Condensed Tannins: Potential as a Tool for Controlling Parasitic Worms in Small Ruminants

Dr. Harish & Purvi Kakrani

7/26/2011

Dr. Harish Kakrani & Purvi Kakrani

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CONTROL MEASURES
‡ Traditional ± Anthelmintics ± Management ‡ Novel ± Vaccines ± Resistance/Tolerance ± Condensed tannins 7/26/2011 Nematode-trapping fungi Kakrani Dr. Harish Kakrani & Purvi ±

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CONDENSED TANNINS (CT)
‡ CT-containing forages
± Sericea lespedeza ± Birdsfoot trefoil ± Big trefoil ± Sainfoin ± Leucaena

‡ Purified CT
± Quebracho
7/26/2011 Dr. Harish Kakrani & Purvi Kakrani 4

CONDENSED TANNINS IN FORAGES
‡ Vary in concentration
± Alfalfa (none) ± Birdsfoot trefoil (2-3 %) ± Big trefoil (4-5 %) ± Sericea lespedeza (6-7 %) ± Canary clover (14%)

‡ Vary in reactivity
± Birdsfoot trefoil CT (low reactivity) 7/26/2011 Dr. Harish ± Sericea lespedeza Kakrani (high reactivity) CT & Purvi Kakrani
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CONDENSED TANNINS IN RUMINANT DIETS
‡ Plant CT - occur in µfree¶ and µbound¶ forms ‡ CT binds to protein at neutral pH (rumen) ‡ CT disassociates from protein under acid conditions (abomasum) ‡ CT not absorbed from the GIT

7/26/2011

Dr. Harish Kakrani & Purvi Kakrani

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CONDENSED TANNINS
‡ Can have positive and negative effects on the nutrition and health of ruminant animals through influence on utilization of nutrients ‡ Concentration and reactivity of CT are important considerations

7/26/2011

Dr. Harish Kakrani & Purvi Kakrani

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BENEFICAL EFFECTS OF CONDENSED TANNINS
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Increased net absorption of EAAs Increased wool growth and growth rate Increased liveweight gain Higher ovulation rate Higher milk yield Reduced bloat Reduced detrimental effects of internal parasites 7/26/2011 Dr. Harish Kakrani & Purvi Kakrani

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DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS OF CONDENSED TANNINS
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Reduced dry matter intake Decreased fiber digestibility Reduced wool growth Reduced digestion of amino acids in SI Reduced N and S digestion
Dr. Harish Kakrani & Purvi Kakrani 9

7/26/2011

RESEARCH ON ANTHELMINTIC EFFECTS OF CONDENSED TANNINS ‡ In vitro experiments with purified CT ‡ Grazing trials/feeding trials with CTcontaining forages ‡ Feeding trials with purified CT

7/26/2011

Dr. Harish Kakrani & Purvi Kakrani

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IN VITRO EXPERIMENTS WITH PURIFIED CT
‡ CT extracted from various forages, purified
± Birdsfoot trefoil ± Big trefoil ± Sulla ± Sainfoin ± Dock ± Quebracho
7/26/2011 Dr. Harish Kakrani & Purvi Kakrani 11

IN VITRO EXPERIMENTS WITH PURIFIED CT
‡ Tested effects on development/viability of parasite larvae
± Haemonchus contortus ± Trichostrongylus colubriformis ± Teladorsagia circumcincta

‡ Effects on egg hatching
± T. colubriformis
7/26/2011 Dr. Harish Kakrani & Purvi Kakrani 12

RESULTS
‡ CT from all of the different forages greatly reduced hatching of T. colubriformis eggs ± 4 % CT, no viable eggs ± 2 % CT, small number of eggs developed (211%) for some CT types ‡ Development of T. colubriformis larvae from L1 to L3 stage ± 4 % CT, 3 to 8 % of larvae developed ± 2 % CT, 4 to 18 % of larvae developed
7/26/2011 Dr. Harish Kakrani & Purvi Kakrani 13

RESULTS (Cont.)
‡ Quebracho CT reduced viability of L3 larvae from H. contortus, T. circumcincta and T. colubriformis

7/26/2011

Dr. Harish Kakrani & Purvi Kakrani

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ANTHELMINTIC EFFECTS OF CTCONTAINING FORAGES: SULLA
‡ Grazing trials
± Increased growth of parasitized lambs compared to non-CT forage (afalfa) ± Reduced egg counts ± Reduced worm burdens

‡ Feeding trials
± Increased liveweight gain in deer ± Reduced number of abomasal nematodes 7/26/2011 Increased immune response in lambs Dr. Harish Kakrani & Purvi Kakrani ±

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ANTHELMINTIC EFFECTS OF CT-CONTAINING FORAGES: SERICEA LESPEDEZA

‡ Grazing trial comparing sericea lespedeza and rye/crabgrass pasture for goats
± Goats naturally infected, mostly H. contortus ± Lower FEC and total egg output for goats grazing lespedeza ± 88 % less development from egg stage to L3 larvae in feces from lespedeza goats

7/26/2011

Dr. Harish Kakrani & Purvi Kakrani

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ANTHELMINTIC EFFECTS OF PURIFIED CT ‡ Feeding trials with quebracho CT
± Sheep artificially infected with either H. contortus, T. circumcincta or T. colubriformis ± Fed quebracho CT extract at 4, 8, and 16% of intake ± Reduced FEC from intestinal worms with increasing level of CT in the diet ± Intestinal worm burden lowest in sheep fed CT at 8 % of intake ± No effect on FEC or worm burden from sheep infected with abomasal worms
7/26/2011 Dr. Harish Kakrani & Purvi Kakrani 17

ANTHELMINTIC EFFECTS OF CT: SUMMARY ‡ Indirect effects
± Increased rumen by-pass protein ± Increased AA absorption to overcome effects of parasitism ± Improved immune function

‡ Direct effects
± Toxic to parasite adult worms or larvae ± Reduced egg viability in feces
7/26/2011 Dr. Harish Kakrani & Purvi Kakrani 18

CONCLUSIONS
‡ Condensed tannins in forages or in pure form have potential to reduce effects of parasitism in small ruminants ‡ Further research is needed to evaluate CT as a component of an integrated parasite control program for goats and sheep

7/26/2011

Dr. Harish Kakrani & Purvi Kakrani

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