# Measurement Measurement is a comparison of a given quantity with one of its predetermined standard values opted as a unit.

There are two important requirements of the measurement  The standards used for comparison must accurate and internationally accepted  The apparatus or instrument and the process used for information must be provable

Objectives of Metrology
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Complete evaluation of newly developed products. Determination of the process capabilities and ensure that these are better than the relevant component tolerances. Minimizing the cost of inspection by effective and efficient use of available facilities. Reducing the cost of rejects and rework through application of Statistical Quality Control Techniques. To standardize the measuring methods To maintain the accuracies of measurement. To prepare designs for all gauges and special inspection fixtures

The methods of measurement 
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Direct method Indirect method Absolute or Fundamental method Comparative method Transposition method6. Coincidence method Deflection method Complementary method Contact method Contact less method

Method of direct measurement
The value of the quantity to be measured is obtained directly without the necessity of carrying out supplementary calculations based on a functional dependence of the quantity to be measured in relation to the quantities actually measured. Example: Weight of a substance is measured directly using a physical balance.

Example: Weight of a substance is measured by Weight = Length x Breadth x Height x Density .Method of indirect measurement The value of the quantity is obtained from measurements carried out by direct method of measurement of other quantities. connected with the quantity to be measured by a known relationship.

Generalized measuring system       Primary sensing element Variable conversion element Variable manipulation element Data transmission element Data processing element Data presentation element .

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The amount of error depends upon the following factors: The accuracy and design of the measuring instrument The skill of the operator Method adopted for measurement Temperature variations Elastic deformation of the part or instrument etc .Accuracy of Measurements       The purpose of measurement is to determine the true dimensions of a part. But no measurement can be made absolutely accurate. There is always some error.

` Factors affecting the environment . who carries out the measurements.Factors affecting the accuracy of the measuring system ` Factors affecting the calibration standards. ` Factors affecting the person. ` Factors affecting the inherent characteristics of the instrument. ` Factors affecting the work piece.

geometric compatibility . elastic properties.Factors affecting the Standard ` ` ` ` ` coefficient of thermal expansion. stability with time. calibration interval.

adequate datum on the work piece. waviness. surface finish. scratch. thermal equalization etc . elastic properties. surface defects etc.Factors affecting the Work piece ` ` ` ` ` ` cleanliness. arrangement of supporting work piece. hidden geometry..

Factors affecting the inherent characteristics of Instrument ` adequate amplification for accuracy objective. backlash. scale error.repeatability and readability. zero drift error. effect of friction. . deformation in handling or use. guide ways or moving elements). contact geometry for both work piece and standard. mechanical parts (slides. hysteresis.

sense of precision appreciation. planning measurement techniques for minimum cost. sensible appreciation of measuring cost. consistent with precision requirements etc .Factors affecting person ` ` ` ` ` training. ability to select measuring instruments and standards. skill.

work piece. . temperature equalization between standard.Factors affecting Environment        temperature. manual handling may also introduce thermal expansion. heating elements. humidity etc. clean surrounding and minimum vibration enhance precision.. adequate illumination. sunlight and people. thermal expansion effects due to heat radiation from lights. and instrument.

Sensitivity:  Sensitivity of the instrument is defined as the ratio of the magnitude of the output signal to the magnitude of the input signal. It has wide range of the units which dependent up on the instrument or measuring system. .  Sensitivity has no unique unit.

Readability   Readability is defined as the closeness with which the scale of an analog instrument can be read. The readability is depends on the both the instruments and observer . The susceptibility of a measuring instrument to having its indications converted to a meaningful number. It implies the ease with which observations can be made accurately.

It refers to how closely the measured value agrees with the true value.Accuracy: may be defined as the ability of instruments to respond to a true value of a measured variable under the reference conditions. . Precision: Precision is defined as the degrees of exactness for which an instrument is designed or intended to perform. It refers to repeatability or consistency of measurement when the instruments are carried out under identical conditions at a short interval of time.

without any change in location. without change in the method of measurement and the measurements are carried out in short intervals of time. with the same instrument.Repeatability  It is the ability of the measuring instrument to repeat the same results for the measurements for the same quantity. by the same observer. under the same conditions. .

e. by different methods. .Reproducibility ` ` ` ` ` ` Reproducibility is the consistency of pattern of variation in measurement i. It may also be expressed quantitatively in terms of the dispersion of the results. using different instruments. closeness of the agreement between the results of measurements of the same quantity. times etc. when individual measurements are carried out: by different observers. locations. under different conditions.

. It is the consistency of the reading on the instrument scale.Consistency It is another characteristic of the measuring instrument. When the same dimension is measured number of times.

. Error in measurement = Measured value . The error in measurement is the difference between the measured value and the true value of the measured dimension.Errors in Measurements ` ` ` It is never possible to measure the true value of a dimension there is a always some error.True value The error in measurement may be expressed or evaluated either as an absolute error or as a relative error.

the conventional true value or the arithmetic mean for series of measurement.Absolute Error True absolute error: It is the algebraic difference between the result of measurement and the conventional true value of the quantity measured. This value of comparison may be the true value.  .  Relative Error: It is the quotient of the absolute error and the value of comparison use or calculation of that absolute error.  Apparent absolute error: If the series of measurement are made then the algebraic difference between one of the results of measurement and the arithmetical mean is known as apparent absolute error.

These errors are non-consistent and hence the name random errors. Random Error: These errors are caused due to variation in position of setting standard and work-piece errors.Types of Errors Systematic Error: These error include calibration errors. Due to displacement of level joints of instruments. If properly analyzed. these error are induced. these errors can be determined and reduced or even eliminated hence also called controllable errors. error due to variation in the atmospheric condition Variation in contact pressure etc. due to backlash and friction. .

vibrations and magnetic field also leads to error. e. Temperature plays an important role where high precision is required. pressure and humidity on the measuring instrument.g. External factors like nuclear radiation. A 300 mm length will go in error by 5 microns which is quite a considerable error.  . whereas the work is at 20°C. To avoid errors of this kind. while using slip gauges. due to handling the slip gauges may acquire human body temperature.Environmental Error These errors are caused due to effect of surrounding temperature. all metrology laboratories and standard rooms worldwide are maintained at 20°C.

Elastic Deformation or Support Error: Long bars due to improve support or due to self weight may undergo deflection or may bend. .  Alignment Error (Cosine Error): which states that the line of measurement of the measuring component should coincide with the measuring scale or axis of the measuring instrument. These errors are caused due to non-alignment of measuring scale to the true line of dimension being measured.577 of the total distance of bar. Such errors can be reduced if the distance between the support point is kept as 0.

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 .  Contact Error: The rings as show in Figure whose thickness is to be measured. dirt particles can enter in the inspection room through the door and the windows.Dirt Error: Sometimes. the contact of jaws with work piece plays an important role while measure in laboratory or work shops. These particles can create small dirt errors at the time of measurement. Number of times.

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Parallax Error (Reading Error) The position of the observer at the time of taking a reading (on scale) can create errors in measurement. Position Z shows the correct position of the observer. . which will be the defect generating positions. For this two positions of the observers are shown (X and Y).

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. In case when the measuring and the sensing system are different it is very difficult to calibrate the system as an whole. Calibration is usually carried out by making adjustment such that when the instrument is having zero measured input then it should read out zero and when the instrument is measuring some dimension it should read it to its closest accurate value. so in that case we have to take into account the error producing properties of each component.Calibration ` ` It is very much essential to calibrate the instrument so as to maintain its accuracy.

Basic dimension: A 'basic dimension' is the dimension.5 mm. do not exist. Since the ideal conditions of producing basic dimension. the basic dimensions can be treated as the theoretical or nominal size. and it has only to be approximated . as worked out by purely design considerations. even though the basic size of the hole may be 60 mm and the basic size of the shaft 59.Nominal size: A 'nominal size' is the size which is used for purpose of general identification. Thus the nominal size of a hole and shaft assembly is 60 mm.

unilateral has tolerance only on one side. bilateral and unilateral. Upper deviation It is the difference of dimension between the maximum possible size of the component and its nominal size. ie. Allowance It is the difference of dimension between two mating parts. it is termed as bilateral. When tolerance is present on both sides of nominal size. ` ` .Tolerance Tolerance is the difference between maximum and minimum dimensions of a component. between upper limit and lower limit.

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0 or 40. tolerance is applied only in one direction. + 0.04 In the bilateral system of writing tolerances.04 -0.Systems of Specifying Tolerances In the unilateral system.02 Examples: 40. a dimension is permitted to vary in two directions.0 + 0.0.02 Examples: 40.04 .0 .02 -0. + 0.

Definitions ` Shaft: The term shaft refers not only to diameter of a circular shaft to any external dimension on a component. . ` Hole: This term refers not only to the diameter of a circular hole but to any internal dimension on a component.

. ` Hole basis system the dimension of the hole is considered to be the datum. the dimension of a shaft is easily controllable by standard manufacturing processes. On the contrary.Fit The nature of assembly of two mating parts is defined by three types of fit system. the hole basis system is much more popular than the shaft basis system. Clearance Fit. For this reason. the dimension of a hole is fixed due to the nature of the tool used. Transition Fit and Interference Fit. the shaft basis system dimension of the shaft is considered to be the datum.

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Interchangeability A part which can be substituted for the component manufactured to the small shape and dimensions is known a interchangeable part. . The operation of substituting the part for similar manufactured components of the shape and dimensions is known as interchangeability.

 The standardization of machine parts and manufacturing methods is decided.The advantages of interchangeability  The assembly of mating parts is easier. Since any component picked up from its lot will assemble with any other mating part from an another lot without additional fitting and machining.  Replacement of worn out parts is easy. .  Repairing of existing machines or products is simplified because component parts can be easily replaced.  It brings down the assembling cost drastically.  It enhances the production rate.