# Module 2

Modal Analysis

Module 2

Modal Analysis
A. Define modal analysis and its purpose.

Training Manual

DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.1

B. Discuss associated concepts, terminology, and mode extraction methods. C. Learn how to do a modal analysis in ANSYS. D. Work on one or two modal analysis exercises.

July 22, 2004 Inventory #002110 2-2

Modal Analysis

A. Definition & Purpose
• • What is modal analysis? A technique used to determine a structure’s vibration characteristics:

Training Manual

DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.1

– Natural frequencies – Mode shapes – Mode participation factors (how much a given mode participates in a given direction)

Most fundamental of all the dynamic analysis types.

July 22, 2004 Inventory #002110 2-3

Modal Analysis

… Definition & Purpose
Benefits of modal analysis •

Training Manual

DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.1

Allows the design to avoid resonant vibrations or to vibrate at a specified frequency (speakers, for example). Gives engineers an idea of how the design will respond to different types of dynamic loads. Helps in calculating solution controls (time steps, etc.) for other dynamic analyses. Recommendation: Because a structure’s vibration characteristics determine how it responds to any type of dynamic load, always perform a modal analysis first before trying any other dynamic analysis.

July 22, 2004 Inventory #002110 2-4

Corresponding vectors are {u}i. 2004 Inventory #002110 2-5 . the eigenvalues. u = U sin(ωt ) ) ([ K ] − ω [ M ]){ u} = {0} 2 • The roots of this equation are ω i2. where i ranges from 1 to number of DOF. Terminology & Concepts • General equation of motion: Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. the eigenvectors.1   [ M ]{ u} + [ C]{ u} + [ K ]{ u} = { F( t )} • Assume free vibrations and ignore damping:  [ M ]{ u} + [ K ]{ u} = { 0} • Assume harmonic motion ( i.1 DYNAMICS 8.e.1 DYNAMICS 8.Modal Analysis B.1 DYNAMICS 8. July 22.

1 DYNAMICS 8. 2004 Inventory #002110 2-6 .1 The square roots of the eigenvalues are ω i .1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.Modal Analysis … Terminology & Concepts • Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. Natural frequencies fi are then calculated as fi = ω i /2π ( cycles/sec) . The eigenvectors {u}i represent the mode shapes . the structure’s natural circular frequencies (radians/sec).the shape assumed by the structure when vibrating at frequency fi. • July 22. It is the natural frequencies fi that are input by the user and output by ANSYS.

1 DYNAMICS 8. 2004 Inventory #002110 2-7 . Mode Expansion has a dual meaning.) • Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. For the reduced method. For all other methods.Modal Analysis … Terminology & Concepts (cont. • July 22. mode expansion means calculating the full mode shapes from the reduced mode shapes. mode expansion simply means writing mode shapes to the results file.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 Mode Extraction is the term used to describe the calculation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

Modal Analysis . 2004 Inventory #002110 2-8 .1 DYNAMICS 8.1 • Which method you choose depends primarily on the model size (relative to your computer resources) and the particular application.1 DYNAMICS 8.Terminology & Concepts Mode Extraction Methods • Several mode extraction methods are available in ANSYS: – – – – – – – Block Lanczos (default) Subspace PowerDynamics Reduced Unsymmetric Damped (full) QR Damped Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8. July 22.

1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.Terminology & Concepts … Mode Extraction Methods .1 – Efficient extraction of large number of modes (40+) in most models – Typically used in complex models with mixture of solids/shells/beams etc.Block Lanczos • The Block Lanczos method is recommended for most applications. 2004 Inventory #002110 2-9 . Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.Modal Analysis . – Efficient extraction of modes in a frequency range – Handles rigid-body modes well July 22.

Generally superseded by Block Lanczos July 22.1 Requires relatively less memory but large diskspace May have convergence problems when rigid body modes are present.Terminology & Concepts … Mode Extraction Methods . the subspace method can be more suitable. – – – – Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.Modal Analysis . 2004 Inventory #002110 2-10 .Subspace • When extracting a small number of modes (<40) in similar size models.1 DYNAMICS 8. Not recommended when constraint equations are present.

– May not converge with poorly shaped elements or an ill-conditioned matrix.Modal Analysis . – May miss modes (No Sturm sequence check) – Recommended only as a last resort for large models.Terminology & Concepts … Mode Extraction Methods . It can be significantly faster than Block Lanczos or Subspace.PowerDynamics • For large (100K+ DOF) models and a small number of modes (< 20). use the PowerDynamics method.1 – Requires large amount of memory. 2004 Inventory #002110 2-11 .1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8. July 22. but: Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.

– In general fastest eigen solver – Employs matrix reduction.Modal Analysis .1 DYNAMICS 8. use the Reduced method. 2004 Inventory #002110 2-12 . a technique to reduce the size of [K] and [M] by selecting a subset of DOF called master DOF.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8. typically beams and spars. – Reduction of [K] is exact but [M] loses some accuracy – Accuracy of [M] depends on number and location of master DOF. – Memory and disk requirements are low.1 For models in which lumping mass does not create a local oscillation.Terminology & Concepts … Mode Extraction Methods .Reduced • Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. – Generally not recommended due to • Expertise required in picking master DOF • Efficient alternatives such as Block Lanczos • reduced cost of hardware July 22.

1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.Unsymmetric • Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8. positive means unstable.negative means stable.Modal Analysis . 2004 Inventory #002110 2-13 .1 The unsymmetric method is used for acoustics (with structural coupling) and other such applications with unsymmetric [K] and [M]. • Imaginary part indicates stability .Terminology & Concepts … Mode Extraction Methods . July 22. – Calculates complex eigenvalues and eigenvectors: • Real part is the natural frequency.

1 DYNAMICS 8. • Real part indicates stability .Modal Analysis .negative means stable.Damped • Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. – Calculates complex eigenvalues and eigenvectors: • Imaginary part is the natural frequency. 2004 Inventory #002110 2-14 . the Damped method is used.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 Damping is normally ignored in a modal analysis.Terminology & Concepts … Mode Extraction Methods .1 DYNAMICS 8. BEAM4 and PIPE16. positive means unstable. where gyroscopic damping effects are important. – Typical application is rotor dynamics. but if its effects are significant. radians/time). allow gyroscopic effects to be specified in the form of real constant SPIN (rotational speed. – Two ANSYS elements. July 22.

2004 Inventory #002110 2-15 .1 A second mode extraction method that considers damping effects is the Q-R Damped method.Modal Analysis . – – – – Faster and more stable than the existing Damped Solver Works with poorly conditioned models All forms of damping allowed including damper elements Combines the best features of the real eigensolution method (Block Lanczos) and the Complex Hessenberg method (QR Algorithm) – Outputs complex eigenvalues ( frequency and stability) and damping ratio of each mode – Supports the use of a material dependent damping ratio [MP.Q-R damped • Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.DMPR] in a subsequent mode superposition harmonic analysis July 22.Terminology & Concepts … Mode Extraction Methods .1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.

NMODE July 22.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.Q-R damped Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.Terminology & Concepts … Mode Extraction Methods .Modal Analysis . 2004 Inventory #002110 2-16 .1 MODOPT.QRDAMP.1 DYNAMICS 8.

2004 Inventory #002110 2-17 .Modal Analysis .129 active dofs 10 damped modes Alpha.1 DYNAMICS 8. Beta and Element damping 160000 140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 QRDAMP DAMP CPU (sec) ELAPSE (sec) July 22.Q-R damped Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.Terminology & Concepts … Mode Extraction Methods .1 DYNAMICS 8.1 Comparison Demonstrating the Superior Solution Performance of the QR Damped Mode Extraction Method FEA M odel Characteristics: 111.1 DYNAMICS 8.

Requires large disk space. Limitations similar to Subspace. Has difficulty with constraint equations / rigid body modes Same as subspace but with PCG solver.Modal Analysis . Accuracy depends on Master DOF selection. Can handle very large models. 2004 Inventory #002110 2-18 . Powerdynamics PCG solver Reduced Frontal Solver July 22. Not recommended due to expertise required in selecting Master DOF.1 DYNAMICS 8. Stable but slow. May miss modes.1 DYNAMICS 8. undamped solvers Extraction method Block Lanczos Subspace Linear Solver Used Sparse Matrix Frontal Solver Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.1 Remarks Recommended for most applications.Terminology & Concepts Summary for symmetric. Modes cannot be used in subsequent spectrum and PSD analyses In general fastest. Lumped mass only. Most stable.1 DYNAMICS 8.

Procedure Four main steps in a modal analysis: • • • • Build the model Choose analysis type and options Apply boundary conditions and solve Review results Training Manual July 22. 2004 Inventory #002110 2-19 DYNAMICS 8.Modal Analysis C.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 .1 DYNAMICS 8.

Modal Analysis Procedure Build the Model • • • Remember density! Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8. Nonlinearities are ignored. July 22.1 Linear elements and materials only. 2004 Inventory #002110 2-20 . See also Modeling Considerations in Module 1.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.

2004 Inventory #002110 2-21 .1 DYNAMICS 8. Mode extraction options* Mode expansion options* Other options* • • • *Discussed next July 22.1 Choose analysis type and options • Enter Solution and choose modal analysis.1 DYNAMICS 8.Modal Analysis Procedure Choose Analysis Type & Options  Build the model Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.

1 DYNAMICS 8. Number of modes: Must be specified (except Reduced method).1 DYNAMICS 8.1 • • • July 22. defaults to 1e8 Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. 2004 Inventory #002110 2-22 .Modal Analysis Procedure … Choose Analysis Type & Options Mode extraction options • Method: Block Lanczos recommended for most applications.1 DYNAMICS 8. Normalization: Discussed next. but can be limited to a desired range (FREQB to FREQE). Frequency range: Defaults to entire range. Specification of a frequency range requires additional factorizations and it is typically faster to simply request a number of modes which will overlap the desired range.

– Normalization to mass matrix is the default.Modal Analysis Procedure … Choose Analysis Type & Options Normalization of mode shapes: • Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. – Choose normalization to unity when you want to easily compare relative values of displacements throughout the structure. • Modes normalized to unity cannot be used in subsequent mode superposition analyses (transient. Modes are normalized either to the mass matrix or to a unit matrix (unity).1 DYNAMICS 8. It is therefore customary to normalize them for numerical efficiency or user convenience.1 Only the shape of the DOF solution has real meaning. harmonic. and is required for a spectrum analysis or if a subsequent mode superposition analysis is planned.1 DYNAMICS 8. spectrum or random vibration) • July 22. 2004 Inventory #002110 2-23 .1 DYNAMICS 8.

1 .1 DYNAMICS 8. 2004 Inventory #002110 2-24 DYNAMICS 8. – Do a subsequent spectrum or mode superposition analysis.Modal Analysis Procedure … Choose Analysis Type & Options Mode expansion: • You need to expand mode shapes if you want to do any of the following: – Have element stresses calculated.1 DYNAMICS 8. Training Manual July 22.1 DYNAMICS 8.

July 22.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8. 2004 Inventory #002110 2-25 . The cost of this is minimal.Modal Analysis Procedure … Choose Analysis Type & Options Mode expansion (continued): • Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.1 Recommendation: Always expand as many modes as the number extracted.

1 • • Pre-stress effects – For Pre-stressed modal analysis (discussed later).1 DYNAMICS 8.Modal Analysis Procedure … Choose Analysis Type & Options • • Other analysis options: Lumped mass matrix – Mainly used for slender beams and thin shells. and beta damping are allowed. Full damping – Used only if Damped mode extraction method is chosen. Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. – Automatically chosen for PowerDynamics method. or for wave propagation problems.1 DYNAMICS 8. • QR damping – All types of damping are allowed.1 DYNAMICS 8. July 22. 2004 Inventory #002110 2-26 . alpha damping. – BEAM4 and PIPE16 also allow gyroscopic damping. – Damping ratio.

Modal Analysis Procedure Apply BC’s and Solve  Build the model  Choose analysis type and options Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8. 2004 Inventory #002110 2-27 .1 DYNAMICS 8.1 Apply boundary conditions and solve • • Displacement constraints: Discussed next. However. ANSYS creates a load vector which you can use in a subsequent mode superposition analysis.1 DYNAMICS 8. Solve: Discussed next. External loads: Ignored since free vibrations are assumed. • July 22.

1 DYNAMICS 8. 2004 Inventory #002110 2-28 . Non-zero displacements are not allowed.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.Modal Analysis Procedure … Apply BC’s and Solve Displacement constraints: • Apply as necessary.1 Rigid body modes will be calculated in directions not constrained. July 22. • • Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. to simulate actual fixity.

1 DYNAMICS 8.. Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8. Apply BC’s and Solve Displacement constraints (continued): • • Be careful with symmetry Symmetry BC’s will only produce symmetrically shaped modes..Modal Analysis Procedure . 2004 Inventory #002110 2-29 . so some modes can be missed.1 Full Model Symmetry BC Anti-Symmetry BC July 22.1 DYNAMICS 8.

2004 Inventory #002110 2-30 . the lowest non-zero mode for the full and the quarter-symmetry case is shown below.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 For the plate-with-hole model. The 53-Hz mode was missed by the anti-symmetry case because ROTX is non-zero along the symmetry boundaries. July 22.Modal Analysis Procedure … Apply BC’s and Solve Displacement constraints (continued): Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.

2004 Inventory #002110 2-31 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8. for example).1 . Multiple load steps can be used to study the effect of different displacement constraints (symmetry BC in one load step and anti-symmetry BC in another. Training Manual July 22.1 DYNAMICS 8.Modal Analysis Procedure … Apply BC’s and Solve Solve: • • Typically one load step.1 DYNAMICS 8.

the general postprocessor List natural frequencies View mode shapes Review participation factors Review modal stresses July 22.1 • • • • • Review results using POST1.1 DYNAMICS 8.Modal Analysis Procedure Review Results  Build the model  Choose analysis type and options  Apply boundary conditions and solve Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. 2004 Inventory #002110 2-32 .1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.

1 DYNAMICS 8.Modal Analysis Procedure … Review Results Listing natural frequencies: • • Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. July 22. Notice that each mode is stored in a separate substep.1 Choose “Read Results > By Pick” in the General Postproc menu.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8. 2004 Inventory #002110 2-33 .

2004 Inventory #002110 2-34 .1 DYNAMICS 8. Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. or By Load Step.Modal Analysis Procedure … Review Results Viewing mode shapes: • First read in results for the desired mode using First Set. Then plot the deformed shape: General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape… Notice that the graphics legend shows mode number (SUB = ) and the frequency (FREQ = ).1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 • • July 22. Next Set.

2004 Inventory #002110 2-35 .1 DYNAMICS 8.Modal Analysis Procedure … Review Results Viewing mode shapes (continued): • Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.1 You can also animate the mode shape: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Mode Shape.1 DYNAMICS 8. July 22...1 DYNAMICS 8.

0) could be used to obtain other values Also printed out (to the output file) is the effective mass.0.Modal Analysis Procedure … Review Results Participation Factors: • • • • Calculated for each mode in global translation and rotation directions Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. A spectrum analysis with a specified direction (SED.1 DYNAMICS 8. 2004 Inventory #002110 2-36 .1 DYNAMICS 8. Ideally the sum of the effective masses in each direction should equal total mass of structure Effective Mass = (participation factor)2 • • July 22.1 High value in a direction indicates that the mode will be excited by forces in that direction Values are relative based on a unit displacement spectrum The final participation factor value (ROTZ) can be retrieved into a parameter using *GET command.1 DYNAMICS 8.1.

Modal Analysis Procedure … Review Results Modal stresses: • • • Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. 2004 Inventory #002110 2-37 .1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8. however these can be used to highlight hot spots If mode shapes are normalized to unity.1 DYNAMICS 8. you can compare stresses at different points for a given mode shape July 22. Stress values have no real meaning.1 Available if element stress calculation is activated when choosing analysis options.

Modal Analysis Procedure … Review Results Training Manual DYNAMICS 8. 2004 Inventory #002110 2-38 .1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 Mode shapes normalized to unity July 22.

Modal Analysis Procedure  Build the model  Choose analysis type and options  Apply boundary conditions and solve  Review results Training Manual July 22.1 .1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8.1 DYNAMICS 8. 2004 Inventory #002110 2-39 DYNAMICS 8.

2. or your instructor may show it as a demonstration. Modal analysis of a plate with a hole Training Manual DYNAMICS 8.1 – A step-by-step description of how to do the analysis. Modal analysis of a model airplane wing – This is left as an exercise to you. 2004 Inventory #002110 2-40 .Modal Analysis This workshop consists of two problems: 1.1 DYNAMICS 8. – Follow the instructions in your Dynamics Workshop supplement ( WS2: Modal Analysis .1 DYNAMICS 8.Plate with a Hole.1 DYNAMICS 8. Page WS-23 ). July 22. – You may choose to run this problem yourself. – Follow the instructions in your Dynamics Workshop supplement ( WS3: Modal Analysis .Model Airplane Wing.D. Page WS-17 ). Workshop .