International Maritime Law
Derived from customary law/treaty Treaties-binding only on contracting State Treaty making bodies UNCLOS IMO ILO WHO ITU CMI

IMO
International Maritime Organisation Purpose-maritime safety-clean seas Facilitate inter-governmental cooperation Organs-Assembly-councilsecretariat Instruments-convention-protocolAmendments-codes-resolution

Conventions/protocols
Adopting a convention Contracting parties to be bound by conventionby signature/or signature subject to ratification, acceptance and approval Entry in to force-no of ratification-period accession

Amendments Major amendments-protocol Minor amendments-earlier conventions-positive acceptance Newer conventions-tacit acceptance Enforcement-f-Flag State-port State IMO empowered to vet STCW .

Conventions Safety of life conventions Safety of environment conventions Liability conventions Law of the Sea Convention .

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UNCLOS III-Flag State stipulations For granting Nationality: Has right to have ships to fly their Flag whether land locked or not Ships have nationality of their flag State Must have ³genuine link´ with Flag state Must sail under one flag only-if changing as convenient«. May be treated as ships with out nationality and dealt with .

worthiness-certification-safety at sea-pollution prevention Surveyed by qualified surveyors Vessels must carry certificates-manning as per STCW Investigate complaints-award penalties .Duties of Flag State Maintain register of ships Effectively ³exercise jurisdiction´ over its vessels wrt Sea.

Various Coastal Zones Internal waters Territorial Sea Contiguous Zone Exclusive economic Zone Continental Shelf/continental margin High seas .

Maximum Limits of Zones Base line-low water line-outer most harbour construction Straight base lines Territorial Sea-max.12 mls fm base line Contiguous Zone-24 mls fm base line EEZ-Exclusive Economic Zone-200 Continental shelf max 350 miles-safety zone 500 mtrs around platforms etc .

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High seas All flag States have freedom of: Navigation Fishing Scientific research Laying of submarine cables Building of artificial Islands Only Flag State has jurisdiction over her vessels .

.High seas-contd. Warships have right of visit if vessel engages in«. Piracy Slave trade Narcotics Does not have a flag Unauthorised broadcasting .

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Exclusive Economic Zone Max limit 200 miles Exclusive right to exploit living and nonliving resources Pollution prevention regulations Exclusive right to fish Conduct scientific research EEZ can not be generated from uninhabited Island-these can have only Territorial sea and contiguous zone .

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EEZ-Flag State rights/duties Freedom of navigation Lay submarine cables Must abide by coastal State laws on pollution No fishing or scientific research Fishing gear if on board to be in secured condition Comply 500 mtr safety zone of installations .

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Contiguous Zone Max 24 miles from base line Coastal state has right to enact laws on Custom Emigration Fiscal Sanitary Flag State vessels has freedom of navigation Must abide by coastal State laws on above in addition to those applicable in EEZ .

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Territorial sea-coastal state·s rights Max 12 miles from base line Coastal State has rights in this zone in addition to her rights in EEZ and Contiguous zone Enact laws on navigation Can exercise criminal jurisdiction on any vessel if the crime extends to coastal State personnel or property- .

criminal/civil jurisdiction If the act disturbs peace and good order For suppressing narcotics Or master of vessel requests Coastal State can exercise Civil jurisdiction if vessel is passing through territorial sea after leaving internal waters .

Territorial sea-Flag States rights Has the right of innocent passageFreedom of navigation is lost in this zone Passage also includes stopping/anchoring which are incidental to navigation/distress Must abide by coastal laws in navigation (TSS-VTS mandatory) in addition to Other zone laws-pollution-fishingcustom etc .

.Innocent Passage Navigation with out entering internal waters Continuous and expeditious Anchoring and stopping incidental to navigation/distress allowed Passage will be considered not innocent if vessel. Use of force-warship exercisepropagandaInterfering with communication net work Not abiding by coastal laws .

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Internal waters Landward of base line All vessels must abide by all coastal States Laws criminal and civil No innocent passage unless vessel is entering with coastal Sates permission Or entering due to distress Also allowed ± if straight base line encloses these waters which originally TS .

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International straits If Intl. Straits (Dover etc)becomes Territorial sea Flag States vessels have right of ³transit passage´ Transit passage is solely for expeditious transit from one EEZ to high sea/EEZ If no other high sea/EEZ passage available Proceed with out delay-abide pollution/navigation laws Can not be impeded/suspended .

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Archipelagic waters mid ocean islands-Figi Base line drawn surrounding all islands All zones measured seaward from this line Enclosed waters are archipelagic waters Flag State has right of innocent passage Must plan passage with in 25 miles of axial line-obey 10% rule .

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Continental shelf It is an exclusive resource zone only-max 350 miles All mineral and living resources of sub soil can be exploited by coastal state Can enforce 500 mtr security zone Has exclusive right to construct artificial islands .

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Continental margins Resources beyond continental shelf if proved by Coastal State-originated from their land Allowed to exploit with arrangement and approval from sea bed authority Seabed authority guarding the ³AREA´ ³THE AREA´ is all waters beyond coastal State jurisdiction-for future of mankind .

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