1. Downy mildew / Green Ear head

disease. 2. Ergot or sugary disease. 3. Smut disease. 4. Rust disease.

Butler (1907) Yield loss : 30 % yield loss was reported in high yielding verities Symptoms : The downy mildew appears in two distinct phases.y C.O.Witches broom First Report :India E.Bawa.J.Kutul. . y y y y y y y Sclerospora graminicola Class Oomycetes Order peronosporales Family peronosporaceae Other synonyms : Jogida.

y Dwarfing and shortening of internodes. . y Chlorotic yellow streaks turn brown and leaf become shredded lengthwise.y The infected plants tiller excessively. y Broad chlorotic streaks extending from base to the tip of leaf observed. y Downy fungal growth can be visible on lower surface of leaf and in severe cases it may appear on upper surface. y The foliage becomes pale and chlorotic.

y In some cases partial grain filling is observed. ear head become malformed. stamens and pistil converted into leafy structure. palea .y When the pathogen infect the host systemically . . y Entire ear head is transformed in to leafy structure the floral plans glumes. y The leafy structure becomes brown and dry up without grain formation .

.

produces oospores which remain viable in soil for five year and after germination which can cause primary infection in seedlings. After infection the pathogen produce intercellular aseptate mycelium . . Secondary spread starts from sporangia and zoospore which are most active during rainy season.y The pathogen is obligate parasite . The germ tube of zoospore enters the leaf stomata to initiate infection .

y Presence of water on leaves. . y Low atmosphiaric temperature 15 -25 C.y Other Host : . but both readily can infect teosinte.Setaria italic y The bajra and setaria italic races do not infect their host reciprocally. y Favourable Condition : y High humidity < 90 % .

20 DAY. MH-169 . y Collect diseased plants and destroy them.y Crop rotation with non host crop. MH-179 . Spray mancozeb 1 kg / ha . HB-5 . PHB-14 . PHB 10 . Use resistance varieties : GHB -15 . CO-7. Two three sprays of metalaxyl compound ( ridomil MZ 72 WP ) @ 4 g / 10 lit water . . HB-1 . y Early sowing of bajra on onset of monsoon for y y y y escaping disease. Treat the seeds with apron 35 SD @ 6 g / kg seed or fosetyle @ 5 g / kg seed.

Cleviceps microcephala y Class Ascomycetes y Order Hypocreales y Family Hypocreceae y Disease appeared in epiphytotic from during 1967-68 in Maharastra and Karnataka states.O. y Distribution : Africa and India y C. .

.

Honeydew attracts the insects which helps in secondary spread of disease in the field . which cause nervous break down in human being and animals . . The sclerotia contain the alkaloid ergotin . y Exudation of small droplets of light pinkish or y y y y brownish sticky fluid ( honeydew ) from the infected spikelets. many such spikelets exude plenty of honeydew . The infected ovaries darken with age small grayish dark brown sclerotia are formed .y Disease appear only at flowering stage. which trickle long the ear head . Under sever infection .

. y Remove of collateral host of disease .y High rainfall and high humidity during flowering. y Cool weather.

which helps the pathogen to perpetuate from season to season.y The primary source of inoculum is sclerotia . The sclerotia either remain in soil or mixed with or in infected debris. . The honeydew secretion attracts the insect for feeding and the conidia are disseminated in the field through insects causing secondary spread of the pathogen. They germinate and cause primary infection through ascospores in the spikes producing the conidial stage.

y The fungus infects the grass cenchrus ciliaris and cenchrus setigeurs .

25 kg / ha when 5-10 % flower have opened and second spray at 50 % flowering. y Use disease free seeds. y Seed treatment with 20 % brine soluction (Nacl) to separate out sclerotia from the seeds. y Spraying of carbendazim 300 g or mancozeb 1. .y Removal of collateral hosts . Dry the seeds in shade and store. y Sowing crop just after on set monsoon.

. Andhra Pradesh . .y C.Tolyposporium penicillariae y Class y y y y y Basidiospore Order Ustilaginales Family Ustilaginacerae Distribution : Pakistan .O. Maharastra and Gujarat. Africa and India In India : prevalent in Tamil Nadu .

.

.y Disease becomes apparent at the time of grain setting. y The infects sori larger and greater then normal healthy grains and they are bright green to dirty black in colour. y Pathogen infects few florets and transforms them into black spore containing smut spore. it releases millions of black smut spore balls. y When the sori are ruptured .

which germinate to produce the sporidia . y Disease cycle : y The infection starts mainly from air-borne spore . which becomes air borne and infect the ear. y Successive cropping with bajra. . which enter the spikelets and infect the ovary . producing masses of sporidia . The spore balls remain in soil to germinate during the next season .y Favourable condition : y High humidity.

y Removal of smutted ear-heads & destroy them. y Use clean . . y Sowing the crop before 15 th july found most suitable in reducing downy mildew . y Follow crop rotation with non-host crop. y Grow bajra in summer season. healthy disease free seeds. eargot & smut disease.

.

Puccinia penniseti y Class Basidiomycetes ..y C.O.

. the plant appear unhealthy and slightly stunted compared with non infected once.y The minute round uredospore occur in group on both surface of leaves . particularly towards the distal end of the blede . y The telia which appear later in the season are black elliptical and sub epidermal and are also distributed over the leaf blade . In severe infection . on the leaf sheath & stem. leaf sheath and stem.

. y Uredospore are known as repeating spore and cause infection in field.y The rust fungus is heteroceous and alternate host of the rust fungus is brinjal.

y Immediately sowing after on set of monsoon.2 at 15 days interval starting from initial stage infection . y Two spray of mancozeb or zineb @ 0.y Use resistant varieties. y Use of bio-control with fusarium sanbycium . . semifectum. f. y Removal of alternate host grasses. roseum . f.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful