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A group of finite tasks to be performed and duties to be fulfilled in order to achieve an end result.

Charting the Organization

Organization chart
y A chart that shows the organizationwide

distribution of work, with titles of each position and interconnecting lines that show who reports to and communicates to whom.

Process chart
y A work flow chart that shows the flow of inputs to

and outputs from a particular job.

is a conscious effort to organise tasks, duties and responsibilities into a unit of work to achieve a certain objective.

is a conscious effort to re-organise tasks, duties and responsibilities into a unit of work to satisfy both technological and human considerations simultaneously.


Job-based approaches Person-based approaches Team-based approaches

Job-Based Approaches

Specialisation Standardisation Operations and production management (process identification, scheduling, etc)

Techniques Job elements Time and motion studies Flow charts and Process charts

Person-Based Approaches

Job enlargement Job enrichment Job rotation

Techniques Job Characteristics Model

Specialized to Enlarged Jobs

Job Enlargement = same-level activities Job Enrichment = redesigning to experience more responsibility, achievement, growth and recognition Job Rotation = moving from one job to another

Add new tasks Include work done before the job Increase feedback on performance Eliminate dissatisfying tasks from job Rearrange existing tasks in the job Add new responsibility Include work done after the job Increase closure of tasks


Job Characteristics Model

Core Job Characteristics Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Autonomy Critical Psych States Personal & Work Outcomes High internal work motivation High quality work performance High satisfaction with work Low absenteeism & turnover

Experienced meaningfulness of the work Experienced responsibility for work outcomes Knowledge of work results Individual Differences

Job Feedback

Job Characteristics
Skill Variety The extent to which the work requires several different activities for successful completion. The extent to which the job includes a whole identifiable unit of work that is carried out from start to finish and that results in a visible outcome. The impact the job has on other people.

Task Identity

Task Significance Autonomy

The extent of individual freedom and discretion in the work and its scheduling. The amount of information received about how well or how poorly one has performed.


Team-Based Approaches

Sociotechnical enrichment Quality systems/circles

Techniques Multi-skilling Job families Self-managing work teams

Types of Teams
SpecialPurpose Team Organizational team formed to address specific problems, improve work processes, and enhance product and service quality. Small group of employees who monitor productivity and quality and suggest solutions to problems. Grouping of workers who produce components or entire products. A team composed of individuals assigned a cluster of tasks, duties, and responsibilities to be accomplished. A team composed of a core of members, resource experts who join the team as appropriate, and part-time/temporary members as needed

Quality Circle

Production Cells Self-directed Work Team

Shamrock Team

Compressed work week Flexible working hours

y Flexitour y Gliding time y Flexiplace y Flexyears

Job Sharing Part-time Work


Job Analysis What is it and how is it used?

The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it.

Check the site to find some of the purposes for which job analysis is used.

Information Collected
Activities and behaviors Machines, tools, equipment and work aids Performance standards Job context Human requirements

The Output of Job Analysis

Job description
y A list of a jobs duties, responsibilities, reporting

relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities

Job specifications
y A list of a jobs human requirements, that is, the

requisite education, skills, personality, and so on.

Uses of Job Analysis Information

Recruitment and Selection Compensation Performance Management Training Discovering Unassigned Duties

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information

Interview Questionnaire Observation Participant diary/logs Other sources of information

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: The Interview

Information sources
y Individual employees y Groups of employees y Supervisors with

Interview formats
y Structured (Checklist) y Unstructured

knowledge of the job

y Quick, direct way to find

overlooked information.

y Distorted information

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Questionnaires

Information source
y Have employees fill out

y Quick and efficient way

questionnaires to describe their job-related duties and responsibilities.

to gather information from large numbers of employees

Questionnaire formats
y Structured checklists y Opened-ended

y Expense and time


consumed in preparing and testing the questionnaire

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Observation

Information source
y Observing and noting the

y Provides first-hand

physical activities of employees as they go about their jobs.

information y Reduces distortion of information

y Time consuming y Difficulty in capturing entire

job cycle y Of little use if job involves a high level of mental activity.

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Participant Diary/Logs

Information source
y Workers keep a

y Produces a more complete

chronological diary/ log of what they do and the time spent in each activity.

picture of the job y Employee participation

y Distortion of information y Depends upon employees to

accurately recall their activities

Writing Job Descriptions

A job description
y A written statement of what the worker actually

does, how he or she does it, and what the jobs working conditions are.

Sections of a typical job description

y Job identification y Job summary y Responsibilities and duties y Authority of incumbent y Standards of performance y Working conditions

The Job Description

Job identification
y Job title: name of job y Grade: where it fits in the hierarchy y Preparation date: when the description was

written y Prepared by: who wrote the description

Job summary
y Describes the general nature of the job y Lists the major functions or activities

The Job Description (contd)

Relationships (chain of command)

y Reports to: employees immediate supervisor y Supervises: employees that the job incumbent

directly supervises
y Works with: others with whom the job holder will

be expected to work and come into contact with internally.

y Outside the company: others with whom the job

holder is expected to work and come into contact with externally.

E.g. of Relationships Statement for Human Resource Director

ice resi ent mployee Relations

Wor s with all epartment managers and top management

Human Resource Director Depart ent Secretar H an Resource ler

Wor s with employment agencies, recruiters, union reps, govt. agencies, vendors

Test inistrator

abor Relations Manager

The Job Description (contd)

Responsibilities and duties

y A listing of the jobs major responsibilities and

duties (essential functions)

y Defines limits of jobholders decision-making

authority, direct supervision, and budgetary limitations.

The Job Description (contd)

Standards of performance and working conditions

y Lists the standards the employee

is expected to achieve under each of the job descriptions main duties and responsibilities.

Job Specifications

What human traits and experience are required to do the job well?
y Qualifications y Prior experience y Special training y Personality factors y Physical characteristics y Other attributes/qualities

Steps in Job Analysis


2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Clarify why you are collecting the information Review relevant background information Select representative positions Conduct the analysis Verify with the worker / supervisor / mgmt. Develop a job description and job specification

The Job Analysis System


HRP, JD & JA Model

Job Description

HR Planning Job Design Job Analysis

Macro Micro

Job Specification

Other HRM Activities

(Recruitment, Selection, Performance appraisal, Training, Compensation)

Productivity, QWL, Legal Compliance