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What are joints?
An articulation or joint is a point of contact between bones.
allowing no movement whatsoever between the bones they join. Joints perform two functions in the body: they hold the skeletal bones together and they allow the rigid skeleton some flexibility so gross movements can occur.in between immovable and freely movable freely movable joints . that Joints may be more or less freely moveable. can move easily .With one exception (the hyoid bone). or fixed. Functionally joints are classified as immovable joints .bone stuck together slightly movable joints . every bone in the body is connected to or forms a joint with at least one other bone.bone apart.
They are characterized by the PRESENCE of a closed space or CAVITY between the bones: the joint cavity (= synovial cavity) that separates the articulating bones. the synovial fluid secreted by the synovial membrane which lines the cavity. It is lubricated by a special fluid. All synovial joints are freely moveable joints.The majority of articulations between bones are synovial joints. . Thus they are also called synovial joints.
Examples: Examples: between carpals and tarsals.The articulating surfaces of bones are usually flat.side and back-and.forth movements are permitted. . Twisting and rotation are inhibited. heads of the tubercles of ribs glide on the bodies and transverse process of vertebrae. generally because ligaments or adjacent bones restrict the range of movement. Only side-to. The clavicle glides on the sternum and scapula. A gliding movement is the simplest kind that can occur in a joint.
extension. elbow. Hinge joints include the knee. ankle. Some hinged joints are capable of hyperextension .In this joint. and between phalanges and the joint between the occipital bone and atlas at the neck. The motion is primarily in a single plane like that of a hinged door. Movement is usually by flexion and extension. the convex surface of one bone fits into the concave surface of another bone.
a rounded or pointed surface of one bone articulates within a ring formed partly by another bone and partly by a ligament. rotation. Example: the joint between the atlas and the skull The atlas rotates around the dens of the axis when you turn your head from side to side to indicate ³no´.In this joint. The movement permitted is rotation. a pivot joint is also found between the proximal ends of the ulna and radius and it allows to turn the palms forward (upward) and backward (downward). .
Circumduction. and back-and-forth. abduction. . and adduction are the possible movements here. as when you flex and extend and abduct and adduct your wrist (between the radius and carpals). side-to-side. an oval-shaped condyle of one-bone fits to an elliptical cavity of another bone. The movement permitted by such a joint is in two planes.In this joint.
adduction/abduction and circumduction but NO ROTATION. The joint between the trapezium of the carpus and metacarpal of the thumb is one example. . and the articular surface of the other bone is shaped like a rider sitting in the saddle. The saddle joint is similar to the Ellipsoidal Joint but the movements are freer. the articular surface of one bone is saddle shaped.In here. The movements allowed are flexion/extension.
The only examples of balland-socket joints are the shoulder joint and the hip joint. It also permits circumduction. These joints are multiaxial. . adduction-adduction.This joint consist of a ball like surface of one bone fitted into cuplike depression of another bone. They permit three types of movement: flexion-extension. and rotation.
Then. the fluid evaporates and a gas bubble appears in the fluid. the opposing articular surfaces abruptly separate. Once the surfaces are separated. until limited by the articular capsule. When a certain pressure is reached. hen you pull the joints of your fingers you produce a cracking sound because when synovial joints are pulled apart.Do you know that. the pressure within the joint exceeds that in the bubble and the bubble collapses producing a cracking noise. the pressure of the synovial fluid decreases. .
Possible body movements .
EXTENSION (the reverse of flexion): a movement that increases the angle of a joint and the distance between two bones (or part of the body). HYPEREXTENSION . If extension is greater than 180 degrees.FLEXION: FLEXION a movement that decreases the angle of the joint and lessens the distance between the two bones (or part of the body). it is termed as HYPEREXTENSION.
ADDUCTION (the reverse of abduction): movement of a limb toward the midline of the body. .ABDUCTION: ABDUCTION movement of a limb away from the midline or median plane of the body or the fanning movement of fingers or toes when they are spread apart (the digits move away from the longitudinal axis of the hand or foot). The digits move toward the longitudinal axis of the hand or foot.
The limb as a whole outlines a cone. abduction. . The proximal end of the limb remains stationary and the distal end moves in a circle.ROTATION: ROTATION movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis without lateral or medial displacement. CIRCUMDUCTION: CIRCUMDUCTION a combination of flexion. extension and adduction performed one after the other.
back to its original position. RETRACTION (the reverse of protraction): movement that results in the protracted portion of the body being moved on a parallel plane.PROTRACTION: PROTRACTION movement that results in a portion of the body being moved forward on a plane parallel to the ground. .
. DEPRESSION (the reverse of elevation): movement that results in a portion of the body being moved downward.ELEVATION: ELEVATION movement that results in a portion of the body being moved or lifted upward.
During supination. (There is NO rotation of the arm: the arm is immobile during pronation) SUPINATION : (the reverse of pronation): movement of the palm from a posterior position to an anterior position. .PRONATION : movement of the palm of the hand from an anterior or upward-facing position to a posterior or downward-facing position. the radius and ulna are parallel. This action moves the distal end of the radius across the ulna.
.DORSIFLEXION: DORSIFLEXION movement of the ankle joint in which the foot is flexed upward (standing on one's heels). PLANTARFLEXION (the reverse of dorsiflexion): movement of the ankle joint in which the foot is flexed downward (standing on one's toes or pointing the toes).
This movement allows us to grasp and manipulate object. REPOSITION (the reverse of opposition): movement that returns the thumb to its anatomical position. EVERSION (the reverse of inversion): movement that results in the lateral turning of the sole of the foot. OPPOSITION: OPPOSITION movement in which the thumb is brought to touch the pad of another finger of the same hand.INVERSION: INVERSION movement that results in the medial turning of the sole of the foot. .
and swelling. Sprains Sprains result from overstretching or tearing the connective tissues. some loss of ability to move the articulated bones. and jaw are common sites for this type of injury. A dislocation produces an obvious deformity of the joint. Usually forceful wrenching or twisting sprains the wrist or ankles. and tendons associated with a joint. localized pain. knees. The joints of the shoulders. ligaments. restricting movement. . A sprained joint is painful and swollen. elbows.Dislocation A dislocation (luxation) displaces the articulating bones of a joint and usually results from a fall or other unusual body movement. fingers. but they do not dislocate the articular bones.
sometimes . and painful joints.Arthritis Joint stiffness. Arthritis is a disease condition that causes inflamed. the joints become painful. pain. or tenderness. swollen. Movement may become limited as bone ends erode or thicken. Arthritis can gradually wear away protective cartilage where the bones meet to make a joint. swelling and/or redness that persists for more than two weeks may be signs of arthritis. As cartilages erode and bones rub against bone.
Joints become painful. .Osteoarthritis This degenerative disorder or referred to as joint "wear and tear" is the most common type of arthritis. For example. articular cartilage softens and disintegrates gradually. with restricted movement. knees. arthritic fingers may lock into place while a person is playing the guitar or tying a shoelace. such as those of the fingers. but an inherited form may manifest itself as early as one's thirties. In osteoarthritis. and the lower parts of the vertebral column. It usually occurs with aging. hips. Osteoarthritis most often affects joints that are used the most over a lifetime.
The pain is accompanied by redness.Gout Gout is a form of arthritis that occurs as a result of the build-up of uric acid in the body and the joint fluid. WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS? The first sign of gout is usually a sudden onset of intense pain in one or more joints. swelling and the skin over the joint is warm to touch. most commonly the big toe joint of the foot. . This accumulation of uric acid typically occurs when the body has difficulty processing certain protein substances called Purines that are found naturally in our diets.
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