This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Scott P. Terrell, DVM, Diplomate ACVP
Veterinary Pathologist, Disney·s Animal Programs Instructor in Wildlife Pathology, UF CVM
North American Veterinary Licensing Examination (NAVLE)
360 multiple choice questions
6 blocks of 60 questions
Approx. 60 images (xrays, diagrams, photos, microscope images, etc)
Total 7.5 hours 55-65% to pass (90% pass)
North American Veterinary Licensing Examination (NAVLE) Blueprint by species
Canine Feline Pet bird Other (fish, lab, exotics) 26% 22% 3% 3% 15% 7% 2%
Bovine Pigs Sheep / goat
Horses Public health, poultry
Listeria monocytogenes R .Actinomyces (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes M .Streptoccoccus sp.Dermatophilus congolensis A . (acid fast) N .Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae C . E .Staphylococcus sp. S .Gram positive or gram negative? SS BECLR DAMN (a ship) S . B . .Nocardiasp.Rhodococcus equi D .Mycobacterium sp.Bacillus sp. L .Clostridium sp.
On to the pigs.. ...
Ages of pigs are important Neonates 0-3 weeks 3-10 weeks 10-26 weeks >6-8 months <4 kg 4-25 kg 25-120 kg >120 kg Weanlings/nursery Growers/finisher Breeders/adults .
Pig management Backyard herds All in / all out SPF Segregrated early weaning Depop / repop .
Pig medicine Blood collection Jugular vein / anterior vena cava Auricular vein Rubberband IV injection .
.Orderly thinking. Multisystemic Diseases Respiratory Diseases Gastrointestinal Diseases Neurologic Diseases Musculoskeletal Diseases Reproductive Diseases Dermatology Miscellaneous ..
Multisystemic diseases Erysipelas (Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae) Glasser s disease (Haemophilus parasuis) Salmonella PRRS (arterivirus) PWMWS (circovirus) Pseudorabies virus (herpes virus) Vitamin E / selenium deficiency .
endocarditis.Erysipelas Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Gram positive rod most herds have carriers diamond skin. necrosis Environmental contaminant Septicemia . arthritis.
Diamond skin disease .
Valvular endocarditis .
Erysipelas cont. Treatment Penicillin Tetracyclins Sanitation Vaccinate at weaning and then q6 months Prevention and control ...
septicemia (fibrinous) Pleuritis Pericarditis Peritonitis Meningitis!!! . initiated by stress Polyserositis.Glasser·s disease (polyserositis) Haemophilus parasuis Gram negative coccobacillus Endemic.
Glasser·s disease .
Glasser·s cont... Diagnosis Culture is difficult (but try it) Go with suspicion from gross lesions Penicillins Tetracyclins Reduce stress Vaccine at weaning then again 3-4 weeks later Treatment Prevention and control .
Salmonella sp. Salmonella cholerasuis Salmonella typhimurium Zoonotic Low-level endemnicity. anorexia purple discoloration of the ears (infarction) Small or large intestinal diarrhea (button ulcers) Pneumonia Rectal strictures . carriers Septicemia pyrexia.
all out operation Various vaccines (live avirulent) Treatment Prevention and control ..Salmonella cont. Diagnosis Aerobic culture Neomycin in the feed/water for whole group Naxcel (ceftiofur) for individual Sanitation All in ..
respiratory distress secondary bacterial pneumonia delayed or abnormal estrus cycle with increased numbers of stillborns/mummies . lethargy.PRRS Porcine reproduction and respiratory syndrome Arterivirus Clinical signs .neonates anorexia. fever cyanosis of the ears.
PRRS cont. treat secondary bacteria closed herds change feed if contaminated by mycotoxins (*) RespPRRS vaccine Treatment Control .. IHC most common test used in the USA Supportive care. Diagnosis serology. virus isolation IFA..
Post weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PWMWS) Porcine circovirus -2 Relatively new disease Responsible for many of the clinical signs associated with atypical PRRS virus . .
IFA .PWMWS Clinical signs Wasting in weanling pigs Enlarged peripheral lymph nodes Evidence of pneumonia NecropsyGranulomatous lymphadenitis and pneumonia Intracytoplasmic inclusions Diagnosis Serology.
None Supportive care Euthanasia of affected animals Difficult at this time Carrier animals are important
Aujesky s disease Herpes virus Dogs, cats, domestic ruminants Not humans!
up to 100% mortality neurologic dz, vomiting, diarrhea Ulcers on oral cavity and esophagus up to 60% mortality in weanlings, 0-15% in finishers pneumonia impt, neurologic dz, vomiting, extreme pyrexia can cause stillbirth/abortion
Adults - often inapparent
Reportable disease! Diagnosis Necropsy histologic lesions in brain.. ulcers in gi tract Serum neutralization is standard test ELISA can be used as a screening test Treatment ..none Prevention closed herd! quarantine! restrict wildlife vaccination .Pseudorabies cont.
Pseudorabies Regulation use of vaccine regulated by states federal regulations for monitoring all animals over 6mo old must be tested 25% of herd tested q3months or. 10% of herd tested q1month ...
White muscle disease / Mulberry heart disease Nursery or grower pigs Vitamin E / Selenium deficiency Propionic acid destroys Vit E / Sel Rancid fat can destroy Midwest U.S. is selenium deficient acute death (mulberry heart disease) muscle weakness (white muscle disease) Clinical signs .
5 ug/g . fibrinous epicarditis. Diagnosis Necropsy .Vit E / Selenium cont..hepatosis dietetica Liver selenium < 0. myocardial hemorrhage Diffise hepatic necrosis .hydropericardium..
Mulberry heart disease .
Cardiovascular disease Encephalomyocarditis virus Hog cholera African swine fever Erysipelas Vitamin E / selenium deficiency .
pulmonary edema. hydrothorax. etc.EMC virus Cardiovirus Clinical signs neonates .sudden death older pigs . Non-suppurative myocarditis. encephalitis . soft and pale Hydropericardium.subclinical chronic myocarditis Pathology Epicardial hemorrhage often only lesion May see white streaks or spots in myocardium Heart may be enlarged. meningitis.
Pig EMC virus myocarditis .
valvular endocarditis Vitamin E / selenium deficiency Mulberry heart disease Necrosis / degeneration of myocardium .FAD Erysipelas .Other cardiovascular conditions Hog cholera .FAD African swine fever .
Respiratory diseases Atrophic rhinitis Swine influenza Mycoplasma pneumoniae Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Pasteurella Verminous pneumonia .
Atrophic rhinitis Bordatella bronchiseptica Pasteurella multocida High ammonia Clinical signs sneezing. sniffling twisted snouts excessive lacrimation epistaxis .
reduce stress. clean air vaccinate sows Treatment Control and prevention .cut snout at 2nd premolar Nasal culture for either organism tetracyclines in the feed LA200 to neonates all in all out..Atrophic rhinitis cont. Diagnosis Necropsy ..
Atrophic rhinitis .
Swine influenza Influenza virus Zoonotic Outbreaks associated with movement or extreme weather changes up to 100% morbidity low mortality unless secondary bacterial infection complicates things .
.cranioventral pneumonia Fluorescent antibody test Treatment . Diagnosis Necropsy ..Swine influenza cont.supportive Prevention closed herd control secondary infections keep away from humans (no shows!) .
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Enzootic pneumonia Most common cause of chronic pneumonia Chronic. non-productive cough Low mortality Secondary bacterial complication .
plum colored or pale cranio-ventral pneumonia Culture to rule out secondary bacteria Fluorescent antibody test on lung ... Diagnosis Necropsy .Mycoplasma cont.
improve management . Treatment .Lincomycin in feed Prevention .Mycoplasma cont...
and chronic forms Clinical signs severe respiratory distress death .Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia Intensive swine operations Inapparent carriers Peracute. acute.
.Actinobacillus cont. Diagnosis necropsy .fibrinous pleuropneumonia often diaphragmatic lobes most severe culture is difficult complement fixation serology ceftiofur (Naxcel) and procaine penicillin vaccination of young pigs Treatment Control ..
Contagious pleuropneumonia .
influenza. stress moist productive cough dyspnea some die clinical signs .Pasteurella multocida Most common bacterial isolate from pig lungs opportunistic pathogen mycoplasma. actinobacillus.
Pasteurella cont. tetracyclines Control look for underlying disease medicate feed and water (tetracyclines) ...suppurative cranio-ventral bronchopneumonia may be pleuritis similar to actinobacillus culture Treatment .penicillin. Diagnosis necropsy .
Pasteurella pneumonia .
ivermectin .Verminous pneumonia Ascaris suum .direct life cycle Metastrongylus elongatus Problem with pasture pigs Clinical signs earthworm intermediate poor doer respiratory distress Secondary bacterial infection Milk spots liver. worms in the GI Levamisole.
Gastrointestinal diseases Stomach Ulcers E. coli (piglets) TGE (piglets) Clostridium (piglets) Coccidiosis (>7 days) Rota virus (post weaning) Salmonella (any) Small intestine .
Large intestine Swine dysentery (grower/finishers) Proliferative enteropathy (grower/finishers) Hemorrhagic bowel syndrome Proliferative illeitis Whipworms (growers) Salmonella (any) ...Gastrointestinal disease cont.
Finely ground feed Stress Vit E/Selenium def Melena. ulceration of squamous portion of stomach.Gastric ulcer disease Almost always the pars esophagea Non-specific lesions Can lead to bleed-out Predisposing factors.. anorexia ..
´Bleed outµ .
Colibacillosis E. coli Most impt cause of diarrhea in piglets <5 days old!!! Clinical signs clear watery to pasty brown feces dehydration and depression death losses higher in younger pigs .
.Colibacillosis cont.. gentamicin. fluids sanitation. tetracyclin. Diagnosis ph of feces (>8) culture of organism (large number) necropsy .dilated gas filled small intestine Ampicillin. vaccination of sow Treatment Control .
finishers .diarrhea recovers <7days Morbidity and mortality high in pigs <2weeks old .TGE - transmissable gastroenteritis Coronavirus (similar to FIP) Epidemic form (all ages) Endemic form (1-8 weeks old) WINTER disease Clinical signs Neonates .diarrhea with undigested milk Growers.
Diagnosis ELISA.. transparent small intestine Treatment .supportive Control isolate new additions for 2 weeks.TGE cont. keep dogs and bird away (carriers) Immunization of sows or piglets Grind up piglet guts and feed to pregnant sows .. immunoflourescence of gut contents Necropsy undigested milk in small intestine thin walled.
necrosis of small intestine Clinical signs Histopathology .Clostridial enteritis Clostridium perfringens type C sudden death in 1-2 day old piglets Clinical signs BLOODY DIARRHEA Necropsy .blood in jejunum with flecks of mucosa.large gram positive rods Diagnosis .
Clostridial enteritis .
Clostridial enteritis cont.... Treatment usually die too quickly type C antitoxin Sanitation Type C antitoxin within minutes of birth Vaccination of sow Prophylactic bacitracin or penicillin to piglets Control .
Coccidiosis Isospora suis piglets 5 days old to weaning Clinical signs diarrhea (7-10 days of age) no blood acidic feces (in contrast to E. coli) Dehydration .
oocysts.fibrinonecrotic enteritis Histopathology .Coccidiosis cont.. merozoites Fecal flotation can be falsely negative Adding coccidiostats to feed is ILLEGAL amprolium to piglets Treatment Control .. Diagnosis Diarrheas in pigs <7days old are not Isospora! Necropsy .disinfection of farrowing area .
difficult Necropsy-thin walled small intestine Histopathology Flourescent antibody test Electron microscopy .Rota virus Reovirus Almost all pigs are infected Diarrhea in post-weaned pigs Diagnosis .
coli Isospora Control Wean pigs on good nutritional diet MLV vaccine at 7 and 21 days (in water) ..Rota virus cont. Treatment Glucose and fluids Antimicrobials for concurrent infections E..
Dont forget Salmonella Salmonella typhimurium Salmonella cholerasuis Fibrinonecrotic enteritis or colitis at necropsy Rectal strictures Culture of organism .
mucoid most recover in 2 weeks but 30% may die . bloody.Swine dysentery Serpulina hyodysenteriae Grower / finishers Mortality can be up to 30% Clinical signs diarrhea sometimes with blood eventually watery.
Swine dysentery cont. close herd vaccine only reduces clinical signs Treatment Control ...mucohemorrhagic colitis histopathology Spiral shaped organism on dark field microscopy Culture is definitive Lincomycin in water medicated water. depopulation. Diagnosis Necropsy .
Swine dysentery .
Swine dysentery .
proliferative illeitis, hemorrhagic bowel syndrome
Large intestine Weanlings and older Clinical signs
intermittant diarrhea can be hemorrhagic diarrhea anemia (think gastric ulcer first)
Proliferative enteropathy cont...
Necropsy - garden hose ilium and colon
can be hemorrhagic or fibrinonecrotic
Histopathology - intracellular, silver positive DNA probes No specific treatment Reduce stress Medicate feed - tetracyclines, carbadox
Treatment and control
dichlorvos and fenbendazole .fecal float. fibrinnecrotic colitis Control .Whipworms Trichuris suis 2-6 months of age Large intestine Clinical signs diarrhea with mucus and blood anemia (2 DDX?) Diagnosis .
Don·t forget Salmonella! Salmonella typhimurium Salmonella cholersuis associated with rectal strictures? Can be large intestine Fibrinonecrotic colitis Rectal strictures Culture .
small intestine. milk spots Stephanurus edentatus .colon Ascaris suum .kidney Macrocanthorynchus hirudinaceous -small intestine .Parasites of pigs Trichuris suis .
Neurological diseases Hypoglycemia Streptococcus suis Salt poisoning Edema disease .
Hypoglycemia Newborn piglets Blood glucose <50 may develop signs Clinical signs convulsions shivering hypothermia gait abnormalities .
Diagnosis Blood glucose Empty stomach 20ml/kg 5% glucosa..Hypoglycemia cont. warm em up make sure the milk is flowing Treatment Control ..
depression tremors. ataxia. convulsions Necropsy . blindness.suppurative meningitis Culture of CSF or meningeal swab Diagnosis .Streptococcus suis Streptococcal meningitis 3-12 weeks of age Clinical signs fever. anorexia.
headaches ...Strep suis cont.meningitis. tetracyclines must be quick! minimize stress prophylactic antibiotics Control Can be zoonotic . Treatment penicillin.
Usually due to water deprivation rather than too much Na Causes hyperosmalarity of CNS resulting in swelling and edema Clinical signs
thirst, constipation depression, blindness, convulsions
Salt poisoning cont...
History Clinical pathology-eosinopenia, hypernatremia Histopathology - eosinophilic meningitis None provide free access to water reduce salt in diet
coli .edema 1-3 weeks post weaning Clinical signs sudden death ataxia. palpebral edema Diagnosis palpebral edema. convulsions.vascular injury . widespread edema in multiple sites Culture .toxin differs from GI form Shiga like toxin .pure culture from SI or colon Detection of toxin .Edema disease E.
Edema disease .
..Edema disease cont. Treatment ineffectual if clinical signs have developed Antibiotics in feed/water High fiber diets? Control .
suis. Erysipelothrix.Musculoskeletal diseases Arthritis S. A. pyogenes Mycoplasma hyosynoviae Malignant hyperthermia (PSE) White muscle disease Myodegenerative disease Rickets Fibrocartilagenous infarcts Osteochondrosis .
surgical contamination Distended joints.Suppurative arthritis Streptococcus suis Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Actinomyces pyogenes May see loss of cartilage Due to fighting. abscesses Penicillin .treatment often no good .
Suppurative arthritis .
Mycoplasmal arthritis Mycoplasma hyosynoviae 4-12 weeks of age acute or chronic lameness non-suppurative arthritis/synovitis edema of synovial tissue Lincomysin to treat .
Mycoplasmal arthritis .
Malignant hyperthermia Porcine stress syndrome. movement. red areas of skin. increased body temperature. handling Halothane anesthesia muscle tremors. Pale soft edudative pork Autosomal recessive gene Stress predisposes Fighting. muscle rigidity Clinical signs . dyspnea.
DNA probe avoid stress Control .Malignant hyperthermia Treatment Remove stress Cool Dantrolene genetic selection .
Malignant hyperthermia .
S. is selenium deficient acute death (mulberry heart disease) muscle weakness (white muscle disease) Clinical signs .White muscle disease / Mulberry heart disease Nursery or grower pigs Vitamin E / Selenium deficiency Propionic acid destroys Vit E / Sel Rancid fat can destroy Midwest U.
myocardial hemorrhage hepatic necrosis ..hepatosis dietetica Liver selenium < 0.hydropericardium. fibrinous epicarditis. Diagnosis Necropsy .Vit E / Selenium cont..5 ug/g Vit E or selenium injection feed supplements Treatment and control .
Mulberry heart disease .
Rickets Ca/P imbalance or Vit D deficiency Decreased mineralization of bone 3-5 months of age Pathologic fractures Distorted bones Adjust diet .
Osteochondrosis Grower pigs Rapid growth Usually involves humero-radial joint Stifle less common .
Fibrocartilagenous infarcts Heavily muscled lean pigs Usually present down in hindlimbs Evidence of discospondylitis Rupture of nucleus pulposus Embolism of nucleus pulposus with subsequent infarction of spinal cord .
Reproductive disease Parvovirus Leptospirosis PRRS Cystitis / pyelonephritis Brucellosis .
mummy >70days .detection of virus in mummy by immunofluorescence or by rising titer .dead or weak.embryo resorbed 30-70days . survive normally no other signs of illness SMEDI .stillbirth.Porcine parvovirus 100% prevalence Signs depend on time of infection <30days . infertility Diagnosis . mummy. embryonic death.
Parvo .SMEDI .
..Porcine parvovirus cont. Control Natural infection of gilts before breeding Commingle gilts with sows Grind up mummies and feed to gilts Vaccination! may still get some losses .
urine Serology (<1:800) Clinical signs Diagnosis .Leptospirosis Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona . stillbirths Culture difficult Dark field microscopy of fetal fluids. last trimester abortion.most common serovar bratislava Pyrexia.
.. Treatment Chlortetracycline in feed Vaccination Gilts twice before first breeding Sows before every breeding Control .Leptospirosis cont.
PRRS Porcine reproductive/respiratory syndrome Premature farrowing Small weak piglets or stillborns increased numbers of mummies Delayed or abnormal estrus Serology to diagnose Vaccination for prevention .
Cystitis / Pyelonephritis Eubacterium suis Clinical signs pyrexia.anaerobic Diagnosis Treatment .hemorrhagic cystitis Culture difficult . blood or pus in urine high urine pH necropsy .penicillin .
many sows coming back into heat infected sows recover and deliver normally mild endometritis arthritis orchitis Lesions .Brucellosis Brucella suis Clinical signs abortion at any time in gestation infertility .
.Brucellosis cont.. Diagnosis Serology .card test Culture Treatment and control Test and slaughter Zoonotic .
Parvo virus PRRS Pseudorabies Lepto
Mange Greasy pig disease Swine pox Erysipelas Pityriasis rosea (JPPD) PRRS associated vasculitis/glomerulonephritis
Sarcoptes scabei var suis Young nursery or grower pigs Clinical signs
intense pruritis, thickened skin poor production susceptible to other diseases
Diagnosis - clinical signs, skin scrape Treatment and control
acaricide (amitraz) topically, ivermectin injection
Mangy piglet .
Mangy piglet .
Sarcoptes scabei .
excess sebaceous secretion pruritis not a feature unless complicated my mange Diagnosis .Greasy pig disease Exudative dermatitis Staphylococcus hyicus Affects late preweaning pigs Clinical signs exfoliation of skin.clinical signs and culture .
Greasy pigs .
Greasy pig disease cont. Treatment Injectible penicllin... oxytetracyline Tetracyclines in feed Sanitation Control external parasites Good nutrition Control .
biopsy Treatment .Swine pox Swine pox virus Only pigs less than 4months old Clinical signs papules 1-6 mm in diameter pustules.not necessary .clinical signs. crusts clear spontaenously intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies Diagnosis .
Swine pox .
liver Diagnosis .Erysipelas Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Diamond skin disease pigs 3months . joints. lung.3years old Clinical signs widespread ecchymotic hemorrhages due to microthrombi arthritis. endocarditis Diamond skin lesions pathognomonic Culture of blood.
Diamond skin disease .
Erysipelas cont.. Treatment Penicillin is the drug of choice General sanitation Bacterins or attenuated live vaccines Control ..
Pityriasis rosea Juvenille pustular psoriaform dermatitis Pseudo-ringworm Spontaneous regression .
PRRS associated Vasculitis/glomerulonephritis Newly described condition associated with PRRS virus infection Type III hypersensitivity reaction Causing vasculitis Dermal and cutaneous infarction Large red sloughing skin lesions usually over rear and legs Commonly associated renal disease .
PRRS vasculitis/glomerulonephritis .
Miscellaneous diseases Swine lice Baby piglet anemia Eperythrozoonosis .
anemia.same as for mange .Swine lice Haematopinus suis Indicator of poor management Clinical signs pruritis (mild). poor growing visible to naked eye Diagnosis Treatment .
clinical signs. CBC Treatment . lethargy Diagnosis . edema.200mg iron dextran at 1-3 days of age . pale skin.Baby pig anemia Iron deficiency Piglets iron demand is greater than the sows milk Clinical signs anemia within 2-3 days of birth dyspnea.
icterus.1:80 considered positive Diagnosis .large spleen Giemsa stained blood smear Serology . anemia intravascular hemolysis necropsy .Eperythrozoonosis Eperythrozoan suis Obligate intracellular parasite of RBC s Clinical signs pyrexia.
. needles.Eperythrozoonosis cont.. Treatment Oxytetracycline injected or in feed Control lice and fomite transmission Surgical instruments.. Control . etc..
Pigweed Amaranthus retroflexus Common in southeast Severe perirenal edema .
Fumonensin Fusarium moniliforme Hypertension Arteriolar medial proliferation Hemorrhagic pleural and pulmonary edema* .
Foreign diseases Hog cholera pestivirus .splenic infarction is pathognomonic iridovirus .hemorrhage in multiple areas African swine fever .
apthavirus* Swine vesicular disease .enterovirus Vesicular exanthema .rhabdovirus .calicivirus Vesicular stomatitis .Vesicular diseases of swine Foot and mouth disease .
Case #1 Signalment: 10 weanling pigs History: dead and dying Necropsy findings: yellow fibrin covering lungs yellow fibrin covering abdominal organs meninges are reddened DDX? .
plum-red color Euthanize and necropsy: DDX? .Case #2 Signalment: several growers History: poor doers. chronic cough Clinical signs: non-productive cough harsh lung sounds cranioventral pneumonia.
necropsy findings: DDX .Case #3 Signalment: 2 grower pig females History: diarrhea. weak Clinical signs: pale mucous membranes perineum stained with feces Large intestine markedly thickened and contains small amount of blood One dies .
Case #4 Signalment: 1 piglet just weaned History: sudden death Clinical signs: dead! Necropsy findings: subQ expanded by fluid. eyelids swollen mesentery and omentum expanded by fluid Diagnosis? How do you confirm? .
Case #5 Signalment: breeding sows History: decreased fertility litters have contained dried up small fetuses none in the sows Clinical signs: DDX? How do you confirm your top differential? .
one has pulmonary edema on xrays Aspiration of joint reveals pus DDX? .Case #6 Signalment: many weanlings History: lameness Clinical signs swollen painful hocks fever.
Case #7 Signalment: young nursery pigs History: very itchy. bad skin Clinical signs: dermatitis. self trauma DDX? Diagnostic tests? . pustules intense pruritis.
THE END!!! .