Dettol Project Ppt | Competition | Brand

TitIe of the Project : A STUDY ON BRAND DETTOL AND ITS FUTURE

Course : PGCRM - 2
Name of the facuIty: Prof. Sanjay Patro
Subject :Marketing Management
Submitted by : Mr.V.R.Rajesh
RoII No. : (104010/RR09003)
Name of center :Vishakhapatnam
DETTOL
introduced in 1933
'St-eaa eaeaaà te p-etect tàe eae: ae |e«e'
MISSION 2010
Reckitt Benckiser Ìndia Limited has set a sales
target of Rs 1,000 crore for its Dettol brand by
year 2010
The Most Trusted Brand
Dettol has been always voted as "The Most Trusted Brand¨ in Ìndia. Dettol
celebrated its Platinum jubilee celebrations in 2008 with a improved ranking
from 52 to 16 from the previous year among the best 100 brands in Ìndia.
This journey starting from 1933 was certainly not easy and it took a great effort
from the team at Reckitt to root out the age old customs and methods of first
aid. They taught the Ìndian market about
1.How an antiseptic smells like?
2.How an antiseptic feels like when applied on wound/bruises?
3.Perceiving how it provides hygiene and kills germs?
4.How it makes the water cloudy ?attributing this to its strong antiseptic
properties.
Ìn short the Dettol became a "must have" in all Ìndian households.
Ìn last two decades the brand extensions strengthened the depth and width in
different categories like
soap,
Shaving cream,
Band-Aid,
hand wash,
prickly heat powder,.etc
The Undisputed
This action looks justified in the spate of emerging threats and intense
competition in the market against its flagship products dettol antiseptic lotion,
dettol soap and liquid hand wash which provides strength to the brand
portfolio and have been leaders in their respective categories.
ith more than 85% market share (as per AC Nielsen) in the antiseptic liquid
market, Dettol is still the undisputed leader today. Though after 1980 it was
realized that the market is getting stagnant and it was a situation that required
team effort and where it realized that though they don't have a stiff competition
in antiseptic liquid from any of the competitor but the stagnant growth was due
to
Lack of penetration
Lack of enough occasion for usage
Low quantity usage
And even now this is a big question to be resolved though dettol has found
some multi usage in our life and for that they had to change their strategy.
The undisputed
They ended up with modification in market, product and marketing programme
modifications to improve sales during these years.
Market modification The customer usage was many minimal and
hence research showed that the dettol antiseptic liquid had a re purchase
only after 9 months. Hence they had to ensure to create the awareness
about alternate usage of the product.
!roduct Modifications Pricing was a issue with dettol soaps
positioned as a premium category. So they launched smaller pack like
35gm @ 6Rs to counter the competition. Similarly they also launched 135
ml hand wash liquid. This helped them in
attracting non users
Enter new market segments and
Attract Competitor's customers.
Marketing programme modification Reckitt improved its distribution,
changed the marketing communication, consumer interactive campaign was
successfully launched, partnered with the ÌMA. .etc
Product Iaunches
iquid hand wash Ìts launch of liquid hand wash was surely far better than
many other launches and it had to compete against FEM initially and grew
strong as the lifebuoy hand wash launch failed then. But then it was re
launched and now is a force to reckon.
$oap: The dettol soap launch did not enthuse the customers as it was not in line
with the core germ protection platform. Ìt had a cosmetic appeal which
customers did not relate to dettol. So it was re launched with the core germ
protection attribute. This did the work for this category and it went on to
challenge the existing players .Now it has gained 50%+ market share in the
health soap categories. Ìts competition comes from
lifebuoy,ayush,medimix,savlon etc
Band Aid: Ìt was launched more as a combative strategy to counter J&J's
introduction of savlon and by attacking its core strength i.e. in plasters but
stopped promoting the same due to the fact that
Ìt was a small market
J&J had a market share of 85%
A second big competitor already existed in the market in
Bieirsdorf's Handy Plast .
Product Iaunches
$having cream: Market size approx 80 crores.
Though it was launched after a research which showed that 40% people
used some antiseptic lotion after shave and 30% used dettol lotion. This
made Reckitt to launch the twin purpose shaving cream. But this did not
address the secondary benefit of after shave. Ìt was not supported by
enough promotion .did not have any clear differentiation. Had poor
positioning .
!rickly heat powder:
Dettol also entered the talc market with Dettol prickly heat talc. The size of
the talcum powder market is roughly Rs 750 crore, but the prickly heat
segment accounts for less than 15 per cent of that hence was a very small
market with good competition.
The failures might be attributed to
The brand name, the core properties and its end use.
The relevance of the category to which the brand is being extended.
Dettol suffered on both counts.
DettoI Iaunches fresh range
Reckitt Benckiser launched its DETTOL FRESH Range in Feb. 2009 with a
great fresh fragrance and the promise of long lasting Freshness
!roducts: Soaps and Liquid Hand wash
The core value protection from germs" continues to drive this launch.
!ricing:
Soaps
pack sizes 70gm 120gm
Price (Rs) 18 29
Liquid Hand wash
packs sizes 900mI 250mI 185mI
Price (Rs) 135 55 30
!romotion: discounts
As part of an introductory offer, a discount of Rs. 2/- and Rs. 4/- is being
offered on 70gm and 120gm soap bars respectiveIy. This offer is vaIid during
the month of February and March 2009. The new commerciaI wiII be introduced
in Feb09.
ifferentiation:
The research findings found that there has been Iot of positive feedback
for skin feeI, pIeasant yeIIow coIour and freshness that
its new pIeasant fragrance provides.
$%!:
A concept targeted especiaIIy towards youth and aII age groups
in generaI
Indian summer ,humidity and the peopIe's need for a freshness.
Adhering to the core vaIue but different packaging ,fragrance and
vaIue addition
SWOT
$trength
First mover advantage.
Brand strength
High mind and heart share
Brand extensions
Marketing and social welfare activities
eakness
Barring soap and liquid handwash, the brand's extension into all other
categories have failed to make a mark .
Not able to deviate from the core product value of ¨germ protection¨ and
hence failure of dettol brand extensions to cosmetics. etc
SWOT
pportunity
rowing derma and dental care market
After shave lotions,
Strengthen the antiseptic liquid ,soap and hand wash product categories.
%hreats
'ery low usage, low re usage, low hygiene awareness in many segments.
Unsuccessful brand extensions.
Savlon is still around and some lab tests indicated that Savlon is an
effective germ killer than Dettol.Savlon is effective against both ram
Positive and ram Negative germs.
Another advantage about Savlon was that it does not sting while being
applied on wounds.Savlon also had a better scent compared to the more
clinical smell of Dettol.
Plan for future uncertainties like if Pharma major looking to compete with
dettol through new product launch using their channel (doctor's prescription)
with enough investment to sustain a combative strategy from reckitt.
MARKET SHARE
Market share
Dettol is the leader in the antiseptic market with 85 per cent market share.
Liquid hand wash created a new market and lords over 60 per cent of the
market in the category, while the various Dettol soaps account for 18 per
cent of the health soap division.
!enetration
ith the launch of its "Dettol Surakshit Parivar" initiative, Reckitt Benckiser
will target new mothers, schools and hospitals in six metros - Delhi, Mumbai,
Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad.
As the usage rate is only once in 10 month on an average, dettol needs to
find ways to
Ìncrease buying frequency
Ìncrease usage rate
And increase quantity used
Target non users
They did this by promoting more occasions of usage like for
bathing,cleaning,washing.etc But the answer in the long run is also
successful brand extensions.
%Market share
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Dettol
antiseptic
liquid
Dettol Soap Dettol
handwash
liquid
%Market share
MARKET SHARE
DettoI anti septic Iiquid has an market share of about 85%+..
DettoI soaps in heaIth soaps category has a market share of 18%.
DettoI Iiquid hand wash has a market share f about 55%+.
Competitive Forces
%hreat of intense segment rivalry:
The intense rivalry dettol faces is mainly in case soap i.e. between Dettol and
Lifebuoy from HUL.Ìt has turned ugly after dragging each other to court.
Medimix and savlon also are very strong at institutional level.
Fem and Lifebuoy are competing with Dettol in hand wash market.
%hreat of New Entrants:
There have been competition and dettol was able to face it with a better
marketing, combative strategy. A new entrant posing a challenge is a rare
happening now but it has to be on guard
There are lot of new entrants like Santoor etc.in hand wash market.
%hreat of substitutes:
The iodine solutions still exists in many hospitals and remains the first aid to an
extent in urban and to a large extent in rural Ìndia and that means the
potential is yet to be tapped.
The water is certainly a cheaper substitute.
Buyers growing bargaining power
The core germ protection itself is the big differentiator for all Dettol products
and that comes as a boon during these market competition where
price,availability,packaging,quality etc are matched inch to inch by all the
competition. So dettol by matching the above aspects in line with the
competitors has a clear differentiator in its core value and hence a buyers
who need a germ protection will very rarely defect for small gain.
$uppliers growing bargaining power
The company always forces a win-win relationship with the suppliers and so
does Reckitt and has avoided any friction. The economic condition and the
cost of raw materials also will play a role in coming days.
Strategy
!romotion
Communication through advertisement, campaign at school
&colleges, recognition and tie up with ÌMA, Supply of dettol soaps and
antiseptic liquid in large quantities to flood hit areas etc
Availability
Ìt shed its tag of premium selling brand to mass market product and
bettered the distribution system and also the basic version of dettol
soaps.
!ackaging & !rice
Repackaged its liquid hand wash in smaller 135ml bottle at a lower
price point
Dettol soap has been re introduced in smaller units of 35gm @Rs.6.
To tune in to the trendier consumer, Dettol also changed and
modernized the packaging of the soap range in mid 2007.
ombative $trategy
hen J&J launched its direct attack on Dettol with Savlon, that was first
time Reckitt felt the pinch of competition. Savlon had actually attacked and
tried to achieve a POP on the main attributes of Dettol like ,the strong smell,
stinging sensation when applied, and the cloudy formation when mixed in
water.
Dettol strategy was to attack J&J hegemony in "medicated plasters¨.
This strategy unsettled J&J and turned to ensure the plasters market is
taken care and launched some new variants and savlon failed to get the
required attention and investment. Moreover the POP savlon tried to project
was not accepted as planned because these were the attributes people
connected to a antiseptic or at least that was the way Dettol taught them all
these years. Once Reckitt could divert J&J it did not invest in the plasters
market later and found takers only in clinics or hospitals.
Apart from introducing a planned change in its entire marketing strategy it
also introduced various below the line activities
.
Dettol celebrated Mother's Day, by creating a special T' commercial with
children thanking their mothers for all the love and protection they get all
through the year.
On a serious note, Dettol also donated Hygiene Packs to 'Save the
Children' ÷ a leading global NO to flood affected states of est Bengal,
Assam, Orissa and Bihar.
Apart from this, Dettol also has tie-ups with numerous hospitals and medical
care facilities.
The emotional marketing could make in roads from rinsing a new born's
nappy to mopping your house every morning; from applying it to a child's
bruises to adding drops in ones shaving water; Dettol has found a usage at
every life-stage. Competition or no competition, this one's become a must-
have in an Ìndian medical kit.
So DettoI kept competition at bay as aII its activities was targeted to gain
The mind share-By reaching out to peopIe through different media
The Heart share- By conveying a true vaIue proposition
The initiaI concentration was to increase the mind share and heart share and this
they couId reaIize to an extent through educating and creating awareness
through promotion, advertising, demos, campaigns in pubIic, in schooIs,
coIIeges, hospitaIs etc both in urban and ruraI areas.
Market share and profitabiIity.foIIowed.
And hence competition couId never face a big threat tiII now.
One major differentiation was the marketing strategy and promotion which
heIped them
gain the attention,
hoId interest,
arouse desire and
eIicit action
and buiId up a very strong brand equity.
Future PIans
A floor cleaner called Dettol old is being test marketed in
Kolkata and Chennai.
An anti-dandruff shampoo is also reportedly on the launch-pad
To invest and concentrate on their flagship brand "Dettol¨.
Some cosmetic products are also in line for a launch in coming
days.
Promote the "fresh range¨ of dettol products in Ìndia to capture the
untapped markets and ensure market share and profitability.
Suggesting Extensions
After shave lotions: The earlier research showed that most people
used a antiseptic lotion after shave. Hence a opportunity. Ìt should be
launched in smaller quantity aimed at monthly usage and let the customer
come back.
%ooth paste: Though this segment has intense rivalry and many
competitors, the positioning should be planned in a way to capture the
evening brushing category. Say with tag line like
$one se pahle muh meeta keejiye" -
dhaaton ki saphayi dettol ke saath.
A special tooth paste for children below 5 yrs can also create a new
market. This adv should have some emotional appeal where in mother's
love and care should be taken into account and highlighted.
erma care: A reason for the derma category picking up is the direct
impact of environmental challenges like global warming can be observed
through increase in dermatological infections. Other possible reasons for a
growth of this segment can be the changing consumer preferences and rise
in the disposable incomes.
rinking ater purifier : Rather than an purifier machine if a different
product to clean water free from germs and reduce hardness of water.
SUGGESTIONS
Exclusive outlet: An exclusive branded show room concept with
emergency first aid centre across tier 2 and 3 towns .Other Reckitt
products can also find place. A kind of cause related marketing. Ìt
also can be a channel partner managed outlet.
%ie ups Tie up with all pay and use facilities (sulabh complexes)
and brand them. visibility will increase the mind share further.
$pecialty Advertising can be the future.max coverage and
low cost
Build up a different extension from dettol to leverage the brand
value but at the same time it should be away from the "core germ
protection¨ positioning.
this will enable to launch different products like in cosmetics.. etc
Mission 1000cr-Way Forward
The mission 2010 of 1000 crore is quiet far for dettol as a brand.with the
kind of market condition prevailing, cost of raw material .etc
At a growth rate of even 20% consistently which is certainly a very good
rate now, would be 2013 for Dettol to touch 1000crores.
Nurture and grow existing brands Strengthening its existing
brands and increase its penetratrion,usage rate, quantity and bring non
users to its fold. Ìt needs to launch a national mass campaign to reach un
tapped market. This should be well planned implemented to double the
sales to 800crores in coming 2 years
ther opportunities: Tie up with the government and see if the same
dettol liquid (or a new product dettol disinfectant) can be used as a
disinfectant across municipalities in Ìndia for arresting the germs due to
unhygienic conditions. This would be a substantial volume and this would
realize the dream of 1000 crores.
New product launches: The other part of the target should be through
a series of successful product launches that can connect to the people and
to their present needs or dormant needs. Hopefully Dettol fresh range will
be a successful beginning .
DETTOL
going strong in 2008-09
'Øette|, Te Itt7 Sa-e'

##    ,2041.03907'8,,5,93,2

290/.8.70941#8 .0/3 $9743034:9457490.990430804.7470147980994-7.9903.0  $$   #0.08 9.3/- 0.7   .%%  3974/:.8073/.8809.

8.3/9944.3.709.93:2:-00.8.3/833/.24390-089 -7.7931742.550/434:3/.398059.4:80.82080   4.33490.00-7./ %09.398059.7.3/ 33/.8-003.999474494:990.1008003.%0489%7:890/7.8.2574.3.-4:9   4.9#0.90/98!.0/7.:89428.3/2094/8411789 .490/.00-7.32.:9903/.94383 9.2.9011479 17429090.079.3/ 0994.  %84:73089.70.33 174294174290570.04/.. 0994 .8 %0489%7:890/7.

20.2   .0..907.954/07 09.349574..5   $.398059./08030.34:804/8  3.8   57.3/09038438897039030/90/059.3/.9047080  84.3.3/80728   492. 2:89..8994/0. 574507908 38479900994-0.70..3//93 /1107039.03../0890-7.997-:9398949889743.0.-7:808   !07.3/. .0890.4:/.3/ /  .

39749.90 .30907897.0.398059.9902.814:3/ 84202:9:8./088970399490-7.9.0-0030./078390770850.398059.0334988.70 .0/9./94.6:/ 2.7098099389.6:/1742.034:710.1907 9.904708     924709.3/1479.39.42509943 3.943448:8910/39085.85574/:.3/6:/.3.4943  /099484.42509947-:99089..0/94:/0994./0794/.709.32.943 .2011479.34190.41503097.8.85070803 390.8911.574.398059.3/ 5479144.3.8.98.904102073970.990..9706:70/ 90.0 46:...98/0994.709 099488990:3/85:90/0.41034:4.. %4:.399:8.8/:0 94 .%0&3/85:90/ %8.9439.3/390380 .3/9.994:90/43 9.0 3/0.7098.3/.5.89:.-6:0894394-07084.425099433902.843147:8.0/9..3/..8 70.3/070970.0.389981....

.8.94/1..0/ 2..-4:9..4:390790..705:7.9047 $490.:3.9073.0 2#894.997.70935747.0.80 43.58 5489430/./94038:7094./.25.9438942574..70924/1..9438 !7..:8942078 .943 .30/902.992574.:894207:8..94332..703088 .3/ 997.90:8.793070/990  09.:3.990/0994.0/98/897-:943  .42509943 $2.70935747.3/ 03.9090.840/9.82.86:/ %8050/9023 .220 24/1.3/.790.398059.9.7093.78       .943#0.7098020398.422:3.0/ 5.:3..3. .9 !74/:.5702:2.0..942509947 8.07080.93343:8078 3907302.3/2.3232.9..7..88:09/099484.190724398 03.0881:.090..70.0/82...6:/.8.84.943 %0.04190574/:.438:2073907.08.709 574/:.075.8 8:.3.22024/1.%0:3/85:90/ %003/0/:5924/1.08/:7390800.

89./.0/903 :99039..89010-:4.:8942078.8.0897.8. .//349039:8090.470897039 0 35..91472 9...42081742 10-:4 .3/90394394 ..8.47007257490.3// 9.1.9.2..7098.08./94.5.:3.30/  2.904708 98.42-.4309.8349330 990.82.0/990.43 $4.:3.398.078 49.88:701..:3.9.8.42509947.9094.89 .943418.3/.7-099079.:3...0/.3/9./.42509943.8..984.4:3907  8 3974/:.0309008935.70.3/.99.3/-.943.0/2470.20/:094901.9435.:8942078//34970.3/.3 2..:3.709   .43/-.09470.550.9094/0994 $49.!74/:. ..416:/.34907.3/!.5.7098.43.:3.147.5 %0/099484.997-:90 %8//904714798.7093 078/471 8.89078-:9 894550/5742493908..08 6:/.870 .898.9047./0890/3902.48209.7041  80.:8 20/2 8.425090.870.9  9.8.38939.3/70 89743.99.70390 0.:3.470072 57490.2.3/348.:3.

0.0.903.709874:#8 ..709944/.2.3/3.!74/:../5447 5489433 !7.70..0.7-0301941.3507.3/8-030903/0/ 09948:11070/43-49.74708 %4:9.//70889080./0#0.997-:90/94  %0-7. %08041 909..3.:3.470574507908..70980.04190.3/9803/:80   %0700.943 . 2.43/.7080.3/ :80//09944943 %8 2.398059..8.2 :998//349 .:254/072.99.19078.3.70..8.0782.0.90935:754808.7470 -:99057..3.4:398  .08 $.7/1107039.19078.0.904794.9 802039.9.:3.9 50450 :80/8420.4:3981470889.954/07 0994.0.0/.5574 .039419..0 9.90-7..3.7099099457.1907.840/9.7.20 90...84039070/909.9994..83498:554790/- 034:57424943 //349..:70829-0.0.2 .:3.42509943 %01.4943.

3/.94317420728 .98 $4.58 5.3/.3.3/905742804143..8 5.:0 57490.0/98%% #$#.:3.8 %0.4393:0894/7.3030-  9.808 !7.0994.:3.7.807.58.9170817.:3.0817087.30  #0.8808 !7.0 #8  2   2  2  .0 #8  2   2     6:/.9903.8937083088 !74/:.470. 70.098.0.3 $4.. !7..3/6:/.

/8.94741107 .7941.4:3941#8 .4:398  85.33974/:.!7424943/8.

.3/#8 .

.:0-:9/11070395.7.3917.3/170830889. 8-03 411070/43 2..5-.3/.7090/0850.7.470../08  $%!  .43.13/3814:3/9.17083088 /0739490.943  %07080.38:2207 :2/9.8-00349415489.0/ 30-  1107039.94.3/ 284.0100/-..3904.3/.0574.-03974/:.9 983050.//943 .3.3/ .8.0.99070.8.  %030. 14783100 50. 3/..44:7.0599..42207...9.//:73 902439410-7:.0 %8411078.7.3 17.7.7.3.074:58 30307..:0.7/84:9.7870850.3/9050450 8300/147.

90174290./.5.07.0.7093.:7041/0994-7.77384.4907 .01.3/6:/.7 49.39.3/0903843894.01.:041 07257490.8 09.9.3/ 80903843394.470574/:.8 90-7.70 7..798..-094/0.0 7..9.3/84.3/09038438 .908 0.0/942.01..70.3/0..3/..904708.48209..3088   .$ % $97039      78924.3/ 03.943 .3/897039 23/.2. .

947 85708.43.079.9..709 19078.389-497.4744394.0881:-7.904708     %70.0.3/7.43889..9$.9.3/8420.$ %     55479:39 743/072./.0 4030..6:/ 84.9.425.3/..-908983/...90/9.398059.98 '074:8.049438 $970390390.330 /4.550/434:3/8 $.0892039948:89.74:3/.3 0110.20.39..390801!.702.99  .3/..:3.75943  9034:3.8574/:..:83907.3/09038438 $.0.9.039.70308832.43.438.5..0 470:8.9.2 !489.820410994 !.70/94902470 .90174270.72.4250909 /0994974:30574/:..30994 $.3..0072079.0897.-4:9$.42-./.99/4083498930-03 .31471:9:70:3..84.0.-099078....38020398 &38:.9.00728 34907.2.4380110.3.3//039...89.

7098.398059. 033.3.7098.70.3.:990....0..9084343.709390.3/47/84.806:. .3/4859.9047 090.70.0392.9903.90  3/3.5/.9.  4.7099507.41980994$:7.3//07.#%$# .00147 -.843841:8.470.302.2./  890:8.90/.03941900.07.07 507.943 990.739./07390.399:80/  %.83 09.0 /0994300/894 13/..-.0 #0.84 8:.89!.7..58.74:8099484.0881:-7.07.70  6:/.03 243943.0394190 2.3/09038438 .3/.:3.33 .709.70.838209748 0 :2-.807 9.448.07.9.80-:31706:03.  3..894  3...709343:8078  %0//98-574249324704.70930249078 8.843 !03097.80:8.93 .4:39147507 .70.984.70 09948900.8.3807390437:38.

8.3/.398059.7098.32.7041 09946:/. 6:/ 0994$4.9047.8.701.70          0994 .2.6:/.-4:9 .70 0994.7098.2.7098.984.#%$# .398059.5830.8 6:/ .8.5 0994 .8.7098.-4:9 099484.58.7098.7041.3/..

3890 549039.7093 .8.5078:-899:90 .3/9.550/ %0.3 090393:7-.3/94..8084....5503334-:99.0 02.047.93899:943.3//0994..395483.9078.1907/7.3.9418:-899:908 %04/3084:943889089832.70..0.3/702.0.-0941.80994-09.3/.8.0308.3/8..38901789.425093909943.709 %70.099.-09907 2. 3./94.3/ 10-:41742& 9..43.709 %70.3944709.82.0882.920.84.70.3/10-:4.7.33..079.425099..0897.3980$..7/09941.4:79  0/2.30.34859.490794.5 0 -090030994.3/.82..3.704941300397.9410397.0789743.42509943.894-043:.90 300397.89:730/:.398 %070.9413903808020397.700903937:7.70 .9.7/ %070.3/.0-003.7 %03903807..08 %70.42-.

850.4342.7..3 6:..470.335407 %0..390.943 %00.-4.0.3.42509943070 57.3/03.914782..42509943 $4/0994-2.3 $:55078743-..:0.90 .4208.907.7.423/.0.8..3/9.8 .43/943.3/90 .702...98330990 ..07257490.4/0/.:078743-.947147.70/010.335407 %0.9.47007257490.3/..909.8.3 370.947398.08.0 .489417.943.3/84 /408#0.9.8.-9 5..0.8.9.0994574/:.9439801890-/1107039.425.7/1107039.943..98 ..425099478.-.8147.7403.-443/:7390802.709.2.-:078 4300/.943859908:55078.077.845.317.0/3.99.

3/ 24/0730/905.58 !..0  #05.5..079802039 .706:.882.943974:.4008 70.3/ -099070/90/897-:94388902..84. .398059..438:207 0994.44 .8382..3/90:59 $:5541/099484.072-4990.3.58.-9  980/989.0784341/0994 84.90 !7424943  422:3..8-003703974/:.0/382.8490-..$97.9.05439  099484.25.0/986:/.6:/3.3419084.809.70..30/..3 !7.43943..3/942.9.8.415702:2803-7./.3032/  .57..98.3/ .3/.407 57.07:398412#8   %49:30394909703/07.3990894144/9.709574/:.3/..

85.078433.43970/945740..! !43902.99.9 .90:380990/ .03.0/98/70.709.0#0..0.42-.0790! !8....:9902.:3.8349.991099053.431...8  .90/94....3/8.47.41..0590/.43.7098 9.89078  %8897..330/-0.81789 920#0.7.99.3/.398.0/.550/ .90  03 ./.4309949$.0893905.398059.94303.9.9..0/842030. 90800..4:/1472.9430320/3 .079 9//3493.89078 2.90/5.99.99.0$97.899.0..3.90.9.90.3/ 970/94.9.3/9:730/94038:70905.9903943.09949.78  3.890.997-:9084109940 9089743820  89338038.890782.907 0994897.907.43 9.3/90.9:.0/940990 706:70/.:3.4330..894.3.70.:80908007090.3/14:3/9.8474859.997-:90850450 .3/3.0892039 4704. 002433 20/.4://..42509943 $.

.  88.//3/7458343088.4:/2.843974/:.84.850.30-473 8 3.8.0.701.33/.0710 89.. .5594245534:74:800..110.3/20/.90/030!.30398039702..%'.9 0.:8...553994.93./7039.3.3./ 8 -7:80894..84/43. 94144/.79174298 0994.090 /703  .07247331742.70. -.7  3.42509943 98430 8-0..5.2  788.909 . 974:900.904.0..00-7./817427383.74:8-049030.9 .908  %0024943.7917423974/:.908 0994.9      ..420.7  5.90/4907 8.894 $.0..9.0374./34-. 5.42207.9439009.0 425099434734.7093.0/.3/.890 :5893:2074:84859.814:3/...2:89 ..330/.320/.9070994.9084108903.33907249078147.03.90/89.8074:83490 0994.3/57490.7093897.2..

094.943.89.9.798.4:/70.42509943.3835:-.3.7093897.8902.90.7090/94.70.3/ 0. 050/902 .07983 /0248 ..:0574548943 %039.74:80/0870.3/06:9 ..4:/30.943 .9934       302.3/-:/:5.7098.70 .3/0.943.8. %00.0397.809...93..8943.0789743-7.3/7:7.34:99450450974:/110703920/.-9 1440/  3/03.809023/8.-970.703088 974:57424943 .93.908.70.8   ..03.98.42509943.25./.3/57419..071.3/.9..798.3 %023/8.309039974:0/:.43..   $40994059.97:0.47/1107039.70.0.70.3/57424943.9903943  4/3907089  ..70 70.4008 4859..3/98 90.390.43. 38.70.70.9-..-493:7-.448  .0.

574/:..3/.3/7:118.-9    .3/57419.30 41/0994574/:.3/038:702./ %43.3/033.39 /..98.70. 3.94.48209.9833/.307.:3.423 /.7098.85-7.25448.70.90439071.38   1447.7098.:9:70!.0397.550/2. 5.0.59:7090 :39.43.7090/3 4..:3..0/09944/8-0390892.3/ 0994 $420.3.8 !74249090 17087.9.847054790/4390.84330147.089.

19078. %4495..890 %4:98802039.076:.4943..94495.399.03394.7077080.0.550....:3..9047 $.5.398059.0/382..3 .330/3.425099478 90548943384:/-05./.99.59:7090 0.3/90/ .0 03.7.30 2..84:/.9438..0.000 /..7084:/-09.94.90.$:08939038438 19078./703-0478.3/0990.709 %8..9 850.3/...300 $430805..049438 %00.:894207 .840/9..4:39.92439:8.420-.455479:39 984:/-0 ...3/2.70.84.890147.20/.0.033-7:83.08420024943.9248950450 :80/.7.070324907 8 4./099408.02:2009.3.83903807.

7432039.3/780 390/8548.9079...3/70/:.944.723.0...030804-.072.70.-03.907170017420728.803/072.3-04-807.9 25..3.8438147.08.94103.438:20757010703.84314790/072..0.90475..3..9075:7107 #.9438  9075488-070..0/ 974:3.7/308841.. 7494198802039.33./1107039 574/:..301.3:5890/70.994.907 .3-090.35:71072..310.70 70.4208  733..

0..3/0/847442.-.4..:3.9803.9/.0 3/41.3305.908 8:.1789..$&$% $  .793072.0599 020703.48209.43.3/902 .489 2.5...:0-:9.3/    :/:5.3-0901:9:70 4.8413/5..7093 9 .3/-7.84.090-7.:8.07.-094.0-7.174290 .07983 .90/2.04:909 30.8 09..943 5489433 9803.701:7907 $50..3/9438 907#0../1107039574/:. .3/ .99 574/:..470072 57490..07./110703909038431742/0994940.3/:801.3.:8./.9908.425008  .7488907.809023/8....03970.20920984:/-0.3.8-93.3-0.70.98.:8070.0/4:909 %0:58%0:59.

.770893900728/:094 :303.9.4:20.399.8098503097.9..07.25.3/740893-7.3/3.78 907455479:3908%0:59904.70984:/-0974: .550/2.88.489417.747086:091.:3.943.2.907.3/ 949075708039300/847/472.. /8310..08%049075.0744/ 7.-7.3/984:/ 70.39300/8 4501:099417087.4330.30574/:.43/943570..39 .3.089.9/0994/8310..9.3.7497.7147/0994.74708  :79:70.747083.74708 0574/:.8.0881:-0333    ..03 . 09.8.:3 9.43/9438 %84:/-0.3/8.079.90833/.70.2..3-0:80/.39.:3..8843 .0894 .9743 :8.43889039.5.709.74882:3.47.0881:574/:.090/70.9.:3.9949050450..9034 4:/-0 14709949494:.90 6:.7941909.7 .241 ..3 .90410.330/25020390/94/4:-090 8..39470. 990  9.7/  %028843  41 .8.0732039.3.3/ 3/412.9.709 %884:/-005.30 -0.8:.4230.147.3/8001908.8:-89. .3/-73343 :8078949814/ 9300/894.80708418:.3/8 $97039033980893 -7.20 /09946:/ 47.39.

%%  43897433   0994 0 $:70 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.