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Scott P. Terrell, DVM, Diplomate ACVP
Veterinary Pathologist, Disney·s Animal Programs Instructor in Wildlife Pathology, UF CVM
North American Veterinary Licensing Examination (NAVLE)
360 multiple choice questions
6 blocks of 60 questions
Approx. 60 images (xrays, diagrams, photos, microscope images, etc)
Total 7.5 hours 55-65% to pass (90% pass)
North American Veterinary Licensing Examination (NAVLE) Blueprint by species
Canine Feline Pet bird Other (fish, lab, exotics) 26% 22% 3% 3% 15% 7% 2%
Bovine Pigs Sheep / goat
Horses Public health, poultry
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae C . E .Gram positive or gram negative? SS BECLR DAMN (a ship) S .Rhodococcus equi D . .Listeria monocytogenes R . S .Mycobacterium sp. (acid fast) N .Dermatophilus congolensis A .Nocardiasp.Staphylococcus sp.Streptoccoccus sp. B .Bacillus sp.Actinomyces (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes M .Clostridium sp. L .
On to the pigs. ....
Ages of pigs are important Neonates 0-3 weeks 3-10 weeks 10-26 weeks >6-8 months <4 kg 4-25 kg 25-120 kg >120 kg Weanlings/nursery Growers/finisher Breeders/adults .
Pig management Backyard herds All in / all out SPF Segregrated early weaning Depop / repop .
Pig medicine Blood collection Jugular vein / anterior vena cava Auricular vein Rubberband IV injection .
..Orderly thinking. Multisystemic Diseases Respiratory Diseases Gastrointestinal Diseases Neurologic Diseases Musculoskeletal Diseases Reproductive Diseases Dermatology Miscellaneous .
Multisystemic diseases Erysipelas (Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae) Glasser s disease (Haemophilus parasuis) Salmonella PRRS (arterivirus) PWMWS (circovirus) Pseudorabies virus (herpes virus) Vitamin E / selenium deficiency .
endocarditis. necrosis Environmental contaminant Septicemia . arthritis.Erysipelas Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Gram positive rod most herds have carriers diamond skin.
Diamond skin disease .
Valvular endocarditis .
Erysipelas cont.. Treatment Penicillin Tetracyclins Sanitation Vaccinate at weaning and then q6 months Prevention and control ..
septicemia (fibrinous) Pleuritis Pericarditis Peritonitis Meningitis!!! .Glasser·s disease (polyserositis) Haemophilus parasuis Gram negative coccobacillus Endemic. initiated by stress Polyserositis.
Glasser·s disease .
.Glasser·s cont. Diagnosis Culture is difficult (but try it) Go with suspicion from gross lesions Penicillins Tetracyclins Reduce stress Vaccine at weaning then again 3-4 weeks later Treatment Prevention and control ..
carriers Septicemia pyrexia.Salmonella sp. anorexia purple discoloration of the ears (infarction) Small or large intestinal diarrhea (button ulcers) Pneumonia Rectal strictures . Salmonella cholerasuis Salmonella typhimurium Zoonotic Low-level endemnicity.
.all out operation Various vaccines (live avirulent) Treatment Prevention and control .Salmonella cont.. Diagnosis Aerobic culture Neomycin in the feed/water for whole group Naxcel (ceftiofur) for individual Sanitation All in .
fever cyanosis of the ears.neonates anorexia.PRRS Porcine reproduction and respiratory syndrome Arterivirus Clinical signs . lethargy. respiratory distress secondary bacterial pneumonia delayed or abnormal estrus cycle with increased numbers of stillborns/mummies .
. virus isolation IFA.PRRS cont.. treat secondary bacteria closed herds change feed if contaminated by mycotoxins (*) RespPRRS vaccine Treatment Control . Diagnosis serology. IHC most common test used in the USA Supportive care.
.Post weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PWMWS) Porcine circovirus -2 Relatively new disease Responsible for many of the clinical signs associated with atypical PRRS virus .
PWMWS Clinical signs Wasting in weanling pigs Enlarged peripheral lymph nodes Evidence of pneumonia NecropsyGranulomatous lymphadenitis and pneumonia Intracytoplasmic inclusions Diagnosis Serology. IFA .
None Supportive care Euthanasia of affected animals Difficult at this time Carrier animals are important
Aujesky s disease Herpes virus Dogs, cats, domestic ruminants Not humans!
up to 100% mortality neurologic dz, vomiting, diarrhea Ulcers on oral cavity and esophagus up to 60% mortality in weanlings, 0-15% in finishers pneumonia impt, neurologic dz, vomiting, extreme pyrexia can cause stillbirth/abortion
Adults - often inapparent
Pseudorabies cont.. Reportable disease! Diagnosis Necropsy histologic lesions in brain.none Prevention closed herd! quarantine! restrict wildlife vaccination . ulcers in gi tract Serum neutralization is standard test ELISA can be used as a screening test Treatment ..
Pseudorabies Regulation use of vaccine regulated by states federal regulations for monitoring all animals over 6mo old must be tested 25% of herd tested q3months or.. 10% of herd tested q1month ..
S.White muscle disease / Mulberry heart disease Nursery or grower pigs Vitamin E / Selenium deficiency Propionic acid destroys Vit E / Sel Rancid fat can destroy Midwest U. is selenium deficient acute death (mulberry heart disease) muscle weakness (white muscle disease) Clinical signs .
hydropericardium.5 ug/g . Diagnosis Necropsy .hepatosis dietetica Liver selenium < 0. fibrinous epicarditis...Vit E / Selenium cont. myocardial hemorrhage Diffise hepatic necrosis .
Mulberry heart disease .
Cardiovascular disease Encephalomyocarditis virus Hog cholera African swine fever Erysipelas Vitamin E / selenium deficiency .
etc. meningitis. soft and pale Hydropericardium. Non-suppurative myocarditis. encephalitis .subclinical chronic myocarditis Pathology Epicardial hemorrhage often only lesion May see white streaks or spots in myocardium Heart may be enlarged. hydrothorax. pulmonary edema.EMC virus Cardiovirus Clinical signs neonates .sudden death older pigs .
Pig EMC virus myocarditis .
FAD African swine fever .FAD Erysipelas .Other cardiovascular conditions Hog cholera .valvular endocarditis Vitamin E / selenium deficiency Mulberry heart disease Necrosis / degeneration of myocardium .
Respiratory diseases Atrophic rhinitis Swine influenza Mycoplasma pneumoniae Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Pasteurella Verminous pneumonia .
sniffling twisted snouts excessive lacrimation epistaxis .Atrophic rhinitis Bordatella bronchiseptica Pasteurella multocida High ammonia Clinical signs sneezing.
cut snout at 2nd premolar Nasal culture for either organism tetracyclines in the feed LA200 to neonates all in all out.. clean air vaccinate sows Treatment Control and prevention . reduce stress.Atrophic rhinitis cont.. Diagnosis Necropsy .
Atrophic rhinitis .
Swine influenza Influenza virus Zoonotic Outbreaks associated with movement or extreme weather changes up to 100% morbidity low mortality unless secondary bacterial infection complicates things .
Diagnosis Necropsy ..supportive Prevention closed herd control secondary infections keep away from humans (no shows!) .Swine influenza cont.cranioventral pneumonia Fluorescent antibody test Treatment ..
non-productive cough Low mortality Secondary bacterial complication .Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Enzootic pneumonia Most common cause of chronic pneumonia Chronic.
Diagnosis Necropsy .plum colored or pale cranio-ventral pneumonia Culture to rule out secondary bacteria Fluorescent antibody test on lung ...Mycoplasma cont.
Mycoplasma cont. Treatment .improve management ...Lincomycin in feed Prevention .
Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia Intensive swine operations Inapparent carriers Peracute. acute. and chronic forms Clinical signs severe respiratory distress death .
Diagnosis necropsy .Actinobacillus cont..fibrinous pleuropneumonia often diaphragmatic lobes most severe culture is difficult complement fixation serology ceftiofur (Naxcel) and procaine penicillin vaccination of young pigs Treatment Control ..
Contagious pleuropneumonia .
influenza. actinobacillus. stress moist productive cough dyspnea some die clinical signs .Pasteurella multocida Most common bacterial isolate from pig lungs opportunistic pathogen mycoplasma.
penicillin.suppurative cranio-ventral bronchopneumonia may be pleuritis similar to actinobacillus culture Treatment .Pasteurella cont.. Diagnosis necropsy . tetracyclines Control look for underlying disease medicate feed and water (tetracyclines) ..
Pasteurella pneumonia .
ivermectin . worms in the GI Levamisole.direct life cycle Metastrongylus elongatus Problem with pasture pigs Clinical signs earthworm intermediate poor doer respiratory distress Secondary bacterial infection Milk spots liver.Verminous pneumonia Ascaris suum .
coli (piglets) TGE (piglets) Clostridium (piglets) Coccidiosis (>7 days) Rota virus (post weaning) Salmonella (any) Small intestine .Gastrointestinal diseases Stomach Ulcers E.
Gastrointestinal disease cont. Large intestine Swine dysentery (grower/finishers) Proliferative enteropathy (grower/finishers) Hemorrhagic bowel syndrome Proliferative illeitis Whipworms (growers) Salmonella (any) ...
Finely ground feed Stress Vit E/Selenium def Melena. ulceration of squamous portion of stomach.Gastric ulcer disease Almost always the pars esophagea Non-specific lesions Can lead to bleed-out Predisposing factors... anorexia .
´Bleed outµ .
coli Most impt cause of diarrhea in piglets <5 days old!!! Clinical signs clear watery to pasty brown feces dehydration and depression death losses higher in younger pigs .Colibacillosis E.
Colibacillosis cont.. tetracyclin..dilated gas filled small intestine Ampicillin. Diagnosis ph of feces (>8) culture of organism (large number) necropsy . vaccination of sow Treatment Control . fluids sanitation. gentamicin.
diarrhea with undigested milk Growers.TGE - transmissable gastroenteritis Coronavirus (similar to FIP) Epidemic form (all ages) Endemic form (1-8 weeks old) WINTER disease Clinical signs Neonates .diarrhea recovers <7days Morbidity and mortality high in pigs <2weeks old . finishers .
keep dogs and bird away (carriers) Immunization of sows or piglets Grind up piglet guts and feed to pregnant sows . Diagnosis ELISA.. transparent small intestine Treatment .. immunoflourescence of gut contents Necropsy undigested milk in small intestine thin walled.supportive Control isolate new additions for 2 weeks.TGE cont.
necrosis of small intestine Clinical signs Histopathology .Clostridial enteritis Clostridium perfringens type C sudden death in 1-2 day old piglets Clinical signs BLOODY DIARRHEA Necropsy .large gram positive rods Diagnosis .blood in jejunum with flecks of mucosa.
Clostridial enteritis .
.. Treatment usually die too quickly type C antitoxin Sanitation Type C antitoxin within minutes of birth Vaccination of sow Prophylactic bacitracin or penicillin to piglets Control ..Clostridial enteritis cont.
Coccidiosis Isospora suis piglets 5 days old to weaning Clinical signs diarrhea (7-10 days of age) no blood acidic feces (in contrast to E. coli) Dehydration .
Coccidiosis cont.disinfection of farrowing area . merozoites Fecal flotation can be falsely negative Adding coccidiostats to feed is ILLEGAL amprolium to piglets Treatment Control .fibrinonecrotic enteritis Histopathology . Diagnosis Diarrheas in pigs <7days old are not Isospora! Necropsy .oocysts...
difficult Necropsy-thin walled small intestine Histopathology Flourescent antibody test Electron microscopy .Rota virus Reovirus Almost all pigs are infected Diarrhea in post-weaned pigs Diagnosis .
Rota virus cont. coli Isospora Control Wean pigs on good nutritional diet MLV vaccine at 7 and 21 days (in water) . Treatment Glucose and fluids Antimicrobials for concurrent infections E...
Dont forget Salmonella Salmonella typhimurium Salmonella cholerasuis Fibrinonecrotic enteritis or colitis at necropsy Rectal strictures Culture of organism .
mucoid most recover in 2 weeks but 30% may die .Swine dysentery Serpulina hyodysenteriae Grower / finishers Mortality can be up to 30% Clinical signs diarrhea sometimes with blood eventually watery. bloody.
depopulation. Diagnosis Necropsy .mucohemorrhagic colitis histopathology Spiral shaped organism on dark field microscopy Culture is definitive Lincomycin in water medicated water. close herd vaccine only reduces clinical signs Treatment Control .Swine dysentery cont...
Swine dysentery .
Swine dysentery .
proliferative illeitis, hemorrhagic bowel syndrome
Large intestine Weanlings and older Clinical signs
intermittant diarrhea can be hemorrhagic diarrhea anemia (think gastric ulcer first)
Proliferative enteropathy cont...
Necropsy - garden hose ilium and colon
can be hemorrhagic or fibrinonecrotic
Histopathology - intracellular, silver positive DNA probes No specific treatment Reduce stress Medicate feed - tetracyclines, carbadox
Treatment and control
dichlorvos and fenbendazole . fibrinnecrotic colitis Control .fecal float.Whipworms Trichuris suis 2-6 months of age Large intestine Clinical signs diarrhea with mucus and blood anemia (2 DDX?) Diagnosis .
Don·t forget Salmonella! Salmonella typhimurium Salmonella cholersuis associated with rectal strictures? Can be large intestine Fibrinonecrotic colitis Rectal strictures Culture .
milk spots Stephanurus edentatus .Parasites of pigs Trichuris suis .kidney Macrocanthorynchus hirudinaceous -small intestine .colon Ascaris suum .small intestine.
Neurological diseases Hypoglycemia Streptococcus suis Salt poisoning Edema disease .
Hypoglycemia Newborn piglets Blood glucose <50 may develop signs Clinical signs convulsions shivering hypothermia gait abnormalities .
. Diagnosis Blood glucose Empty stomach 20ml/kg 5% glucosa.Hypoglycemia cont. warm em up make sure the milk is flowing Treatment Control ..
convulsions Necropsy . ataxia.suppurative meningitis Culture of CSF or meningeal swab Diagnosis .Streptococcus suis Streptococcal meningitis 3-12 weeks of age Clinical signs fever. blindness. depression tremors. anorexia.
tetracyclines must be quick! minimize stress prophylactic antibiotics Control Can be zoonotic . Treatment penicillin..meningitis. headaches .Strep suis cont..
Usually due to water deprivation rather than too much Na Causes hyperosmalarity of CNS resulting in swelling and edema Clinical signs
thirst, constipation depression, blindness, convulsions
Salt poisoning cont...
History Clinical pathology-eosinopenia, hypernatremia Histopathology - eosinophilic meningitis None provide free access to water reduce salt in diet
coli . palpebral edema Diagnosis palpebral edema.toxin differs from GI form Shiga like toxin . widespread edema in multiple sites Culture .pure culture from SI or colon Detection of toxin .vascular injury . convulsions.edema 1-3 weeks post weaning Clinical signs sudden death ataxia.Edema disease E.
Edema disease .
.Edema disease cont. Treatment ineffectual if clinical signs have developed Antibiotics in feed/water High fiber diets? Control ..
pyogenes Mycoplasma hyosynoviae Malignant hyperthermia (PSE) White muscle disease Myodegenerative disease Rickets Fibrocartilagenous infarcts Osteochondrosis .Musculoskeletal diseases Arthritis S. suis. Erysipelothrix. A.
abscesses Penicillin . surgical contamination Distended joints.treatment often no good .Suppurative arthritis Streptococcus suis Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Actinomyces pyogenes May see loss of cartilage Due to fighting.
Suppurative arthritis .
Mycoplasmal arthritis Mycoplasma hyosynoviae 4-12 weeks of age acute or chronic lameness non-suppurative arthritis/synovitis edema of synovial tissue Lincomysin to treat .
Mycoplasmal arthritis .
handling Halothane anesthesia muscle tremors. increased body temperature. Pale soft edudative pork Autosomal recessive gene Stress predisposes Fighting. movement. red areas of skin. dyspnea. muscle rigidity Clinical signs .Malignant hyperthermia Porcine stress syndrome.
DNA probe avoid stress Control .Malignant hyperthermia Treatment Remove stress Cool Dantrolene genetic selection .
Malignant hyperthermia .
White muscle disease / Mulberry heart disease Nursery or grower pigs Vitamin E / Selenium deficiency Propionic acid destroys Vit E / Sel Rancid fat can destroy Midwest U. is selenium deficient acute death (mulberry heart disease) muscle weakness (white muscle disease) Clinical signs .S.
. myocardial hemorrhage hepatic necrosis . fibrinous epicarditis..Vit E / Selenium cont. Diagnosis Necropsy .hydropericardium.5 ug/g Vit E or selenium injection feed supplements Treatment and control .hepatosis dietetica Liver selenium < 0.
Mulberry heart disease .
Rickets Ca/P imbalance or Vit D deficiency Decreased mineralization of bone 3-5 months of age Pathologic fractures Distorted bones Adjust diet .
Osteochondrosis Grower pigs Rapid growth Usually involves humero-radial joint Stifle less common .
Fibrocartilagenous infarcts Heavily muscled lean pigs Usually present down in hindlimbs Evidence of discospondylitis Rupture of nucleus pulposus Embolism of nucleus pulposus with subsequent infarction of spinal cord .
Reproductive disease Parvovirus Leptospirosis PRRS Cystitis / pyelonephritis Brucellosis .
mummy. survive normally no other signs of illness SMEDI .detection of virus in mummy by immunofluorescence or by rising titer .mummy >70days .embryo resorbed 30-70days . infertility Diagnosis .stillbirth.dead or weak.Porcine parvovirus 100% prevalence Signs depend on time of infection <30days . embryonic death.
Parvo .SMEDI .
.Porcine parvovirus cont.. Control Natural infection of gilts before breeding Commingle gilts with sows Grind up mummies and feed to gilts Vaccination! may still get some losses .
Leptospirosis Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona .most common serovar bratislava Pyrexia. last trimester abortion. urine Serology (<1:800) Clinical signs Diagnosis . stillbirths Culture difficult Dark field microscopy of fetal fluids.
..Leptospirosis cont. Treatment Chlortetracycline in feed Vaccination Gilts twice before first breeding Sows before every breeding Control .
PRRS Porcine reproductive/respiratory syndrome Premature farrowing Small weak piglets or stillborns increased numbers of mummies Delayed or abnormal estrus Serology to diagnose Vaccination for prevention .
anaerobic Diagnosis Treatment .penicillin .Cystitis / Pyelonephritis Eubacterium suis Clinical signs pyrexia.hemorrhagic cystitis Culture difficult . blood or pus in urine high urine pH necropsy .
Brucellosis Brucella suis Clinical signs abortion at any time in gestation infertility .many sows coming back into heat infected sows recover and deliver normally mild endometritis arthritis orchitis Lesions .
card test Culture Treatment and control Test and slaughter Zoonotic . Diagnosis Serology ...Brucellosis cont.
Parvo virus PRRS Pseudorabies Lepto
Mange Greasy pig disease Swine pox Erysipelas Pityriasis rosea (JPPD) PRRS associated vasculitis/glomerulonephritis
Sarcoptes scabei var suis Young nursery or grower pigs Clinical signs
intense pruritis, thickened skin poor production susceptible to other diseases
Diagnosis - clinical signs, skin scrape Treatment and control
acaricide (amitraz) topically, ivermectin injection
Mangy piglet .
Mangy piglet .
Sarcoptes scabei .
clinical signs and culture .Greasy pig disease Exudative dermatitis Staphylococcus hyicus Affects late preweaning pigs Clinical signs exfoliation of skin. excess sebaceous secretion pruritis not a feature unless complicated my mange Diagnosis .
Greasy pigs .
.. Treatment Injectible penicllin.Greasy pig disease cont. oxytetracyline Tetracyclines in feed Sanitation Control external parasites Good nutrition Control .
not necessary . biopsy Treatment . crusts clear spontaenously intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies Diagnosis .Swine pox Swine pox virus Only pigs less than 4months old Clinical signs papules 1-6 mm in diameter pustules.clinical signs.
Swine pox .
lung.Erysipelas Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Diamond skin disease pigs 3months .3years old Clinical signs widespread ecchymotic hemorrhages due to microthrombi arthritis. liver Diagnosis . endocarditis Diamond skin lesions pathognomonic Culture of blood. joints.
Diamond skin disease .
.Erysipelas cont.. Treatment Penicillin is the drug of choice General sanitation Bacterins or attenuated live vaccines Control .
Pityriasis rosea Juvenille pustular psoriaform dermatitis Pseudo-ringworm Spontaneous regression .
PRRS associated Vasculitis/glomerulonephritis Newly described condition associated with PRRS virus infection Type III hypersensitivity reaction Causing vasculitis Dermal and cutaneous infarction Large red sloughing skin lesions usually over rear and legs Commonly associated renal disease .
PRRS vasculitis/glomerulonephritis .
Miscellaneous diseases Swine lice Baby piglet anemia Eperythrozoonosis .
same as for mange . poor growing visible to naked eye Diagnosis Treatment . anemia.Swine lice Haematopinus suis Indicator of poor management Clinical signs pruritis (mild).
lethargy Diagnosis . CBC Treatment . edema.clinical signs. pale skin.200mg iron dextran at 1-3 days of age .Baby pig anemia Iron deficiency Piglets iron demand is greater than the sows milk Clinical signs anemia within 2-3 days of birth dyspnea.
icterus.1:80 considered positive Diagnosis .large spleen Giemsa stained blood smear Serology .Eperythrozoonosis Eperythrozoan suis Obligate intracellular parasite of RBC s Clinical signs pyrexia. anemia intravascular hemolysis necropsy .
..Eperythrozoonosis cont. Treatment Oxytetracycline injected or in feed Control lice and fomite transmission Surgical instruments. etc... Control . needles.
Pigweed Amaranthus retroflexus Common in southeast Severe perirenal edema .
Fumonensin Fusarium moniliforme Hypertension Arteriolar medial proliferation Hemorrhagic pleural and pulmonary edema* .
hemorrhage in multiple areas African swine fever .splenic infarction is pathognomonic iridovirus .Foreign diseases Hog cholera pestivirus .
calicivirus Vesicular stomatitis .rhabdovirus .Vesicular diseases of swine Foot and mouth disease .apthavirus* Swine vesicular disease .enterovirus Vesicular exanthema .
Case #1 Signalment: 10 weanling pigs History: dead and dying Necropsy findings: yellow fibrin covering lungs yellow fibrin covering abdominal organs meninges are reddened DDX? .
chronic cough Clinical signs: non-productive cough harsh lung sounds cranioventral pneumonia.Case #2 Signalment: several growers History: poor doers. plum-red color Euthanize and necropsy: DDX? .
weak Clinical signs: pale mucous membranes perineum stained with feces Large intestine markedly thickened and contains small amount of blood One dies .Case #3 Signalment: 2 grower pig females History: diarrhea.necropsy findings: DDX .
Case #4 Signalment: 1 piglet just weaned History: sudden death Clinical signs: dead! Necropsy findings: subQ expanded by fluid. eyelids swollen mesentery and omentum expanded by fluid Diagnosis? How do you confirm? .
Case #5 Signalment: breeding sows History: decreased fertility litters have contained dried up small fetuses none in the sows Clinical signs: DDX? How do you confirm your top differential? .
Case #6 Signalment: many weanlings History: lameness Clinical signs swollen painful hocks fever. one has pulmonary edema on xrays Aspiration of joint reveals pus DDX? .
Case #7 Signalment: young nursery pigs History: very itchy. pustules intense pruritis. bad skin Clinical signs: dermatitis. self trauma DDX? Diagnostic tests? .
THE END!!! .
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