Feeds & Feeding of ruminants

‡ Important to feed the microbes first for better digestion and production in ruminants ‡ Need bypass nutrients when microbes are not able to provide enough nutrients for production 10 .Ruminant Digestive system ‡ Different from human ± Stomach is of 4 compartments ‡ ³Chewing the Cud´ ± Animal regurgitates large ball of food which were earlier swallowed ‡ Fermentation by microbes in rumen is important for feed utilization ‡ Can digest high fiber containing feed (roughage).

Part of ration of ruminants Feed ingredients Roughages Dry Green Maize Concentrate Energy Bajra Cotton seed cake Sorghum Wheat SBM Protein Fat Rice polish Tur Chunni Supplements and Additives Minerals Vitamins Antibiotics Compound feed Complete feed 11 .

Energy.Compound feed of ruminants Balanced nutrient source Agro by products Balanced feed Polarized source of ± Protein. Vitamins. fiber and fat Balanced source of ± Protein. 7/26/2011 12 . fat. Micro & macro minerals.

Value comparison of commonly used ingredients Ingredients Crude Protein Fat Energy Crude fiber Minerals Digestibility Cost Rs/kg Cotton seed cake High GNC Maize Rice Polish DORB Balanced Feed Medium Low 14 18 11 10 7 10 7/26/2011 13 .

Max.0 1. Min. Total phosphorus.0 7000 1200 30 50 *As per BIS specifications 2009 .0 0.0 1. Aflatoxin B1 (ppb).U. Max. Vitamin D3. No.U. 8. Calcite powder. Crude fat. Min.5 0. per cent by mass. 9./kg. I. 7. Min. 3. per cent by mass.8 0.25 1. 4. 1. I. 13.0 1. Salt (as NaCl). percent by mass. Vitamin E. 11.BIS Feed Specifications Sl. percent by mass. Max. Max. Acid insoluble ash. Crude protein (N x 6./kg. 15.5 12 4. 12. Min. percent by mass. percent by mass. per cent by mass.0 1. 2. Available phosphorus. 5. Max./kg. Requirement *Type-1 11 22 4. Crude fibre. Calcium (as Ca) per cent by mass. 6.U. I.0 7000 1200 30 50 *Type-2 11 20 2. per cent by mass. Urea. Min. Max. 10.0 10 3. per cent by mass. Min.0 0. Min.5 0. percent by mass. 14.8 0.25 1. Vitamin A. Max.25). Min. Characteristic Moisture.

Protein Importance  Provides ±  Supply of amino acids to the small intestine  Nitrogen for microbial growth Benefit to the animal ‡ ‡ Essential for health and immunity Maintain the milk production & SnF If not enough« ‡ ‡ ‡ Less availability of amino acids from feed May limit fiber digestion and microbial growth Less milk production in animals taking the feed ‡ ‡ ‡ If too much« Will contribute to increased ration cost More nitrogen wasted in urine & dung In longer run may lead reproduction problems 15 .

free fat is toxic to microbes in rumen By-pass fat should be included to provide fat above 2.Fat Importance  Provides important fatty acids essential for production & health  Important source of energy in the ration Benefit to the animal ‡ ‡ Concentrated source of energy in the ration Essential to maintain the milk fat % & production If not enough« ‡ ‡ ‡ May limit milk & milk fat % Feed pellets may not have shine More friction to the dye ‡ ‡ If too much« May limit fiber digestion.5% 16 .

may reduce milk volume In compound feed ± ‡ Brittle & hard pellets ‡ More loss due to dusting & fines .Moisture Importance  Preserving the nutrients in feed  Penetration of heat for better cooking during conditioning Benefit to the animal ‡ In ration ± ‡ Important for digestion of nutrients ‡ Essential to maintain milk volume In compound feed ± ‡ Digestibility & palatability of feed If too much« ‡ ‡ In ration .may limit total feed intake In compound feed ± ‡ Reduce shelf life of feed due to mold formation ‡ Soft pellets which break easily 17 ‡ If not enough« ‡ ‡ In ration .

Feeding of Dairy Cattle By Conventional method By Thumb rule method By Scientific feeding methods .

Feeding by conventional methods Common feeding practices in India ‡ ‡ ‡ Grazing + Water (without concentrate) Dry roughages + little concentrate + water Green fodders + little concentrate + water    Dry roughages + green fodders + water + without conc. Adequate roughages + very less concentrate by experience Adequate roughages + adequate concentrate/ extra conc. .1.

Wt : 2.3 Kg Per 100Kg BW i.3.5 .0 kg Dry matter / 100 kg B.5 kg Dry matter / 100 kg B.12 Kg for 400 Kg BW .e.2. Wt Criteria for feed formulation Body weight Milk Yield Dry matter Intake : 400 Kg : 10 Liter : 2 . 8 . Thumb rule method Dry matter requirement (per day)  Cattle  Buffalo : 2 .2.

2.4. Thumb rule method Total Dry Matter (10kg) 2/3rd Roughage (4 -5kg) 1/3rd Concentrate (3 4 kg) 2/3rd Dry Roughage (Straw) 90%DM 10%Water 3.5 kg Straw 1/3rd Green Roughage (Grass) 90% Water 10% DM 20 30 kg Green .5 .

5 kg of milk 1. Thumb rule method Guidelines for feeding in Indian condition Straw Maintenance Lactation 4 kg 4 kg 4 kg Concentrate 1.25 kg + 1.2.25 kg for pregnancy maintenance Pregnancy .25 kg 1.25 kg + 1 kg extra per 2 to 2.

: 1 .4.30 kg Concentrate: 3 .5 kg of concentrate for every 1 liter of milk .5 .5kg Typical ration for production Straw: 3.4 kg In general 0.5 kg Green: 20 .1. Thumb rule method Ration based on utility Maintenance: To maintain essential body function Production: Additional allowance for milk production over and above maintenance Typical ration for maintenance Straw : 4 .2.6 kg Conc.

Scientific feeding of dairy cattle Feeding of animals lactating animals ‡ Based on the calculated requirement of the animals based on feeding standards.00 5.5%fat Total 14 DM (kg) CP (kg) DCP (kg) TDN (kg) 0.43 0.07 1.75 1.10 1.32 8.36 0.25 3. Requirements Maintenance (400kgB.3.wt) Production(15kg) 4.42 .

0 4.80 2.4 DM 5.3. Scientific feeding of dairy cattle Feeding regimen Kg Non leguminous Leguminous Wheat/paddy straw Concentrate (CP-20.20 TDN 3.64 1.80 2.07 0.2 4.0 14 CP 1.67 DCP 0.88 . DCP-16.88 8. TDN-72) Total 25 15 2.36 --0.45 0.2 0.0 2.35 0.25 1.95 0.0 3.

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