Š It occurs when the report uses technical terms which are not familiar to the reader or when common terms are used in a special way .

Š  Š  INFORMAL DEFINITION Consists of one or more synonymous expressions substituted for the unfamiliar term used FORMAL DEFINITION Is preferred in scientific and technical work because of the need for more precision in its wording .

   TERM The word to be defined GENUS The group or class to which the terms belong DIFFERENTIA States the distinctive characteristics of the term. distinguishing it from other members of the same class .

which can be molded and hardened for commercial use.Term  = Genus + Differentia A triangle is a plane figure bounded by three straight lines having three angles.  Plastics are synthetic organic compounds .

1. . Try to use simple words. at equal distances. Not this: A network is anything reticulated or decussated.  Good: A network is a complex system of electrical wires or channels that interlace or cross like the fabric of a net. with interstices between the intersections.  Don·t define an unfamiliar term by using more difficult terminology which would further confuse the reader.

Don·t begin your definition with when.  Good: Soldering is the process of joining metal surfaces using melted metal or metallic alloy. what or where Not this: Soldering is when metal surfaces are joined by using melted metal or metallic alloy.2. .

.3. In defining a term.  Good: A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with opposite sides equal. Not this: A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with parallel sides. avoid using the term itself or any of its derivatives.

. Too narrow: A crystal is a formation of quartz geometrically patterned. molecules or ions composing it are arranged in a definite geometrical pattern.4.  Good: A crystal is a solid piece of matter in which the atoms. Don·t put the term you are defining in too broad or too narrow a class. Too broad: A crystal is something that glitters in the sun.

Š  EXAMPLES OR INSTANCES General statements particularly abstract definitions are made more concrete when illustrations are cited .Š  DETAILS A term can be clarified by the addition of related or supporting particulars.

Š    COMPARISON. the differences of both objects are cited in order to make the idea clear Comparison combines the two methods of analogy and contrast WORD DERIVATIVE Extended definitions may be revealing and interesting because they explain the origin of term or the idea Š  . CONTRAST AND ANALOGY Analogy cites similarities Using contrast.

In the text itself Š In the footnote Š In a special section in the introduction Š In the glossary at the end of the report Š .

 .Is a systematic process of dividing material into kinds of classes  It involves not only dividing the subject into its constituent classes but also grouping similar units in a subclass which in turn falls under a large class.

The basis of classification should further the purpose controlling it. 4. 2. 3. Classify consistently on a single basis which points to a fundamental distinction among the members of a class. Classifications should not overlap. Name all the pieces according to a given basis.The effectiveness of classification depends upon the following principles: 1. .

or aspects. steps.Is an analysis that divides a singular item into parts.  A partition system must have certain characteristics if it is to be adequate  .

 The divisions must be complete.  .  The divisions must be mutually exclusive.  The divisions must not overlap.The divisions must be coordinate.

    A mechanism is an assembly of movable parts having one part fixed with respect to a frame of reference and designed to produce an effect. . A mechanism may be designed primarily To transmit power greatly in excess of that required to overcome the frictional and dynamic requirements of the mechanism itself To produce a desired relative movement of its parts.

3 Same as 2.11 name of part no. 1 2. 1 2.1. 1 2.1411 name of subpart no.141 2.1413 description of subpart no. 1 2.14 division of subparts (if any) 2. Brief description of how the mechanism works or how it is used. Introduction 1.13 description of part (shape.142 2.2 Use of function of the mechanism 1.4 Physical description of the mechanism 1. etc.144 2.2 2.5 Principal parts which make up the mechanism 2. 1 2.1412 function of subpart no.) 2.143 same as 2.141 subpart no. Description of the mechanism (in detail) 2. 1 2.1 Principal part no.4 3. material. 1 2.1 2.12 function of part no. .3 General statement of the principle governing its operation 1.1 Definition of the mechanism 1. size.

.     A process is a series of steps to get something done. Exposition of the process necessarily includes a discussion of equipment and materials which are used The writer may include this discussion as a separate section at the beginning or at those particular points in the process where they are needed.

2 Purpose 1.A suggested procedure for organizing the subject matter of a process description is as follows: 1.1 Definition of the process 1.3 etc 5. 2 4.1 4. Description of the process 4.2 step no.3 Principal steps 2. Equipment 4.1 step no. Raw materials 3. Conclusion (if necessary) . Introduction 1.

description of a mechanism and description of a process. A type of technical document which requires at least two basic techniques. .

3. . 2. The procedure for troubleshooting. A summary statement which briefly describes the product and its main purpose. The parts or components of the product. 4. illustrated and labeled.1. The procedure for using the product.

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