 mik fok Sob fob = 2 x 3,5 = 25 + 1 = 7 times + 1 = 1 10 Sob 4 = 3,5 times = 1 1 4 6 = 3 2 b. 12 12 d = Sob + Sok = 1 d = Sob + Sn x fok 12 fok + Sn = 12 cm d = 12 + 25 x 10 10 + 25 d = 12 + 7, 14 d = 19,14 cm = Sob = 12 = 2 + 1 Sob 6

Mob times