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The values of religion and belief

Chapter 3 part one

Islam
One of the youngest major religion(1400 years ago) Islamic view the life of an individual is a process which has a continuity , this process begins 9 months before the baby is born The influence and determine 4 aspects of that baby s fate in the future a. Livelihood b. Deeds in life c. Death d. Suffering and hapiness

Formation of a person s life is based on the koran and the Hadis of Rasulullah Koran explain that human beings originated from Adam Death does not mean the destruction of roh. The ROH of a person will exist, in a nonmaterial form until punishment is passed on judgement day.

Emphasis of Islam physical, intellectual, social and moral development Final objective: to go to heaven Roh (spirit) is abstract, directs human direction, requires human achievement as ultimate objectives 3 factors influence human development character, the environment and human ability

a) Human Beings from an Islamic Perpective


Islam view man does not emerge from a material process but is made by the essence that controls the world, God (Allah) and possess two elements, Spirit and Body Man is created to serve Allah and be faithful Man thus has a great responsibility towards God, since he possessess free will.

b) Man as a Caliph (a spiritual leader)


Attributes of a caliph are in existence in man when he makes agreement with Allah in and roh Man are representatives of God who possesses qualities in upholding truth and peace and eliminating disobedience and distraction so as to achieve al-falah in this world and in the next.

c) Islamic Holy Books


Koran- original teaching of Allah, revealed by him to Prophet Muhammad s.a.w , second knowledge is Hadith (Hadis) is record about the saying and action of Prophet Muhammad i) The Koran words of God passed down to Prophet Mohammad by Angel Gabriel, 1504 verses about morality - The revelation takes 23 years, and the words of Allah was memorized by Prophet Mohammad and was written down by his followers

ii) Hadis - A record of words, actions, behaviour, character and admissions of Prophet Mohammad - Refer to page 55

d) Aspects of Islamic Teaching


Islamic teaching encompases aqidah (faith), ibadah (devotion) and akhlak (morals) Faith - Belief in Allah - There is no God except Allah Morals - God-Fearing, Faithful and charitable Devotion(religious service) - General Service and special service

Devotion(religious service) First group limited to the performance of the 5 pillars of Islam(worshiping, praying 5 times, fasting in the month of Ramandan, Paying and performing Haj and praying Second Group- practise the 5 pillars of Islam and other aspect of life, example in politics, economics, culture, education in accordance of Islamic practice.

e) Concept of Ibadah(Devotion)
Ibadah originated from faithof Muslim. Be faith to : Holy books, The Prophets, The Hereafter and Angels, Allah, The doctrine of Tauhid Tauhid Uluhiah(related to mankind characteristics) and Tauhid Rububiyah(understand of Allah s characteristics and Qadak and Qadar

f) Islamic Moral Values


Koran must be the yardstick to gauge islamic moral values Islamic morality is founded on Aqidah(faith) Character and behaviour had great influence on a Muslim Example of the Islamic Morals: look at 60.

Christianity
There is only one God The founder: Jesus Christ (the deliverer) Christians took 3 to 4 centuries to understand the book(bible)- 66 volume, Genesis- first volume, Revelation of Jesus- the last Volume

The Ten Commandments (Page66)


Old testament- great attention on the moral in terms of saying and proverbs. example obey your parents on page 66

The New Testament


First book in the new Testament presents the good news of God fulfilling his promise very well organised, relates to the birth of Jesus christ
Deals extensively with ethical concepts which have to be understood by all christians.(example is on page 69)

Terms in the Bible


Bible God Men Heaven Sin Hell Jesus Christ

Christian Festivals
Important day Easter and Christmas

Buddhism
Padmasiri de Silva founder It was given by a prince when he attained enlightenment obtained inspiration and deep consciousness. Buddha real name Siddharta , family nameGautama Siddharta s father was a king in North India,He left the palace at the age of 29 to become ascetic(someone who leads a single and strict ways of life)

He tried to adopt various ways of life and techniques of reflection and meditation from various teachers. Development of inside focus on: impermanence (enduring), suffering and Egolessness

Buddha propagated his teaching for 45 years until his death. His teaching was brought down by his followers written in ola leaves in the Pali Langauge. His teaching 1. Vinaya Pitaka the disciplinary regulations for Buddhist priests 2. Sutta Pitaka foundation of Buddha s teaching 3. Adhidhamma Pitaka guide to the ethical conduct

Buddhist Ethics
Ethics as a requirement of the individual in bringing about a way of life that is valuable and virtuous and that practises meditation. Four noble truth- basic message from Buddha Human suffering dukkha- was said to be pessimistic view; ultimate hapiness nirvana The noble EightfoldPath page 74

Hinduism
Dharma = in sanskrit means the moral and social order Practical moral judgment classified good as things like happiness, survival, pleasure, peace and friendship Oppossite is the misery, sickness and injury or death.

Brahmanical Hindu Ethics


World oldest religion, no single holy book Early concreate situation for the existence: 1. Collection of hindu text are the ultimate authority of the religion 2. Four classes called varna (color) - brahmana(brahmin) religions people - Kshatriya administrator, defense official - Vaishya - farmers, economists, - Shudra - slaves

Brahmanical Hindu Ethics


Classical Hindu Ethics 1. Vedic norms( rules) 2. Institution ashrama 3. Morally concept dharma, karma emerge becomes the concepts of purusharthas (end) i) Ashrama (life cycle) - Life seen in 4 stages studentship,householder, Semi-retreat and renunciation (total reflection) page 77

ii) Dharma(duty) - It plays important role of ethical rules that regulates the behaviour of individual, family and the country iii) Karma (action-effect)- every conscious and self-motivated of an individual generates conditions which may or may not be visible discuss page 78 -

iv) Purusharthas (Human end) - Four pursuits in life intrinsic value - Artha material interest - - kama pleasure and affective fulfilment - - dharma- social and individual duties - Maksha liberation

2. Upanishadic ethics - No holy book, text sanskrit vedas, rig yeda, yajur veda, Atharva veda, Soma veda. - On of text, the Unpanishad ethics encourages separate non-social, spiritual ends A. Damnyata self restraint B. Datta giving or self- sacrifice C. Dayadhvam - compassion

Hindu Gods and Deities Look at page 80

Taoism
By Laozi- he disagree with with confucious teaching. He disagree with the use of linguistic guide to influence human behaviour Confucious s rites could not make lasting and permannt, there must be natural ways to guide human beings, in his book Tao-te cheng

In another book Dao de-jing, any dao can be permanent(very doubtful). No dao can be permanent because of the absence of ming (name) One name guide them in discrimination, in the need for desire, action Shi (food and wrong), fei(bad and wrong) Wu-wei meditated action Look at the table for reference page 83

Conficius - his teaching not a religious theory A book written called si shu: Organisation of human personality Objectives of human development Theories of human learning Thories of children s upbringing and education

Refer to page 84 for confucius in the status in chinese civilisation

The ethics in confucious - Humanity is social - Ethics called dao de dao (way) de(virtue) virtuous way - Book of li teaching to his followers - Refer to page 87 for his principles and 88