System of Government and National Administrative Structure

‡System refers to the divisions, each of which has a function and a role to play which contribute towards the system as a whole

‡ The structure of a government refers to the stratifications in which each division works to maintain and render more efficiently the administration of the country ‡ There are three basic bodies the executive, legislative and judiciary ‡ The country s government and administration is divided into two levels the federal and state

‡ The federal government is empowered to administer the whole of the Malaysian Federation ‡ The state government is empowered to rule and manage the administration at the state level with powers invested by or based on the Federal Constitution as the highest laws of the land

Specialization of Power (Separation of power) The Executive ‡ Has the power to govern and is responsible for carrying out the matters of governing and administration and does not involve itself in the matters and affairs of the judiciary or legislature ‡ Has the role of implementing the laws that have been passed by the legislative body whether at Parliament or State Legislative Assembly which is known as the Cabinet and State Executive Council .

The Legislative Body ‡ Its function is to draw up. amend and pass laws at Parliament at federal level and State Legislative Assembly at state level ‡ The laws or regulations guide the executive at both levels to administer and manage the ruling of the country ‡ The laws drawn up cannot be enforced until they have the consent of the King(yang diPertuan Agong) at the Federation and the .

Sultan or Yang Dipertua Negeri for the Stae within a fixed period of time The Judiciary ‡ To keep watch so that the laws do not go against the provisions in the Federal Constitution and to prevent the executive from abusing its power ‡ It can decide if the laws are valid or cannot be enforced because they exceed their powers of .

settles disputes between parties .jurisdiction as specified in the Federal Constitution and act as an institution that defends the supremacy of the Constitution and sees to the balance of power between the Executive and the Legislative bodies to reinforce the people s belief in the government ‡ It also defends justice by judging all offences committed .

whether it be between the central and state government. nor are they . the two state governments. or between individuals ‡ It acts objectively in carrying out its duties of respecting the sovereignty of the counbtry s laws ‡ the judgments and punishments decided upon do not take into account. the public and the central or state government.

the status. religion or descent of the individual Administration at the Federal Level ‡ According to the Federal Constituion (Articlee 39). race. the power of the executive at the level of the federal government lies in the hands of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong ‡ This means his Highness is the supreme head . rank.influenced by.

of the country and can exercise the power to rule ‡ However. as specified in the Constitution. can also delegate the implementation of the executive duties to other people. the Public Services . through the laws. the executive power is exercised by the Cabinet or by any minister empowered by the Cabinet ‡ Parliament. such as the General Elections Commission.

who is acting under the general powers of the Cabinet ‡ This means that although His Highness is the country s supreme head. His Highness. has to act on the advice of the Cabinet or a Minister. he does not have the .Commission. when carrying out his executive duties. the Immigration and the Customs ‡ According to the Constitution [Article 40.(1)].

absolute power to act as he likes and thus avoid being directly involved in the political matters of the country and the implementation of the country s governance and administration ‡ Instead His Highness has the right to access to whatever information regarding the government of the Federation from the Cabinet .

for any official duty as the chief executive ‡ But His Highness can be convicted in a special court provided for under Section XV of the Constitution which means His Highness does not have absolute immunity in the eyes of the law .Yang di-Pertuan Agong The King ‡ The king is instituted through the Federal Constitution as the supreme head is above everyone in Malaysia and cannot be convicted in any trial nor in whatever court .

‡ This is the practice of the concept of Parliamentary Monarchy ‡ This also illustrates that the system of Parliamentary democracy protects justice and every citizen is subject to the laws of the country ‡ To prevent this institution from being tarnished the Yang di-Pertuan Agong cannot .

cannot leave the Federation for more than 15 days at any one time without the approval of the Council of Rulers except on official national matters Selection ‡ Selected by rotation from among the nine Malay . receive any emolument.do business. not allowed to continue with his duties as the ruler of his state nor hold any salaried position.

rulers in the Federation based on certain procedures as spelt out in the Third Schedule of the Constitution ‡ Every ruler. when his turn comes. or any shortcoming such as mental or health problem. qualifies to be chosen unless he is still a teenager or himself decides he does not want to be chosen. or if the members of the Council of Rulers with the ballot support of at least five members are .

taking into account the period before independence The position is for a period of five years The selection now has gone into the second round .‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ convinced that he is unfit to be King The most senoir sultan or ruler in the line-up is qualified for selection Seniority is based on the length of time the ruler has been ruling the state.

‡ The period can be shortened if His Highness withdraw from the position apart from decease ‡ The position is not sacred and can be dismissed by means of a secret ballot with the support of at least five members of the Council of Rulers ‡ The period can also be shortened if His Highness ceases to be ruler of his own state .

the executive powers of the Yang di_pertuan Agong allow him to use his discretionary powers in three matters: 1. Request for a meeting of the Rulers Council to be held.The Power of the Yang diPertuan Agong ‡ According to the Constitution (article 20. Appointment of the Prime Minister 2.[2]). to discuss matters pertaining to . Not to consent to the dissolution of Parliament 3.

in the conference of the Council of .the special rights. Penang. Sabah and Sarawak ‡ However. as stated in the Constitution Membership and Role of the Council of Rulers ‡ The Council is represented by the Rulers or Sultans of nine states and also the Yang Dipertua Negeri (Governor) of Malacca. status. honour and importance of the rulers and other matters.

on condition that the respective State Constitution allows it ‡ Generally the Council has two important roles: the first is tied to the interests of the Malay rulers and religion while the second involves the administrative affairs of the country as clearly specified in the Constitution(Article 38. They are: .[2]).Rulers. other people can represent the Sultan or Ruler or the Governor.

requires the approval of.1. under the Constitution. Approves or disapproves any law and gives advice on whatever appointment that. Selection of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and the Deputy Yang di-Pertuan Agong 2. Approves or disapproves any act. practice or religious ceremony that involves the Federation as a whole 3. or consultations with the Council of Rulers .

Deliberate matters pertaining to national policies (such as amendments to the immigration policy) and all other matters deemed necessary . postpones or commutes sentences under Section 12. Article 42 6. Grants pardon. Appoints members of the Special Court inder Section (1) Article 182 5.4.

The Conference of the Council of Rulers ‡ The conference is held three or four times a year and each lasts three days ‡ Every conference has as its chairperson the ruler who ranks the highest in terms of seniority and this gives all rulers a chance to chair the Council and reflects the esprit de corps of the Rulers and chairs for only the second and the third day ‡ It may be regarded as a forum for closed .

discussion among the Rulers. the Federal and the State government and for decision-making in the interest of the nation ‡ The collective decision taken in the conference can be regarded as a joint effort between the Rulers and the Federal government on the one hand and the people on the other towards creating an effective national system of administration and government .

Laksamana. 16 and 32 (dignitaries) were cabinet lineups of the time ‡ The status of the Cabinet is also embodied in the Constitution (Article 43) ‡ It is headed by a Prime Minster with ministers .The Cabinet ‡ The concept of the Cabinet actually existed in the period of the Malacca Malay Sultanate with names like Benbahara. Temenggung. 8. Shahbandar and Orang Besar 4.

P. Agong on the advice of the Prime Minister ‡ It is made up of those who represent the party with the majority in Parliament Prime Minister ‡ The appointment is performed by the YDP Agong ‡ He is chosen fron among the members of the House of Representatives with the support of .D.appointed by the Y.

he has to resign (Article 43 [4]) ‡ The term of the Cabinet depends on the how long it is approved by the YDP Agong upon the advice of the Prime Minister or a minister can resign voluntarily for specific reasons .the majority. while the other ministers can be from the House of Representatives and the Senate ‡ If he fails to have the support of the majority.

Ministers ‡ Normally all ministers are members of the Cabinet that form the ruling government body ‡ This body is responsible for carrying out the highest executive powers held by and on behalf of the YDP Agong ‡ He can be responsible for one or more portfolios. that is ministries .

and the appointment is made by the YDP Agong ‡ The Deputy Prime Minister is also appointed by the YDP Agong on the advice of the Prime Minister ‡ Those appointed as Deputy Ministers are not members of the Cabinet ‡ The minister is responsible for carrying out .‡ The Prime Minister determines the ministers portfolios based on suitability.

the duties entrusted upon him according to the Ministers Responsibilities Act ‡ There are also ministers who are appointed without portfolios and are known as Ministers Without Portfolio. and their responsibility is to help the Prime Minister to carry out specific duties .

discuss matters such as the implementation of the policies determined. . besides acting as an advisory body to the YDP Agong ‡ They have meetings from time to timeto come up with policies.The Role of the Cabinet ‡ The primary role is to determine the government s policies and to issue directives for their implementation by the government administrative machinery at the federal and state levels.

current problems encountered by the country and the government ‡ It s a closed meeting and held every Wednesday ‡ A policy to be implemented by a ministry must first be presented in the Cabinet meeting through a Cabinet paper (working paper) by the minister concerned ‡ Before presentation. he has to hold .

consultations and discussions with the departments under his ministry and also other ministries ‡ This is to assure the ministry s credibility and as not to have adverse affect upon its implementation ‡ All matters discussed are confidential and recorded by the Cabinet Secretary. the Chief Secretary of the country who is also an advisor to the Cabinet on matters strictly related to the affairs of service only . that is.

when decision is taken. even though there may be differences in ideology and opinion. a Cabinet member should accept or agree with the policy decided .Collective Principle and Spirit ‡ The actions taken by the Cabinet is collective or joint ‡ Every Cabinet member can be frank when giving his views on matters discussed ‡ But.

he shall accept the decision of the majority even though the decision may not involve the ministry he is heading ‡ He has to defend the decision because cabinet members are jointly responsible for the government s policies ‡ If he fails to accept the decision of the majority. the simplest alternative is for him to .‡ This means as in democratic practice.

leave the Cabinet or resign from the government ‡ this spirit of agreement is important within the Cabinet that acts as a body to carry out the executive powers to create a strong organization in the implementation of the policies of the government ‡ Thus. a policy to be implemented is achieved through collective agreement and is jointly defended by the members of the Cabinet and not according to one s whims and fancy .

the House of Representatives and the Senate which have the power to make laws that embrace all matters as embodied in Schedule Nine of the Constitution . that is. the power of the Legislative body is with Parliament which consists of the Yang diPertuan Agong and the two Assemblies (Houses) of Parliament.The Legislative Body ‡ According to the Constitution (Article 44).

‡ Even though the YDP Agong is a component of Parliament, His Majesty is not involved in making the laws ‡ The table below clearly shows that the lawsmaking process is carried out with the utmost care:

The Federal Legislating Process
i. ii. iii. iv. The Minister and the officers of his ministry will frame the bill with advice from the Attorney General s office The Minister will get Cabinet to pass the bill policy explaining in detail the importance of presenting it in Parliament After being agreed upon by the Cabinet, with or without amendment the bill is printed and presented to Parliament The bill is presented to the House of Representatives or the Senate, Three readings: 1st reading - the Minister will read the bill 2nd reading - the principle of the bill will be discussed 3rd reading - the bill will be discussed at the level of the House Committee (N.B. The bill that is passed in the House of Representatives will be brought to the Senate for approval and goes through the same process) The bill that is approved by both the Houses is presented to the YDP Agong for his approval Before it is accepted and applied, the bill, approved by the YDP Agong, will have to be stamped with the Royal Seal

v. vi.

‡ Two issues of importance are involvedhere ‡ First, technically speaking, the proces shows that the members of the Parliament Assembly who make the country s laws, take the task very seriously ‡ Secondly, even though the power to stop any draft has been much reduced through Constitutional amendments, the YDP Agong still has the authority to command Parliament to

to reconsider any part of a bill ‡ In this context. His Majesty acts as a prudent body to ascertain that laws to be enforced are not inadequate in anyway ‡ This shows that the laws enforced later will not disadvantage or come down hard on any party but instead take care of the interests of the people and the country under the rule of parliamentary democracy .

special rights. political ideology. colour. size of the .The Judiciary ‡ The Judiciary or the area of justice lies with the courts ‡ It is the third body or component in the practice of delegating authority and its status is also clearly embodied in the Federal Constitution (Article 121[1]) ‡ Its basic role is to defend justice for everyone regardless of the status. religion.

organization or its influence and thus is directly able to create and maintain national peace which in turn allows the process of ensuring the well being of the people to run smoothly ‡ The Constitution acts as a guide to the Judiciary ‡ According to Tun Suffian (1987: 138) the courts have four big areas of jurisdiction: .

The power to declare a government action as invalid in the eyes of the law ‡ These powers are important to defend justice and the sovereignty of the laws .1. The power to proclaim a written Federal or State law invalid 4. The power to interpret a law 3. The power to interpret the Constitution 2.

‡ Since some of those involved in making the laws are also members of the Cabinet or the State Legislative Assembly. it is the responsibility of the Courts to act as the check and balance body so that the laws made in Parliament (known as Acts) or in the State Legislative Assembly (known as enactments) do not exceed the limits stipulated by the Constitution .

The law is outside the jurisdiction of Parliament or outside the jurisdiction of the State Legislative.‡ As such. The law clashes with Article 74.[1] of the Constitution 2. the Courts are empowered to declare a written Federal or State law invalidif: 1. Article 75 . The State law contradicts the Federal law. Article 74[1] and [2] or 3.

the Federal Court. High Court and the Lower Court ‡ The Supreme Court in Malaysia is headed by the Chief Justice ‡ All appeal cases formerly presented to the Privy Council in London. are now made direct to the Federal Court (effective from 1985 after Parliament had passed a bill) .The Judicial System and its Stages ‡ The judicial system in Malaysia can be divided into three levels.

Article 121[1]. And another in Sabah and Sarawak which are called the Sabah High Court and Sarawak High Court or Borneo High Court respectively which have the same power and status and are headed by a Chief Judge of the High Court . L. the High Court of Malaya with its registered headquarters in K. there are two High Courts in the states of Malaysia.‡ According to the provisions of the Federal Constitution.

‡ The Lower Courts in Malaysia consist of the Sessions Court. the Magistrate Court and Penghulu Court ‡ In Sabah and Sarawak. the difference lies in the type of cases examined . the Sessions Court is known as the District Court or Mahkamah Anak Negeri ‡ The Magistrate Court is divided into Magistrate Court Class One and Two.

and the fine imposed on the offenders if judged guilty ‡ The Penghulu Court is the lowest of the courts in the judicial system and it judges minor cases at the village level in Peninsular Malaysia ‡ Besides these. there are also courts known as Special Courts the Juvenile Court that tries and judges under-aged children (juvenile) who .

the Bumiputra Court in Sabah and Sarawak handle cases relating to customary laws ‡ It is obvious that the division of the types of courts depends on the power of the court.are accused. the Syariah Court deals with cases relating to violation of Islamic laws. the Industrial Court which hear cases involving workers and employers. which again hinges on the nature of the case .

and the total amount of fine involved Freedom of the Court ‡ The judicial body is free from political influence or pressure which is guaranteed under certain provisions in the Constitution ‡ The court is not afraid in carrying out its duties that can affect adversely the process of administering justice to reinforce society s confidence .

‡ According to Article 127 of the Constitution. the behaviour of the judges of the Federal Court. Court of Appeal or High Court cannot be simply discussed in any Parliamentary Council ‡ The dismissal of a judge can only be made in careful adherence to procedures specified in the Constitution which is in line with the actual post of the judge himself whose .

whomsoever is disrespectful to the Federal Court. the Court of Appeal or the .appointment too is made according to Article 122B[1] of the Constitution is made by the YDP Agong on the advice of the Prime Minister after consultations with the Council of Rulers ‡ The high position of the courts where the people are concerned is also protected under Article 126 .

High Court can be punished ‡ Thus there is a mutual relationship between the courts and the public ‡ Based on the laws passed by Parliament and the policies collectively decided by the Cabinet. implements them ‡ But to ensure there is no abnormality. the role of the executive as the ruling body. the judiciary acts as a vigilant body .

the relations between both levels are very close and protected through provisions in the Constitution ‡ The government-administrative system at the state level resembles that of the federal level . and the state. Known as the federal government . known as the state government ‡ Though the division is quite clear physically. the central.Administration at the State Level ‡ Malaysia as a federated nation has two levels of administration.

the state executive body is responsible for ruling the state ‡ It consists of the Ruler/Sultan or Yang Dipertua Negeri and the State Executive Council Sultan and Yang Dipertua Negeri ‡ The monarchical system in Malaysia. is very unique when compared to other countries .The Executive Body ‡ As at the federal level. including that at the state level.

‡ The administrative system of the government in the country is not in the hands of the royal family ‡ Their position is further strengthened through the Federal Constitution with the setting up of the institution of the YDP Agong Heads of State and the Constitution ‡ The ruler is the head of a state and symbolizes the sovereignty of the state concerned .

Sabah and Sarawak the head is known as the Yang Dipertua Negeri ‡ Their position is protected under the Federal . Perak. Penang. the head of the state is known as the Sultan ‡ Yang Dipertuan Besar is the title for the head of Negeri Sembilan while Raja is for Perlis ‡ For other Malay states without a ruler such as Malacca. Kelantan. Johore. Kedah and Terengganu. Pahang.‡ For Selangor.

Article 70[1] and they take priority over everybody else in their respective state ‡ His Majesty has the right to inherit and to hold. to enjoy and execute Parliamentary and special rights according to the constitution of the state is assured by Article 71[1] ‡ Like the YDP Agong. the Raja or Sultan cannot be charged in any court for charges of an .Constitution.

though based on the act of advice principles. .official nature but can be indicted for an offence of a personal nature in the Royalties Special Court as specified in Article 181[2] of the Constitution Authority ‡ Rules according to the laws or constitution of the state which means that His Highness is the chief executive for the respective state.

The appointment of the Menteri Besar 2. The refusal to assent to the request for dissolving the State Legislative Assembly .that is. following the advice of the State Executive Council which is chaired by the Menteri Besar. with the exception of certains powers that allow him to make decisions according to his discretion that inculdes: 1.

Whatever duty as head of the Islamic religion or Malay customs 5. sovereignty and supremacy of the rulers or issues pertaining to religious acts. position. The appointment of the heir or queen.3. the acting ruler or the Acting Ruler s Council . the request for the Rulers Council to meet to discuss the special rights. practices and ceremonies 4.

6. titles. The appointment of people holding ranks. customs and ceremonies and religious issues on Islam . honours and designations according to Malay customs and determining the duties concerned 7. Making rules relating to the royal audience hall and the palace ‡ This means that His Highness has no absolute power except matters pertaining to royal affairs.

Sabah and Sarawak do not have this power and . Penang.‡ The Ruler or Sultan is the leader of the Islamic religion for their respective states according to Article 3[2] of the Constitution and safeguard the sacredness of Islam and has the power to grant pardon or to postpone sentences for offences tried in the public and the religious courts in their states ‡ The Yang Dipertua Negeri in Malacca.

whereas for states that do not have a sultan. this bosy is headed by the Menteri Besar.this power lies in the hands of the YDP Agong who is the religious leader of these states State Executive Council ‡ The State Council resembles the Cabinet of Ministers at the federal level ‡ In the Malay states with Raja/Sultan. it is the Chief Minister who heads it .

implements them and acts as advisor to the ruler or the Yang Dipertua Negeri ‡ The members of the council head certain . but in Sabah it is known as the Cabinet and in Sarawak it is called the Supreme Council the State Executive Council has the executive power and is responsible for forming various state policies. it is known as the State Executive Council.‡ In the Peninsular.

the members of the State Executive Council are collectively responsible for decisions taken by the body that forms the state government .portfolios that are called differently in different states ‡ Like the members of the Cabinet.

74 and 77) . and its position is safeguarded in the Federal Constitution (Article 71.The Legislative Body ‡ The state legislative body is the State Legislative Assembly which is similar to Parliament except that each state has one house compared with Parliament that has two houses ‡ The power. duties and membership of the State Legislative Assembly is fixed by the State Constitution.

‡ It functions as the council that listens. debates and draws up the acts of the state for application in the states known as enactments Membership ‡ The members of this assembly are the sultan/ruler or Yang Dipertua Negeri and a number of State Legislative Council members who are chosen by the people through an independent general election and three other .

the State Legal Advisor and the State Finance Officer ‡ These three appointed members are not involved in the sanctioning of the enactments or state laws ‡ Only members of the State Legislative Assembly are involved in presenting. debating and approving the acts .members appointed by the state government: they are the State Secretary.

the question of land. local services.agriculture. local government.The Role of the State Legislative Assembly ‡ Their primary role is to draw up the state laws guided by the Federal Constitution as the source of the country s highest laws ‡ The jurisdiction of the state legislature is based on List 2 Schedule 9 of the Federal Constitution under the title State List which includes matters of syarak laws (related to Islam). . forestry.

state public works. sate government machinery and state public holidays ‡ It can also pass laws relating to the Common List that involves matters commonly shared between the Federal and State governments ‡ All acts presented and drawn up must be submitted for approval by the ruler or Yang Dipertua Negeri for gazetting or reporting before they can be enforced .

.‡ The ruler or YDP Negeri is not involved in the Assembly debates but only attend the opening ceremony that is before the Assembly debate takes place which is similar to that at the federal level The State Administrative Machinery The State Government Department ‡ The state administrative machinery lies with the departments created at the state level.

subject to the regulations embodied in the Federal Constitution itself ‡ These departments carry out the state executive powers in the name of the ruler or YDP of the state government ‡ The hub of the administration is the office of the State Secretary as chief of the state public service with the cooperation from state departments created by the public service .

of each state ‡ Except for Malacca. the State Public Service Commission appoints all the state government officers ‡ For the other four statesm the Federal Public Service Commission appoints ‡ To render the state level administration more efficient and smooth. Penang. posts are filled by . Sabah and Sarawak.

officers seconded from the Federal Government Coordination between the State and Federal Government ‡ To ensure uniformity in the national government administration. a mechanism for coordinating the central government with the state government is created through two levels .

‡ The first level is through the National Land Council. the National Finance Council and the National Council for Local Government ‡ The second level is carried out by a number of special committees that hold meetings and discussions from time to time for the purpose of coordination between both the central and state governments .

mukim and village levels . Mukim and Village Administration ‡ The country s complex administration extends to the level of the district. mukim (sub-district) and village ‡ What differs from state to state is in the designation of the post or position of the officer who is entrusted with the responsibility of looking after the management ‡ Generally such a service has posts (and offices) at division.District. district.

which is divided into several divisions headed by a Resident ‡ The District Office plans and implements all development at this level which includes the administration and development of the local community under its care .‡ The heart of the administration at the district level (territory in Kelantan) is the District Office headed by a District Officer. except for Sarawak.

pemancha in Sarawak and ketua suku kaum in Sabah) ‡ A village headman (penghulu in Kelantan) assists the penghulu to administer the social affairs at the village level ‡ The relationship between the penghulu and the village headman is very close and they .‡ The administration and development of the mukim (district in Kelantan) is helped by the penghulu (penggawa in Kelantan.

directives. development programmes and government policies to the mukim leader.form a bridge between the executive in the District Office and the people at the lower level in the village ‡ The District Officer channels all information. then to the village headmen and to the village community .

leaders of the mukims.‡ This is done through a special meeting held from time to time ‡ Members of the State Legislative Assembly (SLD. chairpersons of the Committee for the Progress and Security of Villages (CPSV) in the State Legislative Council constitution and also all government development agencies attend the meeting .

known as the meeting of the Committee for the Coordination of State Legislative Assembly Areas Development Plans (CCSLADP) chaired by the District Officer and discusses development plans in the area jointly developed by the village and the agency ‡ The purpose of the discussion is to combine available manpower and resources to render more efficient the process of material and .

a village head .human development ‡ At the village level the post of the village headman or Tok Sidang ( a form of address in some districts such as Malacca) is appointed by the District Office at the suggestion and recommendation of members of the State Legislative Assembly ‡ To facilitate the administration and coordination of manpower.

constitutes the chairperson of the CPSV known since the Second Malaysia Plan and formerly called the Committee for Village Development (in the 60 s) has the heavy responsibility of helping the government to bring medernization and development to the villages ‡ The Committee is the platform for the ordinary folks to discuss. plan and carry out .

building concrete bridges and improving the roads ‡ Cooperation between the CPSV with other agencies such as the Department of Agriculture. RISDA. the Department of Animal Husbandry. moral degradation and so on ‡ Some of the projects include the rehabilitation of villages.rural development programmes besides keeping them safe from the threat of drugs. FELCRA. Social . the Department of Health.

representing a variety of groups of the rural society.Welfare Department. 10 to 15 members of the CPSV. do not receive any monthly remuneration ‡ Only the village headman who acts as the chairman of the CPSV receives an annual honorarium . the Department of Drainage and Irrigation help to bring progress to the rural areas ‡ As a voluntary organization.

the state government has certain jurisdiction in administeringand managing the affairs of the state .The Local Government .Purpose ‡ Malaysia which practises parliamentary democracy and a federal system of government also practises decentarlization of power which varies according to specific mechanism ‡ The first mechanism occurs at the state level ‡ Through regulations embodied in the Constitution.

‡ The central or federal government cannot question decisions made and methods of implementation taken at this level ‡ This type of decentralization is known as deconcentration which practises power sharing ‡ The second mechanism occurs when a body or organization is created for the purpose of administering and managing the district or .

or local settlement itself which is called devolution (handing down of power) ‡ The body created has the power to make decisions quickly and efficiently for the interests of the local inhabitants and the membership comprises local people whether appointed or chosen and this is often linked to the Local Government .

Role and Management ‡ The local government existed with the gazetted Local Government Act of 1976 that was approved by Parliament ‡ According to the Constitution. the affairs of the local government come under the state government and was created to enable the local inhabitants whether in the cities. towns or districts to join and take part in managing their own affairs and interests .

‡ Areas that come under the responsibilty of the body involve largely the work of preparing facilities and social services that covers cleanliness, beautification, recreation, business, the supervisory control of buildings, construction and maintenance of roads and other things that contribute towards the wellbeing of the local citizens that is to enhance the quality of life of the local community

‡ To meet its management expenses, the body has the power to have by-laws for the purpose of imposing taxes, rents and charges for other services used by the local population ‡ Officers, who have been charged with the responsibility, take care of the administration of the organization and its finances and thewy are appointed or chosen according to the 1976 Local Government Act

‡ Generally there are two kinds of Local Government, the Town Council in the main urban areas like Penang, Malacca, Ipoh and Kuala Lumpur and other big towns, and the District Councils found in smaller towns with the authority to administer the rural areas ‡ The burden of the state s responsibility is today jointly shared with this body through the social services and support provided

smart power sharing ensures the smooth performance of the country s ruling administration ‡ The public too. is involved in managing the nation and these reflect the features of democracy in the Malaysian style or system of government administration .‡ Power is shared between the two and the sharing of power is embodied in the Constitution itself ‡ On the whole .

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