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ploma in Public Administration y of Administrative Science and Policy Studies Fundamentals of of Management Fundamentals

ploma in Public Administration

y of Administrative Science and Policy Studies

Fundamentals ofof Management

Fundamentals

ploma in Public Administration y of Administrative Science and Policy Studies Fundamentals of of Management Fundamentals

ManagementMGT162

MGT162

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

11

INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT

Lecture by:

MISS FARHANA BINTI YAAKU

CHAPTER OUTCOMES

In the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

i.Explain the key concepts of management and its importance.

ii.Discuss the skills in management and it’s roles in each level of management.

iii.Describe the development of

CHAPTER OUTLINE

1.1 Definition of organization and management

1.2 Measuring managerial performance

1.3 Management process

functions and

activities

1.4 Managerial levels, skills and roles

1.5 Evolution of management

Definition of

  • 1.1 ORGANIZATION

qA social unit in which two or more people interact to achieve a common or a set of goals (Stoner)

q

qThe structure of relationships that exists when two or more people mutually cooperates to pursue common objectives (Holt)

Definition of

MANAGEMENT

qThe process of administering and coordinating resources effectively and efficiently in an effort to achieve the goals of the organization

(Goodman & Fandt)

qProcess of achieving organizational goals by engaging in the 4 major functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling

(Bartol and Martin)

Definition of

MANAGEMENT

qManagement is a process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling

by refers to the practices and policies you need to carry out the people or personnel aspects of your management job. Its include :

q

i.Conducting job analysis ii.Training and developing iii.Planning labor needs iv.Selecting job candidates v.Orienting and training new employees vi.Communicating (interview, counseling, disciplining etc.) vii.Appraising performance viii.Managing wages and salaries

The

IMPORTANCE….

vEquip personnel with effort management theories and practices.

vBetter and effective manager - solve problems, making good

decision and effective utilization of organization resources.

vTo understand many events, challenges and skills.

vHelp organization achieve higher level of performance :

utilization of its human and material resources.

  • 1.2 Performance – EFFECTIVENESS & EFFICIENCY

Goal Attainment

EFFICIENCY

High

Attainment EFFICIENCY High Low Resource Utilization Poor Good

Low

Attainment EFFICIENCY High Low Resource Utilization Poor Good

Resource Utilization

Poor

Good

The PROCESS /
1.3 FUNCTION of

Management (Bartol & Martin)

The PROCESS / 1 . 3 FUNCTION of Management (Bartol & Martin) P L A N

P L A N N IN G

The PROCESS / 1 . 3 FUNCTION of Management (Bartol & Martin) P L A N

O N T R O L L IN

G

The PROCESS / 1 . 3 FUNCTION of Management (Bartol & Martin) P L A N

O R G A N IZ IN G

The PROCESS / 1 . 3 FUNCTION of Management (Bartol & Martin) P L A N

L E A D IN G

The PROCESS / 1 . 3 FUNCTION of Management (Bartol & Martin) P L A N

REMEMBER!!! POLC

The PROCESS/FUNCTIONS of

PLANNING

Management

qEstablishing goals and standards qDeveloping rules and procedures qDeveloping plan and forecasting qPredicting or projecting some future occurrence

ORGANIZING

qGiving subordinate specific task qEstablishing departments qDelegating authority to subordinates qEstablishing channels of authority an communication qCoordinating the work subordinates

The PROCESS of Management

LEADING

qGetting others to get the job done qMaintaining morale qMotivating subordinates

CONTROLLING

qSetting standards such as sales, quotas, quality standards and production level qChecking to see how actual performance compares with these standards qTaking corrective action as needed

  • 1.4 MANAGERIAL SCOPE

WHO IS MANAGER?

Individuals in an organization who direct the activities of

others. (Robbins)

A person that responsible for planning and directing the work of a group of individuals, monitoring their work, and taking corrective action when necessary.

MANAGERIAL

SCOPE

  • 1.4.1 LEVELS of Management

TOP MANAGEMENT MIDDLE MANAGEMENT FIRST LINE MANAGEMENT
TOP
MANAGEMENT
MIDDLE
MANAGEMENT
FIRST LINE
MANAGEMENT

EXAMPLES

EXAMPLES

President, Vice President, Chief Executive

Officer (CEO)

Head Department, Head of Division, Operation Manager, Factory Manager

Technical Supervisor, Moderator, Clerical Supervisor

LABOR, STAFF, WORKERS ( Operational Employees)

LEVELS of Management

TOP LEVEL MANAGER

 
 
  • Established organizational goals and operating policies Decide how departments should interact and monitor the

 
  • performance of middle management Good decision maker in uncertain situation

 
 

MIDDLE MANAGER

 
 

Supervised first line managers

Supervised first line managers
 

Responsible for finding the best way to use

Responsible for finding the best way to use

the resources to achieve organization goals

 

FIRST LINE MANAGEMENT

 
FIRST LINE MANAGEMENT

Responsible for the daily supervision of non- managerial employees

LEVELS of Management

(Examples with Organizational Chart)

MIDDLE MANAGEMENT FIRST LINE MANAGEMENT LABOR, STAFF, WORKERS ( Non-managerial level )
MIDDLE
MANAGEMENT
FIRST LINE
MANAGEMENT
LABOR, STAFF, WORKERS ( Non-managerial level )

TOP MANAGEMENT

USE OF MANAGEMENT AT

DIFFERENT HIERARCHICAL

PLANNING

ORGANIZING

LEADING

CONTROLLING

LEVEL

USE OF MANAGEMENT AT DIFFERENT HIERARCHICAL PLANNING ORGANIZING LEADING CONTROLLING LEVEL MIDDLE TOP
USE OF MANAGEMENT AT DIFFERENT HIERARCHICAL PLANNING ORGANIZING LEADING CONTROLLING LEVEL MIDDLE TOP
USE OF MANAGEMENT AT DIFFERENT HIERARCHICAL PLANNING ORGANIZING LEADING CONTROLLING LEVEL MIDDLE TOP

1 st LINE

MIDDLE

TOP

Basic managerial

  • 1.4.2 SKILLS/EXPERTISE

TECHNICAL

 
   

qRefer to the knowledge and

 

use of

tools, techniques and

procedures

that specific to

particular field.

qImportant to first-line

management.

   

qE.g. Skills learned by

Surgeon,

CONCEPTUAL

Musicians, Accountants

 
   

& Engineers

 

ability to analyze and

diagnose complex situation.

,

related tasks.

.

   

q Mental

q Involve planning scheduling and

q Lead to a good decision making

q Important to top management.

HUMAN

 
   

qAbility to work effectively

 

with each

others.

qImportant to middle

management.

qInvolves motivating &

disciplining

subordinates, monitoring

performance, providing

   

feedback and

POLITICAL

improving communication.

 
   

qAbility to enhance

 

position, build

power base and

establish right

connections.

qGood political skills lead

to better in

getting resources to

   

their group.

MANAGEMENT SKILLS IN DIFFERENT HIERARCHICAL LEVEL

CONCEPTUAL

 

HUMAN

 

TECHNICAL

 

POLITICAL

 
   

1 st Line

CONCEPTUAL

 

HUMAN

 

TECHNICAL

 

POLITICAL

 
   

Middle

CONCEPTUAL

 

HUMAN

 

TECHNICAL

 

POLITICAL

 
   
Top
Top
  • 1.4.3 Managerial ROLES

(Mintzberg)

Interperso

nal

Figurehead

Leader

Liaison

Informatio

nal

Monitor

Disseminator

Spokesperson

Decisional

Entrepreneur

1 . 4 . 3 Managerial ROLES (Mintzberg) Interperso nal Figurehead Leader Liaison Informatio nal Monitor

Disturbance handler

Resource allocator

Source: The Nature of Managerial Work (paperback) by H. Mintzberg. Table 2, pp. 92–93. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Ne otiator

Managerial ROLES

(Mintzberg)

qInterpersonal

1Figurehead

Perform symbolic duties or legal or social nature

2Leader

Builds relationships with subordinates and communicate with, motivates and coaches them

iii) Liaison

Maintains networks of contacts outside

work

unit who provide help and information.

Managerial ROLES

(Mintzberg)

qInformational

1Monitor

Seeks internal and external information about issues that can effect organization.

2Disseminator

Transmit information either internal or external

iii) Spokesperson

Transmit information about organization to outsider.

Managerial ROLES

(Mintzberg)

qDecisional

1Entrepreneur

Initiator, designer and encourage change and innovation

2Disturbance handler

Takes corrective action when organization faces important unexpected difficulties.

iii) Resource allocator

Distributes resources of all types

including time, and human resources.

iv) Negotiator

funding, equipment

Representing organization at major

  • 1.5 Evolution of management

thoughts

The Pre-modern Era

Ancient Massive Construction Projects

Egyptian pyramids Great Wall of China

Michelangelo, the Manager.

MANAGEMENT APPROACHES

  • 1. Classical approach

    • a) Scientific management

    • b) Administrative management
      c) Bureaucratic organization

  • 2. Behavioral perspective

    • a) Mary Parker Follett

    • b) Elton Mayo

    • c) Douglas McGregor

  • 3. Modern approaches

    • a) System approach

    • b) Contingency approach

    • 1.5.1 The Classical Approach

    The term used to describe the hypotheses of the scientific management theorists and the general administrative theorists.

    a) Scientific Management

    i) Fredrick W. Taylor

    a)

    • The Principles of Scientific Management

    (1911)

    Advocated the use of the scientific method to define the “one best way” for a job to be done

    • Believed that increased efficiency could be

    achieved

    by selecting the right people

    for the job and training them to do it

    precisely in the one best way.

    • To motivate workers, he favored incentive wage plans.

    Taylor’s Four Principles of

    Management

    1. 2.Development of work standards Standard methods should be developed for performing for performing each job
    1.
    2.Development of work standards
    Standard methods should be developed
    for performing for performing each job
    within the organization.
    2.
    Selection of workers.
    Workers with the appropriate abilities
    should be selected for each job.
    3.Training of workers.
    Workers should be trained in the
    standard methods.
    4.
    Support of workers.
    Workers should be supported by having their
    work planned for them.

    Scientific Management

    ii)

    Frank and Lillian

    Gilbreth

    Bricklaying efficiency improvements

    Time and motion studies (therbligs)

    Scientific Management  ii) Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Bricklaying efficiency improvements Time and motion studies (

    iii) Henry Gantt

    Incentive compensation systems tt

    G

    h

    t f

    h

    d

    li

    k

    b) Bureaucratic Management

    Max Weber (Germany)

    b)

     

    Bureaucracy: Ideal type of organization characterized by division of labor, a clearly defined hierarchy, detailed rules and regulations, and impersonal relationships.

    This theory provides a blueprint of how an entire organization should operate.

    Max Weber (1864-1920), a German social historian, is most closely associated with bureaucratic management.

    Bureaucratic

    Management

    Max Weber (Germany)

    b)

    1.Division of Labor 2.Authority Hierarchy 3.Formal Selection

    4.Formal Rules and Regulations

    5.Impersonality

    6.Career Orientation

    c) General Administrative

    Developed general theories of what managers do and what constitutes good management practice

    Henri Fayol (France)

    Fourteen Principles of Management:

    Fundamental or universal principles of

    7.Remuneration

    1.Division of Work

    2.Authority

    management practice

    8.Centralization

    3.Discipline a)

    4.Unity of Command

    • 5. Unity of

    Direction

    • 6. Subordination of

    • 9. Scalar Chain

      • 10. Order

      • 11. Equity

      • 12. Stability of Tenure

    of Personnel

    Individual

    Interests to the

    General Interest

    • 13. Initiative

    14.Esprit de Corps

    1.5.2 The Behavioral Approach a)Mary Parker Follett b ) Introduce 4 Principles of Coordination to promote
    1.5.2
    The Behavioral
    Approach
    a)Mary Parker Follett
    b )
    Introduce 4 Principles of
    Coordination to
    promote effective work group.
    Coordination requires that people be in direct
    contact with each other.
    Coordination in essential during the initial
    stages of any endeavor.
    Coordination must address all factors and
    phases of any endeavor.
    Coordination is continuous / on going process.

    The Behavioral Approach

    b)

    Elton Mayo

    Hawthorne

    Studies

    A series of studies done during the 1920s and 1930s that provided new insights into group norms and behaviors

    Hawthorne effect

    Social norms or standards of the group are the key determinants of individual work behavior.

    Changed the prevalent view of the time that people were no different than machines.

    The Behavioral Approach

    c) Douglas McGregor (Theory X

    and Y)

    X

    Y

    The Behavioral Approach

    b)

    Douglas McGregor (Theory X and
    Y)

    FACTOR

    THEORY X ASSUMPTIONS

    THEORY Y ASSUMPTIONS

    Employees

    Employees dislike work

    Employees enjoy work

    attitude towards

    and will avoid it if at all

    and will actively seek

    work Management

    Employees possible. must be

    Employees it. are self-

    view of direction

    directed, coerced.

    motivated and self-

    Controlled, or

    directed toward

    Employee view of

    threatened Employees to wish get to them avoid to

    Employees achieving seek

    direction

    put responsibility; forth adequate they

    organizational responsibility; they goals.

    prefer effort. to be directed and

    wish to use their

         

    Management

    told Authoritarian what to do style and of how

    Participatory creativity, imagination style of

    style

    to management. do it.

    and management. ingenuity in

    performing their jobs.

    1.5.3 Modern Approaches

    1 . 5 . 3 Modern Approaches

    a) The System Approach

    Defines a system as a set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole.

    The System Approach

    The

    Organizatio

    n and its

    environment

    The System Approach The Organizatio n and its environment

    b) The Contingency Approach

    Replaces more simplistic systems and integrates much of management theory.

    Four Contingency

    Variables

    NEXT WEEK

    Write up a simple notes

    for:

    Definition of

    planning

    It’s Importance

    Types of Planning

    (Strategic and