SKYSCRAPERS AND THE KING OF SKYSCRAPER, BURJ KHALIFA.

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A DEVCHANDAN S PRESENTATION

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Skyscraper is a tall and habitable building. The word Skyscraper originates from name given to tall sails on sailboats. Skyscraper is the greatest architectural invention of America.

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Two developments enabled and encouraged the construction of Skyscrapers: 1)Invention of Elevator by Elisha Greaves Otis in 1852. 2)Use of Steel-framed structure in England in the year of 1792
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ADVANTAGES OF SKYSCRAPER
1)Important as status symbol. 2)Accommodates more people in less space. 3)Becomes landmark and attracts tourists. 4)Reduces dependency on public transports and cars. 5)Has potential to generate more open space in ground level. 6)Tends to be energy efficient because it leads to concentrated population.
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Tallest Skyscrapers in the World pre-1900
1) Home Insurance Building, Chicago constructed in 1884 and demolished in 1931,Ten storied ,Height 42m. 2) Queen Anne s Mansions, London constructed in 1888 and demolished in 1971,Fourteen storied, Height 47m. 3) New York World Building, New York constructed in 1890 and demolished in 1955.Sixteen storied, Height 94m. 4) Manhattan Life Insurance Building, New York constructed in 1894 and demolished in 1930,Eighteen storied, Height 106m. 5) Park Row, New York constructed in 1899,Twenty six storied, Height 119m.
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Let us move to the king of modern Skyscraper,

Burj Khalifa
earlier known as

Burj Dubai.
The next slide shall show its height comparison with some of the modern Tall Buildings.
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The Tallest of the Super Tall.

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Project: Burj Khalifa (Burj Dubai), Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

Burj Khalifa(Burj Dubai) the king of Skyscraper.

Architects: Adrian Smith with Skidmore, Owings and Merrill LLP Structural engineers: William F. Baker, D. Stanton Korista and Lawrence C. Novak. Contractor: Samsung C&T, Besix + Arabtec Developer: Emaar Properties Construction started: January 2004. Construction ended: 2010. Glass processor: White Aluminum (Abu Dhabi) Cladding company: Far East Aluminium and Arab Aluminium Site area: 104210 m2 Building height: 828 m Floors : 160 Cost : 15 billon US Dollar

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Foundation surface : 50 football pitches

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ARCHITECTURE The concept of desert flower Hymenocallis has been adopted in architectural design. Like petals from stem, the tower wings extend from its central core.
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Architects: Adrian Smith with Skidmore,Owings & Merrill LLP. The building is ´Yµ shaped, having three wings around a central core. Area of a floor decreases in every 26th floor level. From top it looks like an onion dome prevalent in Islamic Architecture. 10

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FOUNDATION OF THE BUILDING

1)The building is standing on 192 nos of Reinforced Concrete piles of each 1.5m diameter and 43m long. 2)Piles are connected in top by Reinforced Concrete mat of 3.7m thick consuming 12,500 cubic meter of concrete.

3)High density low permeability concrete used in foundation. 4)Cathodic protection system has been used to protect the concrete from corrosive chemicals of local ground water.

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Structural System to resist the Wind Force.
1. Tall building usually has to resist large wind force. 2. The ´Yµ shaped structure of Burj Khalifa(Dubai) reduces the wind force in the Building. 3. The tower is extremely strong against Torsional (Twisting) Force. 4. The shape of the building confuses the wind force. 5. The wind force never get organized because at each new tier the wind encounters a different building shape. 6. Y-shape plan keeps the structure simple and helps in faster construction.

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Burj Khalifa(Burj Dubai) Construction Timeline.
January 2004 : Excavation started . February 2004 : Piling started . March 2005 : Superstructure started . June 2006 : Level 50 reached . January 2007 : Level 100 reached . March 2007 : Level 110 reached . April 2007 : Level 120 reached . May 2007 : Level 130 reached. July 2007 : Level 141 reached - world's tallest building. September 2007 :Level 150 reached - world's tallest free-standing structure . April 2008: Level 160 reached - world's tallest manmade structure . January 2009: Completion of spire - Burj Dubai tops out. September 2009 :Exterior cladding competed. January 2010 :Official launch ceremony .

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Burj Khalifa(Burj Dubai) Construction Highlights.
1)Over 45,000 m3 of concrete, weighing more than 110,000 tonnes were used to construct the concrete and steel foundation, which features 192 piles buried more than 50 m deep. 2) Burj Dubai's construction has used 330,000 m3 (Equivalent to a cube size of 69m x 69m x 69m) of concrete and 39,000 tonnes of steel reinforcement (if placed end to end it will cover one quarter of the Globe) . 3)construction has taken 22 million man-hours.

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Burj Khalifa(Burj Dubai) Construction Team 1)Burj Dubai was truly an international collaboration between more than 30 onsite contracting companies from nations around the world.
2)At the peak of construction, over 12,000 workers and contractors were on site every day, representing more than 100 nationalities. 3) Workers include mostly Indian, Pakistani and Srilakan.
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Burj Khalifa(Burj Dubai) Eye in the Sky.
To ensure the structural stability of the building during construction ,the tower s vertical and lateral movements are tracked with the help of a satellite-based global positioning system.

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Burj Khalifa(Burj Dubai) Oh! That Sinking Feeling!!!

‡The building has a structural weight of 500000 tonnes. ‡The building of that size has a tendency to sink. ‡To adjust the sink each floor is constructed an average 4mm higher than the designated floor height.

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Burj Khalifa(Burj Dubai) Fire Safety.
1)Fire safety and speed of evacuation were prime factors in the design of Burj Dubai. 2) Fireman's elevator will have a capacity of 5,500 kg and will be the world's tallest service elevator. 3)Since people can't reasonably be expected to walk down 160 floors, there are pressurized, airconditioned refuge areas located approximately every 25 floors. 4)Also, in addition to 54 highspeed elevators, separate emergency elevators are installed to quickly and safely evacuate occupants located on higher levels.
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Energy efficiency measures in Burj Khalifa(Dubai)

1. Use of high voltage Electric power to reduce energy loss. 2. Use of low-emissivity glass with enhanced thermal insulation quality to control high external temperature of Dubai. 3. Use condensate recovery system to trap water from air-conditioning condensate discharge to reduce the need of portable municipal water. Estimated annual savings are equal in volume to 14 Olympic sized swimming pool. 4. Ventilation air is withdrawn from top of the building resulting in less energy in airconditioning and ventilation. 5. Utilizes active stack effect control in a super tall building to minimize energy loss. 7/25/2011

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TALLEST OF THE SUPER TALLµ

Tallest skyscraper : 828 m (2,717 ft) (previously Taipei 101 509.2 m (1,671 ft)) Tallest structure ever built : 828 m (2,717 ft) (previously Warsaw radio mast 646.38 m (2,121 ft)) Tallest extant structure : 828 m (2,717 ft) (previously KVLY-TV mast 628.8 m (2,063 ft)) Tallest freestanding structure : 828 m (2,717 ft) (previously CN Tower 553.3 m (1,815 ft)) Building with most floors : 160 (previously Willis Tower 108)
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World·s highest elevator installation World·s fastest elevators at speed of 64 km/h (40 mph) or 18 m/s (59 ft/s) (previously Taipei 101 ² 16.83 m/s) Highest vertical concrete pumping (for a building): 606 m (1,988 ft) (previously Taipei 101 ² 449.2 m (1,474 ft)) Highest vertical concrete pumping (for any construction): 606 m (1,988 ft) (previously Riva del Garda Hydroelectric Power Plant ² 532 m (1,745 ft) )
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The first world s tallest structure in history to include residential space Highest outdoor observation deck in the world World s highest mosque (located on the 158th floor) World s highest installation of an aluminum and glass façade, at a height of 512 m (1,680 ft)
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World s highest swimming pool (76th floor)

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Skyscrapers coming up in India.
‡ India Tower Marine Lines, Mumbai, 720 metres , Floors-125,Expected year of completion 2016 ‡ World One Worli, Mumbai, 442 metres,Floors117,Expected Year of Completion 2014 ‡ Palais Royale Lower Parel, Mumbai, 320 metres, Floors-67 ,Expected Year of Completion 2012 .

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The tallest Building in India. The Imperial Height:254m Place:Mumbai Use:Residential.

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DISTURBING THOUGHTS? What is the geological effect due to concentrated load of Skyscraper on Earth crust? An induced Earthquake??? Who knows??? Think!!! What about Carbon Emission???

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But where to house the ever growing population???
Should it be Skyscraper? May be it is Skyscraper! YES.

It is Skyscraper.
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THANKS
It is a Devchandan s Presentation.

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