Acids, Bases, & Salts

ACID
‡ Acid is defined as the substance that releases hydrogen ions in solution. These H+ ions are responsible for the properties of acids. ‡ A characteristic property of acids is the sour taste.

What is an ACID?
‡ pH less than 7 ‡ Neutralizes bases + ‡ Forms H ions in solution ‡ Corrosive-reacts with most metals to form hydrogen gas ‡ Good conductors of electricity

Types of Acids
‡ Organic (derived from plants & animal sources) & Mineral (derived from minerals) ‡ Organic acids are weak in nature ‡ Mineral acids are strong and corrosive in nature. ‡ E.g. of Organic acid: vinegar, vitamin C, lemon juice ‡ E.g. of Mineral acid: HCl, H2SO4.

Some common Acids
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Name Acetic Acid Citric Acid Lactic Acid Tartaric Acid Oxalic Acid Formic Acid Stearic Acid Palmitic Acid ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Source Vinegar Lemons Sour Milk Tamarind Tomatoes Stings of Ants Palm oil /animal fats Palm oil

Acids Generate Ions HNO3 + H2O H3 + O + NO3 .

Sulfuric. Boric. Sulfurous ‡ Strong Acids ionize completely: Hydrochloric. Nitric.Weak vs. Hydriodic . Nitrous. Phosphoric. Strong Acids ‡ Weak Acids do not ionize completely: Acetic.

acetic acid .Common Acids ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ HCl.phosphoric acid -flavorings .vinegar H2CO3-carbonic acid ± sodas H3PO4.car batteries HNO3 ± nitric acid .hydrochloric.stomach acid H2SO4.explosives HC2H3O2.sulfuric acid .

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BASE ‡ Base is defined as substance which can neutralise an acid to form salt and water by releasing hydroxide ion in solution. ‡ A characteristic property of the bases is the bitter taste. These OH. .ions are responsible for the properties of base.

What is a BASE? ‡ pH greater than 7 ‡ Feels slippery ‡ Dissolves fats and oils ‡ Usually forms OH ions in solution ‡ Neutralizes acids .

Strong Bases ‡ Weak Bases: ammonia. calcium hydroxide . barium hydroxide. sodium carbonate ‡ Strong Bases: sodium hydroxide.Weak vs. sodium phosphate. potassium carbonate.

Common Bases ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ NaOH.magnesium hydroxide-antacids Al(OH)3-aluminum hydroxide-antacids. drain cleaner Mg (OH)2 . deodorants NH4OH-ammonium hydroxide.sodium hydroxide (LYE) soaps.³ammonia´ .

Home Assignment Write down the names of the common acids and bases. . Also write down the sources of these acids & bases.

g. Turmeric. Red cabbage leaves extract. .: Litmus. ‡ E. ‡ These help in identifying acid and bases.ACID BASE INDICATORS ‡ Substances that change their colour on addition of an aqueous solution of an acid or base are called acid-base indicators.

‡ LITMUS: Litmus is obtained from lichen. Litmus solution is purple in colour and is neutral. . ‡ When it is added to an acidic solution it turns red ‡ Litmus solution + acid Red colour ‡ When it is added to an alkaline solution it turns blue ‡ Litmus solution + base blue colour ‡ Litmus paper is obtained by dipping thin strips of paper in litmus solution.

. ‡ The red colour of the turmeric can be reduced by washing in large amount of water.‡ TURMERIC is a common ingridient in Indian kitchens and can be used as an indicator. ‡ Turmeric powder + basic solution red colour ‡ Yellow stains caused due to turmeric turn red when soap (which is alkaline in nature) is applied to it.

‡ Extract + basic solution Green colour ‡ Extract + acid solution no change / red colour ‡ Some flowers also can be used for detecting acid. . ‡ Hydrangea petals turn feom blue to pink in basic or alkaline solutions.basic solutions. hydrangea.‡ RED CABBAGE leaves extract: The colour of the extract is red and when added to basic solution it turns green. such as. petunia and geranium.

‡ Phenolphthaline is colourless. it remains colourless.‡ Petunia turns reddish purple in acidic solution & violet in basic solution. ‡ SYNTEHTIC INDICATORS ‡ Methyl Orange is orange coloured dye which turns red in acidic solution and turns yellow in alkaline solution. ‡ Geranium changes to orange ± red in acidic solution & blue in basic solution. but when added to alkaline solution it turns pink in colour. In acidic solution. .

. how you will identify the contents of each test tube? ‡ A1. ‡ The solution which will be acidic will not change the colour of the paper. The solution which is alkaline will change the colour of the paper to blue. Cut the red litmus paper into three strips and dip each trip in the 2 test tubes. If you are given red litmus paper.Questions ‡ Q1. respectively. You have been provided with two test tubes containing an acidic solution and a basic solution.

HOME ASSIGNMENT ‡ Mention the commonly used acid-base indicators. . ‡ Mention the colour changes for the above listed indicators.

which when kept in acidic solution the smell is not lost. . ‡ Onions have a characteristic smell.Olfactory Indicators ‡ The substances whose odour changes in acidic or alkaline solutions are called olfactory indicators. But when kept in basic solution the smell is lost. ‡ Vanilla¶s odour is lost when added to alkaline solution but it remains the same when added to acidic solution.

REACTIONS OF ACIDS & BASES .

Reactions of acids & bases with Metals ‡ Dil. H2SO4 & HCl rxt with most of metals to form H2 gas. ‡ Metal + Acid Salt + Hydrogen gas ‡ E.g. ‡ Zn (s) + H2SO4(aq) ZnSO4(aq) + H2(g) ‡ Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g) ‡ The Metal displaces H from the acids to form H2 gas. .

Cu (s) + H2 SO4 (aq) CuSO4 + H2 (g) is displaced by Cu .

Do these examples ‡ Mg (s) + HCl ‡ Al + HCl ‡ Fe + H2SO4 ‡ Na + HCl ‡ K + H2SO4 How will you classify the above reactions? .

‡ Metals like Zn. Al react with Sodium hydroxide solution to give off H2 gas ‡ Zn + 2NaOH (aq) Na2ZnO2 (aq) + H2 (g) Sodium Zincate ‡ 2Al(s) + 2NaOH + 6H2O 2Na[Al(OH)4] + 3H2(g) .

. which is soluble in water. CaCO3 converts to Ca(HCO3)2 (aq). ‡ Ca(OH)2 (aq) + CO2 (g) CaCO3 (s) + H2O (l) ‡ CaCO3 formed gives milky nature to the water. ‡ When CO2 is passed further.Acids & Metal Carbonates ‡ Acids react with Metal carbonates & metal hydrogen carbonates to form carbon dioxide gas.

Practice Reactions ‡ NaHCO3 (aq) + H2SO4 (g) ‡ CaCO3 (aq) + H2SO4 (g) ‡ Na2CO3 + H2SO4 (g) .

This reaction is called Neutralization.Reactions of Acids with Bases An acid reacts with a base to form salt & water. HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) H2SO4 (aq) + Ca(OH)2 (aq) CaSO4 (s) + H2O (l) HNO3 (aq) + KOH (aq) KNO3 (aq) + H2O (l) .

Reaction between Acids & Metallic Oxides & Metallic Hydroxides ‡ Metal oxides & hydroxides dissolve in acids to form salt & water. ‡ CaO (s) + 2HCl CaCl2 (aq) + H2O (l) ‡ Ca(OH)2 + 2 HCl CaCl2 (aq) + 2 H2O (l) ‡ CuO (s) + 2 HCl CuCl2 (aq) + 2H2O (l) .

Solve the following reactions ‡ BaO (s) + H2SO4 (aq) ‡ CuO (s) + H2SO4 (aq) .

Why should curd & sour substances not be kept in brass & copper vessels? A1. . Acids react with metals.Question & Answers Q1. Curd & sour substances are acidic in nature. the acidic substance present in the curd or sour substance react with metal of the untesil to form metallic salts. These dissolved metallic salts make both curd & sour substances unfit for consumption. When curd or any other sour substance is kept in copper or brass utensils.

Home Assignment Q2. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction if one of the compound formed is calcium chloride. . How is the presence of a gas tested? Hint: M + Acid salt of metal + Gas Gas produced burns with a pop sound. The gas produced extinguishes burning candle. Which gas is liberated when an acid reacts with a metal? Illustrate with help of an example. Metal compound X reacts with dil HCl to produce effervescence. Q3.

Q3. Why do HCl & HNO3 show acidic properties in aqueous solutions while solutions of compounds like alcohol & glucose do not show acidic properties? Q4. Why does an aqueous solution of acid conduct electricity? .

‡ Composed of the negative ion of an acid and the positive ion of a base. MgSO4.What is a SALT? ‡ A salt is a neutral substance produced from the reaction of an acid and a base. ‡ One of the products of a Neutralization Reaction ‡ Examples: KCl. Na3PO4 .

Neutralization Reaction ‡ A neutralization reaction is the reaction of an acid with a base to produce salt and water. ‡ Example H2SO4 + NaOH NaHSO4 + H2O .

6.Importance of pH in Everyday Life ‡ Plants & animals are pH sensitive. The living organisms can survive between the pH range of 7.0 to 7. . a lesser value of pH would result in an acid rain.8. ‡ Rains have a pH of 5.

pH around 2. ‡ Small intestine-pH around 8. Small molecules move to bloodstream toward cells that use them . ‡ Stomach. Proteins are broken down into amino acids by the enzyme pepsin. Most digestion ends. an enzyme which begins to break carbohydrates into sugars. Saliva contains amylase.pH in the Digestive System ‡ Mouth-pH around 7.

5 in mouth.pH as cause of tooth decay ‡ When pH is lowered below 5. . ‡ Bacteria present in the mouth produce acids by the degradation of sugar & food particles which causes Calcium phosphate to be corroded. tooth decay starts.

‡ Q.ions. is less than OH. Do basic solutions also have H+ ions? If yes. why are these basic? ‡ Hint: Yes.Question -Answer ‡ Q. In basic solutions H+ conc. . What effect does the concentration of H+ (aq) have on the nature of the solution? ‡ Hint: More the concentration of H+. lower the pH & vice-versa.

SALTS Salts are formed by the neutralization of acids with bases.g. Under what circumstances should the soil be treated with quick lime or slaked lime? ‡ Hint: Quick lime or slaked lime are basic in nature. HCl (aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O When any acid (strong or weak) reacts with a base (strong or weak) it results in formation of a salt. .‡ Q. E.

positive (cation) & negative (anion). These would be formed by neutralization with NaOH.g. . CH3COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq) CH3COONa(aq) + H2O H2SO4(aq) + 2NH4OH(aq) (NH4)2SO4(aq) + H2O A salt has two parts. Family of Salts Salts with sodium are called family of sodium salts. Cation comes from the base & anion from the acid.E.

salts obtained from KOH belong to the family of potassium salts. The salts obtained by the reaction with HCl are called family of chloride salts. ‡ Salts of a strong acid & weak base are acidic with pH value less than 7.‡ Similarly. ‡ Salts of a strong acid & base have a pH of 7. ‡ Salts of weak acid & strong base are basic in nature with pH value of more than 7. .

of NaCl (brine) through the process called chloralkali process. aq. ‡ Sodium hydroxide (Caustic Soda) ‡ Sodium hydroxide is produced by the electrolysis of conc. It is so called since it results in formation of both Cl2 & NaOH. 2NaCl(aq)+2H2O(l) 2NaOH(aq)+Cl2(g)+ H2(g) .Chemicals from Common Salt ‡ Common salt acts as a raw material for production of many chemicals. soln.

NaOH is formed near the cathode.‡ In electrolysis. ‡ Uses of NaOH i) Soaps & detergents ii) Artificial fibre (rayon) iii) Paper manufacturing iv) Degreasing of metals v) Bauxite purification vi) As a bleaching agent with Cl2. Cl2 gas is produced at the anode(+ve electrode) & H2 gas is liberated at the cathode(-ve electrode). .

Uses of Cl2 i) In PVC (polyvinylchloride) plastic ii) CFCs iii) Pesticides iv) Bleaching powder Uses of H2 i) As a fuel ii) NH3 pdtion iii) Hydrogen & chlorine combine to give HCl .

.Bleaching Powder ‡ Cl2 obtained from NaOH pdtion is passed through slaked lime powder Ca(OH)2 to give bleaching powder. ‡ Ca(OH)2 + Cl2 2CaOCl2 + H2O Bleaching powder is a mixture of calcium hypochlorite {Ca(OCl)2} & CaCl2. Properties of Bleaching Powder Yellowish white powder with strong smell of Cl. Soluble in water & gives milky nature to water due to Ca(OH)2.

H2SO4 CaOCl2 + H2SO4 CaSO4+Cl2+H2O Uses of Bleaching Powder Bleaching cotton. To make water germ free As an oxidising agent in industries Manufacture of Chloroform .‡ With passage of time. HCl CaOCl2+ 2 HCl CaCl2 + Cl2 + H2O Rxn with dil. wood. ability of bleaching powder decreases due to loss of Cl gas. etc. ‡ Rxn with CO2 ‡ CaOCl2(s) + CO2(g) CaCO3(s) + Cl2(g) ‡ Rxn with dil. linen.

5. Mildly basic in nature with pH of 7.25 ± 7.Baking Soda Baking soda has the chemical name of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and is used to reduce cooking time. NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) +NH3(g) NH4Cl(aq) + NaHCO3(s) Properties: White crystalline powder slightly souble in cold water. On heating it decomposes to give 2NaHCO3(s) Na2CO3(s) + H2O + CO2 .

which is a mix. of baking soda with a mild acid such as tartaric acid.Uses of Baking Soda ‡ For making baking powder. NaHCO3+ H+ CO2 + H2O + Na salt with acid CO2 pdd in the rxn causes the bread to rise ‡ It is also used as an antiacid ‡ As an soda-acid fire extinguisher .

10H2O ‡ Na2CO3+10H2O Na2CO3. soap & paper insdutries ii) Used to manufacture salts of sodium such as borax. iii) Domestic cleaning agent iv) To remove permanent hardness of water .10H2O ‡ Uses of washing soda i) In glass.Washing Soda ‡ Baking soda on heating gives sodium carbonate which on recrystalisation gives washing soda. Na2CO3.

‡ On heating the blue colour of copper sulphate goes leaving behing a white powder. To this if you add a drop or 2 of water.Are salts dry in nature? ‡ To test this we can heat a few crystals of coppersulphate in a boiling tube (mking sure that it is dry) ‡ You will notice droplets of water at the mouth of the tube indicating presence of H2O in the salts. blue colour returns. .

Plaster of Paris ‡ Gypsum on heating at 373 K loses water molecules to give rise to calcium sulphate hemihydrate {CaSO4. it converts back to gypsum (hard solid Mass) ‡ CaSO4.1/2 H2O + 1. ‡ When water is added to it. The pdt obtained is called Plaster of Paris.5 H2O CaSO4.2H2O .1/2 H2O}.

and Salts The End .Acids. Bases.