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The Purpose of Mans Existence and the Choice for the Good

Mans acts must be for an end Human acts proceed from a deliberate will Every agent acts for an end The principle in the intention is the last end All have the same last end The last end is called happiness I.II.3.1


elements of the Free Act

Advertence Voluntary-Elicited or Commanded Free-the result of free choice

Appetite Intelligence

and Appetite

Ordering to an end is the product of intelligenc Will is the rational appetite

Directly Voluntary Voluntary

in its cause Voluntary in its effect Blameworthiness


Effect Act which produces the effect is not itself an evil act A good effect issues from the act at least as immediately as the evil effect The good must not arise from the evil effect The agent must have a morally justifying reason for action, commensurate with the evil effect


or capacity Intellect-Formal Cause I-II, 9, a.1-The good generally is the object Truth-The will always wants what the intellect identifies as good
Whatever befits our nature The ultimate end


act of the will bearing on the end Binds together a plurality of acts Looks to the end in three ways
Absolutely Enjoying Intention


Reason Moving the Will Judgments about the Good


follows judgment Counsel is presupposed by choice

What do I have to do in order to bring about

such and such a good?


the movement of appetite on something within the power of one doing the directing
Desiring things which lead to the end Consent and choice are different when there are

more than one means

Use, I-II, q. 16, a. 1.

Refers to the wills moving the powers that

execute the act


and Medieval authors taught that infused virtues brought about a transformation in the person Virtues neglected Habitus-state of character Habitus and kenosis Habitus development


operative habitus CCC-a habitual and firm disposition to do the good Three features of action under habitus
Promptness or readiness to act Ease or facility in performance of the action Joy or satisfaction while doing it


indeterminancy Does not eliminate struggle

Sense nature Higher nature

of the higher nature refers to the life of grace for the theologian
Infused moral virtues and theological virtues The acquired virtues are related to the broader

perspective of Christian doctrine

is a good quality of the mind by which one lives righteously, of which no one can make bad use, which God works within us without us. Habitus inferred from good quality of mind Christian virtue compared to art Substance and faculties of the soul