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• Meaning and Concept; • Content Theories of Motivation – Two factor theory, McGregor Theory X and Y, Alderfer ERG Theory; • Process Theories- Vroom’s Expectancy Theory, Porter-Lawler Model; • Contemporary Theories- Equity Theory, Attribution Theory; • Financial and Non Financial incentives, Job enrichment, Linking Performance with rewards
Meaning Of Motivation
• The willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need
The Motivation Process Individual behaves iological/Psychological Deficiency Certain mannerin a (NEED) (DRIVE) Achieves a Particular Goal (INCENTIVES) .
achievement. risk taking.Classification Of Motives • Primary motives – Hunger. status . sex • General Motives or stimulus motive – Curiosity. manipulation. active and affection • Secondary Motives – Power. thirst. affiliation. security. sleep.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 2.Content Theories of Motivation 1.ERG .Herzberg’s Two factor theory of Motivation 3.
1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs .
2. Herzberg’s theory of Motivation • Propounded by Frederick Herzberg • Also known as Two factor theory • Study on job satisfaction or dissatisfaction • .
Challenging jobs .. Salary..Two factors Hygiene Factors • Dissatisfiers • Job dissatifiers were related to job context • Hygiene factors are responsible for preventing dissatisfaction • It is related to Maslow’s lower order of needs • Eg. incentives Motivating factors • Satisfiers • Job satisfiers were associated with job content • Motivators keep employees satisfied • Higher order of needs in Maslow's hierarchy of needs • Eg.
Contrasting Views of Satisfaction-Dissatisfaction Traditional View Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Herzberg ’ s View Motivators Satisfaction No Satisfaction Hygiene Factors No Dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction .
ERG • Propounded by Clayton Alderfer • His theory is an extension of Herzberg’s and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs • Conducted some empirical study • Recognized the importance of categorizing needs • There is a clear distinction between lower level and higher level needs .
ERG Model of Motivation .
Growth Needs: .3 BASIC GROUP OF CORE NEEDS 1.Relatedness Needs: 3.Existence Needs: These are associated with the survival and physiological well being of an individual These needs emphasize the significance of social and interpersonal relationship These needs are related to a person’s inner desire for personal growth and development 2.
Herzberz's Two Factor theory and Alderfer's ERG Needs Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Self Actualization and fulfillment Motiva tional Factor s Hygien e Factor s Herzberg's Two Factor Theory Work itself Achievement Possibility of growth Responsibility Advancement Recognition Status Alderferr's ERG NEEDS Growth Esteem and Status Relatedness Relationship with supervisors. Peer relations. Relations with Subordinates. Quality of Supervision Company policy and administration Job security Working Conditions Belonging and Social Needs Safety and Security Existence Physiological Needs .The Relationship between Maslow's hierarchy of Need .
Theory X and Theory Y Douglass Mcgregor Theory X Theory X Avoid Avoid Work Work Must be Must be Controlled Controlled Avoid Avoid Responsibility Responsibility Seek Security Seek Security Theory Y Theory Y Work is Natural Work is Natural SelfSelfDirection Direction Seek Seek Responsibility Responsibility Good Decisions Good Decisions Widely Widely .
• Process Theories of Work Motivation Content theories focus on “What” determines motivation • While Process theories focus on “How” of motivation • Two important process theories are 1.The Porter-lawler model .Vroom’s Expectancy theory of motivation 2.
Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation • Proposed by Victor Vroom • Acc to him the content theories of work motivation did not provide an adequate explanation for the complex process of work motivation • Hence proposed expectancy theory of work motivation • Three important Variables are – Valence. Instrumentality and Expectancy – Therefore VIE .1.
The desire to obtain a promotion may motivate an individual to display superior performance in the job • The superior performance is the first .Meaning of Variables • Instrumentality (I) = refers to the degree to which a first level outcome would help in attaining the desired second level outcome • Instrumentality serves as input for valence • Eg..
attitude and expected utility .Meaning of Variables • Valence(V) = denotes the strength of an individual’s preference for a particular outcome – Other terms used for valence are Value. Incentive.
Meaning of Variables • Expectancy (E) = is the probability that performing a specific action would produce a particular first level outcome of effort • Expectancy relates to a person’s effort to the first level outcome • Instrumentality relates first level outcome to second level outcome • Hence motivation to perform a certain task depends on sum of VIE .
Performance reward 3. rewards and personal goals • Three types of relationships are identified in Vroom's expectancy theory 1.Reward personal goal .Vroom’s focus • Focuses on the relationship bt an employee’s efforts. performance.Effort performance 2.
Effort Performance Relationship: Shows an individual’s perception of the probability that a specific level of performance would result if he exerts a certain amount of effort 2.Conti. 1.Rewards Personal goals relationship: refers to the degree to which an individual’s personal goals or needs are satisfied by the rewards given by the organization and his perception of the attractiveness of these rewards .Performance reward relationship: denotes the extent of an individuals' belief that a particular level of performance would result in achieving the desired outcome 3..
Porter Lawler Model • Common belief that happy worker is a productive worker • Researchers also believe that fact that employees satisfaction too determines the productivity • The content theories of motivation assumes that increase in employee satisfaction improves productivity .2.
Porter and Edward E. Lawler as an extension of Vroom’s expectancy theory • They tried to explore the complex relationship bt motivation.Conti… • Porter-lawlermodel was developed by Lyman W. satisfaction and performance • They pointed out that efforts put in an employee did not directly result in performance .
Conti… • The model holds that performance in an organization is dependent on three factors 1.Motivation alone cannot ensure successful performance of a task.The employee should have a clear perception of his role in the .An employee should have the desire to perform (must feel motivated to accomplish the task) 2. The employee should also have the abilities and skills required to successfully perform the task 3.
Rewards: both intrinsic and extrinsic 4.Important variables 1.Effort: denotes the amount of energy expended by an individual to perform a specific task 2.Performance: apart from motivation.Satisfaction: It results when the actual rewardsexceed the . the individual’s abilities and skills determine the performance of the person 3.
Porter-Lawler Motivation Model .
Equity Theory 2.Contemporary Theory of Motivation 1.Attribution theory .
1. Equity Theory
• Propounded by J.Stacy Adams • Defined as “ the degree of equity or inequity perceived by an employee with reference to his work situation, plays a major role in work performance and satisfaction”.
Equity Represented as
Inequity Represented as
Person's Equal Other's Outcomes To Outputs Person's Inputs Other's inputs
Person's Outcomes less Other's than Others's Person's Inputs Outputs inputs OR Person's Outcomes more Other's than Other's Person's Inputes Outputs inputs
Inequity as a Motivational process
nequity perceived by the Desire tension Leads to experienced tension to reduceAction to reduce tensi Individual
4. 2.Conti.. Otherinside . Other-outside . 3. Self-Outside. Self-inside. • The important variable in equity theory is the “Referent” chosen by the employee • Referent is an object of reference or individual with whom the employee compares himself • The various referent comparisons used by an employee are 1.
• If employees perceives inequity, he will make the following choices
1.Change in inputs 2.Change in outputs 3.Distort perceptions of self 4.Distort perception of others 5.Choose a different referent 6.Leave the field
2. Attribution Theory
• Fritz Heider is first one to initiate the theory • Other important contributions come from
– H. Kelley,
2. Attribution Theory
“a theory that is concerned mainly with cognitive processes by which an individual interprets behaviour as caused by certain parts of the relevant environment
They attribute actions of individuals to internal or external causes 3.These theories propose that individuals follow a fairly logical approach in making attributions .They try to provide a logical explanation to all that is happening 2.3 Basic Assumptions 1.
and the desire of promotion. or operates on the passions. • that which incites. spur. . are two powerful incentives to action. motive. or has a tendency to incite. as. to determination or action. the love of money.Incentives • That which moves or influences the mind. • that which prompts to good or ill.
Incentives Financial • Money • Compensation • Salary • Non-financial • Higher designation change • Recognition • Mementos • gifts .
Job Enrichment • The process of job enrichment accounts for adding more variety of tasks to be performed in addition to granting the worker more control over the job .
Job Enlargement • Also known as horizon loading • Aims to expand the worker’s job to include the tasks which were previously performed by the other workers .
Linking performance with Rewards .
Module: 7 Leadership .
likert’s four systems • Roles and activities of leadership .Module Coverage • Concept. important theories on leadership • Leadership styles – Managerial Grid • Situational approach.
group and organizational objectives. Effective leaders help groups of people to define their goals and find ways to achieve them” • .I. Definition of Leadership • Defined as a process in which a person tries to influence a set of individuals in the pursuit of achieving individual.
Contingency approaches to leadership .II.Behavioural Theories of leadership 3.Trait theory of leadership 2. Theories of Leadership 1.
motives and values. emotional stability.1. Trait theory of Leadership • The term trait refers to a variety of individual attributes. emotional maturity. • Ex. energy level and stress tolerance . including aspects of personality. temperament. Personality traits are relatively stable disposition to behave in a particular way . Self confidence. needs..
Conti.. • Napoleon. Alexander… were natural leaders • “Great Person Theory” – states that leadership traits can be acquired with training and experience .
Conti… • Self confidence: leaders with high self-confidence are more likely to attempt difficult task and to set challenging objectives for themselves • Emotional stability and maturity: emotional maturity may be defined broadly to encompass several interrelated motives . traits and values .
Conti. • Emotional Intelligence: individuals with high EQ are in touch with their emotions and demonstrate self management in their ability to control their moods and feelings productively and in staying motivated and focused even when facing obstacles • Personal integrity: integrity means that a person's behaviour is consistent with espoused values and that the person is honest. ethical and trust worth ..
desire to succeed. desire to excel.Conti.. values. • Achievement motivation: this includes a set of related attitudes. and needs: needs for achievement. and concern for the task’s objectives • Power motivation: a strong need for power is relevant to managerial role requirements that involve the . willingness to assume responsibility.
Conti… • Affiliation motivation: people with strong need for affiliation receive great satisfaction from being liked and accepted by others and enjoy working with people who are friendly .
University of Michigan studies 3.The Ohio State Studies 2.The managerial grid 4.2. Behavioural Theories • Trait theory failed to establish relationship between traits and leadership effectiveness • Hence behaviour theories • Some of the behaviorual theories 1.Scandinavian studies .
2.1.The Ohio State Studies • In 1945. researchers from different streams carried out the studies of leadership at Ohio • They developed a questionnaire called the leader behaviour Description Questionnaire to analyze the difference in the behavior of leader across various groups • Came out with two important dimensions .
help them solve both personal and work related problems .Two Dimensions Initiating Structure Consideration • It refers to an individual’s ability to define his own as well as the subordinate’s tasks and get these tasks accomplished on time • The people who score high on this dimension will put pressure on their subordinates to meet deadlines and maintain certain standards of • Refers to the extent to which a leader cares for his subordinates. • Individuals who score high on this dimension are open and friendly with subordinates. respects their ideas and feelings and establishes work relations which are characterized by mutual trust and respect.
2.2.low productivity pairs at Prudential Insurance company.Employee-oriented 2. • Interviewed 24 supervisors and more than 400 workers • Found that leadership behaviour could be categorized 1. University of Michigan Studies • Study of high.Production-oriented .
.Conti. Employee-Oriented • Emphasizes the importance of interpersonal relations • Leaders who score high on this dimension take a personal interest in their subordinate's needs and accept individual differences among members • It was observed that the more productive Production-Oriented • Are concerned with tasks and goals • They consider employees to be means to achieve goals and pay little or no attention to any problems • Employees are no different from machines .
3.2. Managerial Grid • Blake and Mouton developed two dimensional matrix model of leadership style .
3. Managerial Grid .
2. Scandinavian Studies • Came out with the concept of development oriented leaders • Such leaders experiment with new ideas and practice and embrace change • .4.
Path-goal theory .3.Fiedler’s Contingency model 2.Leadership-participation model 5. Contingency Approaches to Leadership • Contingency theories of leadership postulates that leaders have to change their style depending on the situation they face • Contingency theories 1.Hersey and Blanchard’s situational theory 3.Leader member exchange theory 4.
Fiedler’s Contingency model • Fiedler’s LPC(least Preferred Coworker) Contingency theory • LPC model assumes that a leader’s contribution to the success of the group is determined by the leader’s competency and by the situation • LPC: The LPC is a person with whom the leader has found it most difficult to work • Low LPC leaders and high LPC leaders .a.
The power of the position is the authority that leaders command due to a proven ability to . • The effectiveness of a leader depends on • Leader-member relations: A leader who is liked and respected has the subordinates' confidence. and can enhance the effectiveness of the group • Task structure: clearly defined tasks goals and roles for both leader and subordinates need to in place • Position power: refers to leader’s ability to enforce compliance. works in a smoothly functioning group..Cont.
Participate 4.Sell 3.Tell 2.delegate .b. Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership theory • Known as SLT • Incorporates consideration(Relationship behaviour) and initiating structure (Task behaviour) and extends these two dimensions of leadership to form four styles: 1.
That is. Hersey and Blanchard’s situational theory 1.Telling style: provides clean and specific instructions.b. the leader tells the subordinates what to do and how to perform various tasks 2. The selling style requires both task and relationship leader behavior .Selling style: a selling style is likely to be effective when followers are willing but unable to perform their tasks.
Delegating Style: the leader uses a delegating style when subordinates are both able and willing to perform their tasks and have confidence in their abilities .b. Hersey and Blanchard’s situational theory 3. Participating Style: a participating style seems to work best when the followers are able but not confident of their ability to perform their tasks 4.
Situational Leadership Model .
C. usually early in their interaction • This small group of subordinates is referred to as the in-group while the rest are referred as the outgroup . leaders establish a special relationship with a small group of subordinates. Leader member exchange theory • George Green is the proponent • Known as LMX • Acc to him.
Conti… • The leaders trust the subordinates. who belong to in-groups. give them more attention. interact with them frequently and offer them special privileges • The out-group people get less of the leader’s time and attention • The interaction bt the leader and the out-group are less frequent and purely formal .
D. Leadership-participation model • Proposed by Victor Vroom and Philip Yetton • “This theory provides a sequential set of rules that can be followed for ascertaining the type and amount of participation required in decisions making in different situation” .
the leader should provide required support and guidance to his followers and help them achieve organizational goals • He should also establish individual goals for employees that are compatible with the broad organizational goals • Thus. he also removes any obstructions that come while . Path-goal Theory • Developed by Robert House • Acc to this theory.E. the leader defines the path to achieve goals.
the behaviour of a leader is acceptable to subordinates as long as 1.The subordinates find that the satisfaction of their needs (promotion and rewards) depends on their effective performance 2. • Acc to path-goal theory.They are provided with guidance. support and rewards that are needed for effective performance .Conti..
Supportive 3.Achievement-orientated .Directive 2.Participative 4.Conti… • The path goal theory suggests that leaders motivate and satisfy employees in a particular situation by adopting one or more of the following four leadership styles 1.
Directive: essentially a clarifying behaviour that also provides a psychological support structure to subordinates 2. Achievement – Oriented: Encourages employees to reach . Participative: Encourages and calls for the involvement and participation of subordinates in decisions beyond their normal work activities 4.Leadership Styles According to Path-Goal Theory 1.Supportive: Provides a high degree of emotional and 3.
System 2 : Benevolent Authoritative 3.Likert’s System – 4 Management • Previously there were two styles of leadership • He went on to elaborate the above ideas in four styles of leadership that captures the management culture of an organization 1.System 3 : Consultative .System 1 : Exploitative Authoritative 2.
Participative: the leader discusses economic rewards and uses group participation and involvement in fixing high performance goals and improving work methods and procedures .Benevolent Authoritative: The leader uses rewards to encourages performance 3. and communication may be two way 4.Exploitative Authoritative: The leader uses fear and threats. communication is downward. superiors and subordinates are psychologically distant 2. Consultative: The leader uses appropriates rewards.Likert’s System – 4 Management 1.
Democratic 3.Autocratic 2.Laissez-faire .Leadership Styles • White & Lippitt • Through their experiments in social psychology • Came out with the contrasting ways of behaving of styles of leadership 1.
determine what is to be done. information from their followers. promise rewards for competence and threaten punishments for disobedience 2. • issue the rules. Democratic Style: • They solicit advice. • provide the information. leaders initiate structure. Styles of Leadership 1. or task-directed. and share decision making with their followers . opinions. Autocratic Style: • Autocratic.
Laissez-faire Style: • Leaders give group members complete freedom of action. and refrain form participating except to answer questions when asked . provide them with material.Styles of Leadership 3.
Modern styles of Leadership • Charismatic leaders/Persuasive leaders • Transformational leaders .
A leader exhibits positive energy 4.A leader creates something of value that did not exist before 3.A leader works with others to make the difference 2.Leaders encourage change .Activities of a leader 1.
12 Great Roles of A Leader .
Module: 08 Group Behaviour and Group Dynamics .
Module Coverage • Nature and types of groups • Role of group in the organization • Group size and status. influence on group behaviour • Group structuring norms. cohesiveness • Group think • Group decision making techniques • Dynamics of formal and formal . tasks.
share common values. and strive for common objectives” . perceive themselves as a distinct entity distinguishable from others. What is a Group? • “A collection of two or more people who meet regularly and influence one another over a period of time.A.
Security 4.Recognition 5.Power 3.Proximity 6.Goal accomplishment .Warmth and support 2.REASONS FOR GROUP FORMATION 1.
Interest Groups 3.B .Command Group 2. TYPES OF GROUPS FORMAL GROUP INFORMAL GROUP 1.Project Group 4.Committees 1.Friendship Groups 2.Reference Groups .Task Group 3.
1. Formal Group Definition • A formal group is established by the management and is expected to perform well defined tasks to achieve organization’s objectives Example • At this level formal groups help to satisfy the person’s need for affiliation. 1.Project Group 4.Committees .Command Group 3.Task Group and 2. confirm his identity and enhance self – esteem • Ex..
Command Group • It is a form of permanent group in the organization dictated by the structure of the organization • A typical Command group comprises of a supervisor exercising his authority over a set of subordinates .1. Task Group • It is a temporary formal group that is established to solve specific issues • Ex…Special Task Force – Curriculum Revision – Disciplinary b. Formal Group a.
affiliation.2. companionship and communication between people • Ex … of Informal Groups 1. appears in response to the need for social contact • Informal groups grow out of the need for friendship.Friendship Groups 3. Informal Group • A group that is neither formally structured nor organizational determined.Interest Groups 2.Reference Groups .
Chatting.2. Friendship Groups • Friendship groups are based on common characteristics like age. b. Informal Groups a. smoking. Interest Group • These groups comprise of individuals who share a mutual interest and group together to try achieve their objectives • EX. common values and college affiliations • Ex. gossiping.. playing ... Drinking.
Vehicle for training new employees b. Generating new and creative ideas 5. Solving personal problems 4. Maintenance Functions 1.C. Reducing anxiety and uncertainty . Liaison or coordinating functions 3. Providing a sense of identity and self esteem 3. Implementation of complex decisions 4. Handling complex tasks 2. Functions of a Group a. Fulfilling the need for social interaction 2. Task Functions 1.
What is a Role? • What is a Role? – A role is defined as a set of recurring behavior that is expected from a member by others in a group – Set of behaviour patterns which an individual occupying a certain position in society is expected to display .D.
What is Role Ambiguity? • When people are uncertain about their duties. responsibilities and authority. it causes role ambiguity • .
Perceived Roles 6. .Personal Roles 4.Roles of a Group 1.Maintenance Roles 3.Enacted roles 7.Task Roles 2.Expected Roles 5.
Task Roles Meaning • Task roles directly help the group to achieve its goals and objectives and are focused towards that Various Task Roles • Initiator • Information-seeker • Opinion seeker • Information giver • Opinion giver • Elaborator • summarizer .
Maintenance Roles Meaning • Maintenance roles are geared towards establishing and maintaining good interpersonal relations Various Maintenance Roles • Encourager • Gatekeeper • Standard setter • Follower • Expresser • Tension reliever .
Personal Roles Meaning • Personal roles are based on individual needs and are generally detrimental to group effectiveness Various Personal roles • Aggressor • Blocker • Confessor • Competitor • Sympathy seekers • Pleader • withdrawal .
and it expresses itself in terms of what management expects from the staff and vice versa. .Expected Roles • This is an unwritten agreement that exists between the employer and the employees.
.Perceived Roles • Perceived roles included the activities that the role incumbent believes are necessary to fulfill the expected role.
Enacted Role • This is a representation of how a person actually behaves in a given situation .
Role Conflict • Role conflict arises when an individual's performance of one role is made difficulty by another role .
E. cohesiveness is likely to exist in the group . Group Cohesiveness • Meaning – In situations of high levels of agreement among group members with regard to values and beliefs.
gender .Charismatic leader 5.Rewards 8.Similarity in attitude and goals 2.Sources of Cohesiveness 1.Size 4.Successful attainment of the goals 3.Threats 6.Membership to high status group 7.
Consequences of Group Cohesiveness • Group cohesiveness and productivity • Group satisfaction and satisfaction • Group cohesiveness and growth .
Group Structure • Groups.F. unlike mobs. tend to have a definite structure • It helps shape the behavior of its members • Group structure can be understood through – – – – – – Formal leadership Roles Norms Group status Size Composition of the group .
1.Formal Leadership • Formal leader is important to lead the group • The leader behavior influences the follower • The styles of a leader are emulated .
Roles – A role is defined as a set of recurring behavior that is expected from a member by others in a group – Set of behaviour patterns which an individual occupying a certain position in society is expected to display – Various dimensions of roles • • • • Role Role Role Role Identity Perception expectation conflict .2.
3. Norms • Acceptable standards of behaviourwithin a group that are shares by the group members • Not necessarily written in the book of law • Norms that guide the group – Norms pertaining to performance – Appearance norms – Norms pertaining to informal social arrangement .
4. Status • Status can be defined as a social position or rank given to groups or group members by others • Disparity occurs due to status and the behaviour of the group members who belong to a particular status .
Size • The size of a group has a major impact on the overall behaviour of the group • Researches have proved that small groups are faster at completing tasks than large once • In large groups there can be ‘social loafing” • Social loafing: The tendency for individuals to exert less effort while working in a group as compared to working alone in called social loafing • Risky-shift: some groups are equipped to take greater risk than individuals and the phenomenon is called the risky shift .5.
G. Groupthink • Phenomenon in which the norms for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action • Groupthink exists when pressures for conformity are so great that they rend to overpower the member’ concern for realistic appraisal of alternative course of actions .
Sanctity of group consensus 6.Illusion of unanimity 3.Negative views of the competitor 5.Symptoms of Group Think 1.Illusion of invulnerability 2.Belief in the rectitude(Morality) of the group 4.Erecting a protecting shield 7.Mind Guarding .
Conti.Reappraise the first decision 4.. • Counteracting Groupthink 1.Keep a check on the competitor's reaction .Exercise impartiality 3.Break groups into subgroups 5.Encourage critical discussion 2.
Group Decision making • “Two heads are better than one” 1. Risky Shift . Superiority 3. Conformity 2.G.
Assets and liabilities of group problem solving and Decision ASSESTS OF THE making LIABILITIES OF THE GROUP • Greater knowledge and information • More approaches a problems • Increased acceptance • Better comprehension of the decision GROUP • Time consuming • Pressure to conform • Individual domination • Conflicting alternative solutions • The problem of responsibility • .
Brainstorming: group structure that encourages creative thinking by deferring judgment on ideas generated 3.Ordinary Group Interaction 2.Problem Solving Techniques for Group 1.Delphi Technique: it uses a structured approach to gain the judgments of a number of experts on .The nominal group technique (NGT): A technique for enhancing group creativity that integrates both individual work and group interaction within certain ground rules 4.
Stages of Group Development .
Module: 09 ORGANIZATIO NAL CHANGE .
types of changes • Factors influencing change • Resistance to change • Techniques to minimize changes in the organization .Module coverage • Managing change and organizational development • Pressure for change • Change process.
CHANGE • “Change is the coping process of moving from the present state to a desired state that individuals, groups and organizations undertake in response to dynamic internal and external factors that alter current realities”
ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE • “The adoption of a new idea or behavour by an organization”
Meaning of Organizational development
• “Planned change programmes intended to help people and organizations function more effectively”
Types of Change
1.Evolutionary Change 2.Revolutionary Change
Conti. • Evolutionary Change: it is gradual.engineering – TQM . incremental and specifically focused – it involves the attempt to increase the effectiveness of the way an organization currently operates • Revolutionary Change: it is drastic and organization –wide – it involves the attempt to find new ways to be effective – It is dramatic – Re..
Forces of Change or Factors influencing change Internal Forces 1. Employee needs and values 4. Change in the chief Executive External Forces 1. Increased size 2. Market situation 3. The domino effect 5. Technology 2. Performance gaps 3. Social and political change 4. competition .
Identifying the causes 3.Change Process • The following are the stages in change process 1.Evaluating the change .Managing the transition state 6.Implementing the change 4.Supporting the change 7.Supporting the change 8.Generating motivation for change 5.problem Recognition 2.
Lewin’s Three Step Model of change .
Lewin’s Three Step Model of change 1. the actual change process begins 3.REFREEZE: after change has been implemented. This step reinforces change so that the organization does not revert back to old state of things . the employees are convinced or prepared for change.MOVEMENT TO CHANGE: after the early resistance to change. it has to be assimilated into the organizational processes. employees are educated about the external and internal factors that make change imperative 2.UNFREEZE: here.
Fear of economic loss 4. Security 3. Limited focus of change 3. Self-interest and ego defensiveness 8. Structural inertia 2. Peer pressure 9. Resource constraints . Threat to established resources allocations 7. Social displacement Organizational Resistance 1. Fear of unknown 6. Group inertia 4. Threat to established power relationships 6. Habit 2.Resistance to Change Individual Resistance 1. Threat to expertise 5. Obsolescence of skills 5. Status quo 7.
Overcoming the resistance to change 1.Coercion 7.Participation and involvement 3.Education and communication 2.Negotiation and agreement 5.Group dynamics .Manipulation and cooptation 6.Facilitation and support 4.
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