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Research Process

Methods of collecting primary data


Questionnaires Interviews Focus group interviews Observation Case-studies Diaries Critical incidents

Questionnaires
Questionnaires are a popular means of collecting data, but are difficult to design and often require many rewrites before an acceptable questionnaire is produced. Advantages Can be used as a method in its own right or as a basis for interviewing or a telephone survey. Can be posted, e-mailed or faxed. Can cover a large number of people or organizations. Relatively cheap. No prior arrangements are needed. No interviewer bias.

Interviews
Interviewing is a technique that is primarily used to gain an understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations for peoples attitudes, preferences or behavior. Interviews can be undertaken on a personal one-to-one basis or in a group. They can be conducted at work, at home, in the street or in a shopping centre, or some other agreed location Observation Observation involves recording the behavioral patterns of people, objects and events in a systematic manner

Focus group interviews


A focus group is an interview conducted by a trained moderator in a non-structured and natural manner with a small group of respondents. The moderator leads the discussion. The main purpose of focus groups is to gain insights by listening to a group of people from the appropriate target market talk about specific issues of interest.

Diaries
A diary is a way of gathering information about the way individuals spend their time on professional activities. They are not about records of engagements or personal journals of thought! Diaries can record either quantitative or qualitative data, and in management research can provide information about work patterns and activities.

Portfolios
A measure of a managers ability may be expressed in terms of the number and duration of issues or problems being tackled at any one time. The compilation of problem portfolios is recording information about how each problem arose, methods used to solve it, difficulties encountered, etc.

Critical incidents
The critical incident technique is an attempt to identify the more noteworthy aspects of job behavior and is based on the assumption that jobs are composed of critical and non-critical tasks. For example, a critical task might be defined as one that makes the difference between success and failure in carrying out important parts of the job.

Direct vs. Indirect Approach


Direct Approach (deductive): when you know your audience will be receptive( interested) to your message, start with the main idea( such as recommendation, conclusion or request), and follow that with your supporting evidence. Indirect Approach (inductive): when your audience will be skeptical about or even resistant to your message, start with the evidence 1st & build the case before presenting the main idea.

High Context- Low Context


High Context culture: such as south Korea, Taiwan, people rely less on verbal communication & more on context of non-verbal actions & environmental setting to convey meaning. Low context culture: such as United States, Germany, people rely more on verbal communication & less on circumstances & cues to convey meaning.

Groupware
Groupware is technology designed to facilitate the work of groups. This technology may be used to communicate, cooperate, coordinate, solve problems, compete, or negotiate. While traditional technologies like the telephone qualify as groupware, the term is ordinarily used to refer to a specific class of technologies relying on modern computer networks, such as email, newsgroups, videophones, or chat.

Abstract
An abstract is a brief summary of a research article, thesis, review, conference proceeding or any in-depth analysis of a particular subject or discipline, and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper's purpose. Punctuation: page H14. Salutation: page A6

Buffer
The 1st step in using the indirect approach is to consider using a Buffer, a neutral, noncontroversial statement that is closely related to the point of the message. A buffer establishes common ground with your reader. Poorly written buffers mislead/insult the reader.

Effective Teams

Improving Your Performance in Teams


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Formal
Permanent Committees

Informal
Task Forces and Problem-Solving Teams
Solve problems Handle specific issues Encourage participation

Plan strategy Review results Handle employee issues

Overview of Teams
Advantages
Increased Information Diversity of Views Acceptance of Solutions

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Disadvantages
Groupthink Hidden Agendas Free Riders

Levels of Performance

High Costs

Effective Teams

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Clear objective Sense of purpose Open communication Shared decision making Creative thinking Conflict resolution

Assuming Team Roles


SelfOriented GroupMaintenance

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TaskOriented

Controlling and Diverting

Encouraging

Initiating and Coordinating

Withdrawing

Harmonizing

Seeking Information

Seeking Attention

Compromising

Setting Procedures

Team Evolution
1. Orientation 2. Conflict 3. Brainstorming 4. Emergence 5. Reinforcement

Business Communication Today, 9e

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Sources of Team Conflict


 Scarce resources  Task responsibilities  Incompatible ideas  Poor communication  Attitudes and values  Power struggles  Conflicting goals

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Types of Team Conflict


Constructive
WinWin-Win Strategy

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Destructive
WinWin-Lose or Lose-Lose Outcome Lose-

Exposes Issues Boosts Involvement Generates Ideas

Diverts Energy

Destroys Morale

Divides the Team

The Listening Process


Message

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1. Receiving

2. Decoding

3. Remembering

5. Responding

4. Evaluating

Feedback

Communicating in a World of Diversity

Communication in a Diverse World


Multicultural Diversity

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Intercultural Communication

Individual Characteristics

Cultural Backgrounds

Individual Experiences

Cultural Differences

Advantages of a Diverse Workforce

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Connecting with Customers

Expanding the Talent Pool

Challenges of Intercultural Communication


Language Usage
Employee Motivation

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Nonverbal Signals

Employee Communication

Perception Patterns

Harmony and Cooperation

Values and Beliefs

Improving Intercultural Communication Skills


Be a careful listener Speak and write clearly Study cultures and languages

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Respect communication styles Use interpreters or translators Help others adapt to your culture

Studying Cultures
Social Customs Clothing and Food

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Political Patterns

Studying Cultures
Religion and Folk Beliefs Business and Economics Ethics, Values, and Laws

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Business Communication Today, 9e

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Intercultural Conversations
Speak clearly Rephrase if needed Seek feedback Dont patronize Check understanding