MELAKA MANIPAL MEDICAL COLLEGE
What Are You Doing Now?
You are breathing 500ml of air per breath 6-10 litres of air /minute
What Are the Composition of Air?
Oxygen (20.94%) Nitrogen (78.09%) Carbondioxide (0.03%) Water vapour Ozone Argon Krypton and other gases
Air pollution is contamination of the indoor or outdoor environment by any chemical, physical or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. (WHO)
Effects of Air Pollution
Human health Plant pathology Visibility reduction Acid deposition
7% of the global burden of disease over 50% of the COPD deaths due to indoor air pollution occur in the Western Pacific region.
Outdoor Air Pollution together with indoor air pollution is estimated to cause approximately 2 million premature deaths worldwide per year
. indoor air pollution is responsible for the death of 1.6 million people due to pneumonia.Health Problems due to Air Pollution
Indoor Air Pollution Every year. chronic respiratory disease and lung cancer 1 death every 20 seconds (WHO) Indoor air pollution as the 8th most important risk factor to the burden of disease and responsible for 2.
Air pollutants occur
Primary air pollutants: emitted directly into the air Secondary pollutants: reactions between primary pollutants and atmospheric compounds
Sources of Out door air pollution
Natural and Human
Natural sources of out door air pollution Natural Fires .Sulfur Vegetation .Ash and Acid components Sea Spray .Methane Dust Pollen Viruses and Bacteria
.Volatile organic compounds Bacterial Metabolism .Smoke Volcanoes .
. agriculture. and space heating. transportation. power generation.Human sources of outdoor air pollutants include emissions from industry.
Air Pollution sources in Malaysia
Industrial and development activities Motor vehicles Power Generation Everyday Routine Open Burning
methane.acid rain.inhibited respiration Lead and mercury .lung damage.neurological damage Chlorofluorocarbons . health damage. reduce fish and other animal Carbon monoxide . chloroform. terpenes.growth of weedy species. etc) oxidized to CO.acid rain.Major or conventional or criteria Air Pollutants: Problems
Sulfur dioxide . eutrophication. carcinogens?
.ozone depletion Particulate matter . visibility reduction Nitrogen oxides . & benzene. cancer Volatile organic compounds ± (isoprenes. CO2 in the atmosphere.
Beryllium. 3. Aesthetic Degradation 5. etc.Unconventional Pollutants Unconventional or non-criteria pollutants that are considered especially hazardous. 4. Benzene. Asbestos. 2. Visual (haze) & light pollution
SO2 in ambient air affect human health in those suffering from asthma and chronic lung diseases. Damage and destruction of vegetation and in the degradation of soils. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is an acidic gas which combines with water vapour in the atmosphere to produce acid rain. Major SO2 problems now only tend to occur in cities in which coal is still widely used for domestic heating. building materials and watersourses. Produced by power stations burning fossil fuels which contain sulphur.
. Tightness in the chest and coughing occur at high levels.
nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). collectively known as NOx .is fr road traffic Health effect. Nitrogen dioxide can irritate the lungs and lower resistance to respiratory infections such as influenza. The principal source of nitrogen oxides . Cause increased incidence of acute respiratory illness in children.Nitrogen oxides are formed during high temperature combustion processes from the oxidation of nitrogen in the air or fuel.
. Lead to a significant reduction in the supply of oxygen to the heart. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic gas from combustion processes. This gas prevents the normal transport of oxygen by the blood. and by the oxidation of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds. It survives for one month but is eventually oxidised to carbon dioxide (CO2).
At high levels lead can cause nervous system damage. formed by the burning of lead gasoline. Air borne lead. convulsions.
. can accumulate in the tissues and bones of humans and other living organisms. and even death. It is especially dangerous to children and the unborn.
. particulate matter may also include particles composed of iron. nickel. and lead. These particles influence the respiratory system immediately. In cities. and make breathing difficult for people with chronic respiratory disorders.
Particulate matter includes common irritants like smoke. pollen. Reduce visibility and leave deposits of dirt on the surfaces with which they come in contact. Can affect the human respiratory system. ash. pollen and many other materials are included.
. and dust. Industrial activity and transportation are the major source. soot. Particulate matter consists of liquid or solid particles that are small enough to remain suspended in the atmosphere for extended periods of time.
Volatile organic compounds are organic molecules that are mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms (hydrocarbons).
. Methane poses no direct danger to human health. The most common volatile organic compound release into the atmosphere is methane.
and chlorofluorocarbons. formaldehyde. CFC cause ozone depletion so redu protection from radiation lead to CA Of these chemicals.
. Other volatile organic compounds release into the atmosphere include benzene. benzene and formaldehyde are the most dangerous to human health because they are carcinogic.
. In cities. Secondary Pollutants: primary pollutants that have reacted with each other or with the basic components of the atmosphere to form new toxic substances. and damages paint. Photochemical smog is extremely toxic to animal and plant life. rubber. the emissions from cars and industries combine with the help of light energy from the sun to produce photochemical smog.
H2O2 hydrogen peroxide
. Sulfate Salts HNO3 Nitric acid. Secondary Pollutants: The reorganization of primary pollutants in the presence of solar energy (UV). SO3sulfite. Nitrate Salts O3 ozone. sulfuric acid H2SO4.
INDOOR AIR POLLUTION
air pollution can also occur indoors. formaldehyde.
. radon. Include smoke from cigarettes and cooking. In buildings. and asbestos. about 150 different indoor pollutants have been identified.
Most indoor air pollution can be reduced by increasing building ventilations. combustion.
.Indoor Pollutant Sources
Indoor air pollutants come from: underground diffusion. and chemical emissions. Radon gas (a radioactive decay product of uranium) is the most harmful indoor pollutant when found in high concentrations.
including formaldehyde. tobacco smoke.
Toxic vapours. asbestos. perfume.
Cont«. body odours. gases. fiberglass.Main sources Indoor Air Pollution Sources:
. glue. compounds ( VOC )
workplace solvents. pesticides.
Dust. volatile organic cleansers. disinfectants.
Dusts mites. stagnant condensate pans.
Microbial contaminants. paints.
damp areas. fabric.
Gas emissions from furniture.
Ozone. foam cushions. fungi. electric electrostatic air cleaners. water & moulds.
. vapours. motors. odours. bacteria.Sources:
cleansers. paints. pesticidal formulations. fabric protectors. furniture waxes.Pollutants Related to Human Activity or Presence Air fresheners. and deodorants are products frequently used in the home and are sources of various inorganic and organic chemicals.
etc. Absenteeism and lower productivity. EPA suggests 20% Of All US buildings are ³Sick´. Headaches. Flu-like Symptoms. Nausea. in Health Care. Costing about $60 Billion/yr. (Chronic) Fatigue. Sick Building Syndrome The Combination Of Indoor Pollutants resulting in Dizziness.
World Health Organization ( WHO ± 1983 ) for SBS Syndrome
Sick building syndrome ( type 1 )
Symptoms:Lethargy and tiredness Headache Dry blocked nose Sore dry eyes Sore throat Dry skin and/ skin rashes.
. Symptoms of an allergy such as hay fever. ie.
Sick building syndrome ( type 2 )
Watering / itchy eyes and runny nose.
lighting . .]
.thermal ventilation. Indoor Air Quality ) [ mainly consist of chemical & biological hazard. humidity.noise.Main sources of HAZARD in the building :-Physical .
lakes .from Legionellaceae family named Legionella pneumophilia.Legionellae Disease
Aetiology:. streams and in wet soil.
Bacterium found everywhere :River .
.air borne / droplets . Route of transmission . ponds .
Symptoms of Legionnaires¶ disease :High fever Headache Dry cough Diarrhoea Confused Chills Muscle pains Breathing difficulty Vomiting Delirious
Possible sources of Legionella bacteria :Air-conditioning ( cooling water system. humidifiers. cooling coils. condensers ) Air washers Fire sprinklers Nebulisers and humidifiers ( for medical use ) Swimming pools Showers Ventilation bags ( for medical use )
the Pollutant Standard Index (PSI).Air pollution Indices
PSI .Air Quality Index (AQI) replaces the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) API Air Pollutant Index
. AQI .
PSI=Pollutant Standard Index
CO (8hr) mg/m3
SO2 (24hr) mg/m3
PM-10 (24hr) mg/m3
O3 (1hr) mg/m3
NO2 (1hr) mg/m3
API= Air Pollution index
plantation of trees Plan industries (Site.control the emission of particulates.Prevention and Control of Air Pollution
Prevention and control of Out door air pollution Efficient Public transport system Use of Lead Free fuel Use of Alternate fuel CNG(compress natural gas) Green belts. exhaust gases)
sulphadioxide emission equipping them with catalytic converter emission of oxides of nitrogen Legislation to control air pollution Development of alternative source of energy
.Prevention and Control of Air Pollution
Fitting power station with scrubber.
.Prevention and Control of Air Pollution
Prevention of Indoor Air Pollution Improved ventilation SO2 Improved and efficient stove with exhaust chimney Use of mordern fuel electricity and liquified petrolium gas. Use non conventional source of energy solar cookers.
homes. schools. and other indoor environments.
.y efforts to better understand indoor air pollution and to reduce people's exposure to air pollutants in offices.
Ozone Hydrocarbons & Lead. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) For Suspended Particulates. SOxs.
Legislation!! Clean Air Acts.
Malaysia ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ACT 1974
. NOx¶s. COx¶s.
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