Review

 Last Class Database and DBMS History of DBMS Level of Abstraction Schema and Instance Logical Data Independence Physical Data Independence DDL and DML Data Dictionary Data Models Entity-Relationship Model Relational Model Database Access from Programming language  This Class Database Users Transaction Management  Next Class Entity-Relationship Model

Database System Concepts

1.1

Yaohang Li, NCAT

2 Yaohang Li. people accessing database over the web.g. bank tellers. NCAT . clerical staff Database System Concepts 1.Database Users  Users are differentiated by the way they expect to interact with the system  Application programmers ± interact with system through DML calls  Sophisticated users ± form requests in a database query language  Specialized users ± write specialized database applications that do not fit into the traditional data processing framework CAD System Knowledge-based Expert Systems  Naive users ± invoke one of the permanent application programs that have been written previously E.

Database Administrator  Central Control of the data and programs that access the data  Coordinates all the activities of the database system.3 Yaohang Li. NCAT . the database administrator has a good understanding of the enterprise¶s information resources and needs.  Database administrator's duties include: Schema definition Storage structure and access method definition Schema and physical organization modification Granting user authority to access the database Specifying integrity constraints Acting as liaison with users Monitoring performance and responding to changes in requirements Database System Concepts 1.

4 Yaohang Li.Transaction Management Example  Fund Transfer from account A to account B Steps A is debited B is credited The value of the sum A + B must be preserved Atomicity All-or-none requirement Consistency Correctness Durability After the successful execution of a fund transfer The new values of accounts A and B must persist. despite the possibility of system failure Database System Concepts 1. NCAT .

Failure recovery Detect system failures Restore the database to the state that existed prior to the occurrence of the failure  Concurrency-control manager controls the interaction among the concurrent transactions.g.5 Yaohang Li.Transaction Management  A transaction is a collection of operations that performs a single logical function in a database application  Transaction-management component ensures that the database remains in a consistent (correct) state despite system failures (e. to ensure the consistency of the database Several transactions update the database concurrently Consistency may not be preserved. even though each individual transaction is correct Database System Concepts 1.. power failures and operating system crashes) and transaction failures. NCAT .

6 Yaohang Li.Database System Structure  Partition Database System into modules with different responsibilities Storage manager Manage large amount of storage space Query processor Help the database system to simplify and facilitate access to data Database System Concepts 1. NCAT .

Storage Management  Storage manager A program module that provides the interface between the low-level data stored in the database and the application programs and queries submitted to the system. Translate various DML statements into low-level file-system commands Authorization and integrity manager Transaction manager File manager Buffer manager  The storage manager is responsible to the following tasks: interaction with the file manager efficient storing. retrieving and updating of data Database System Concepts 1.7 Yaohang Li. NCAT .

NCAT .8 Yaohang Li.Overall System Structure Database System Concepts 1.

Application Architectures Two-tier architecture: E. and applications built using ³middleware´ Database System Concepts 1.g. client programs using ODBC/JDBC to communicate with a database Three-tier architecture: E. web-based applications. NCAT .g.9 Yaohang Li.

10 Yaohang Li. NCAT .Summary  Database and DBMS  History of DBMS  Level of Abstraction  Schema and Instance Logical Data Independence Physical Data Independence  Database Users  DDL and DML  Transaction  Database System Structure Database System Concepts 1.

11 Yaohang Li.What I want you to do  Review Chapter 1  Organize a project team Database System Concepts 1. NCAT .

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