Letter writing in English
Dr. Fatemeh Hemmati English Language Department University of Payame Noor

Features of the course
Features of the course are as follows. Name: letter writing in English Number of modules: 2 A compulsory main course for the BA students of English Language

Features of the course
Letter writing is usually taken in the fourth semester of studying English language. Prerequisites: Grammar and Writing 2, Developing Reading Proficiency 3

The assigned book Letter Writing in English Dr. Manoochehr Jafari Gohar Payame Noor University .

.The aims of the course Learners of English as a foreign /second language need to become familiar with the conventions of writing letters in order to be able to communicate through written text.

colleagues. .The aims of the course Letters may be written to members of society such as friends. and relatives or they may be sent to or received form businessmen to play an essential role in industry and commerce.

Based on these aims. the book has been divided into three sections. the aim of the course is to familiarize the students with these conventions. Therefore.The aims of the course Each of these types of letters have their specific layout and format. .

Business correspondence 3. Social correspondence 2. Mechanics of writing .The main sections of the book Major sections of the book: 1.

.The design of the course The first section. social correspondence. helps students keep in touch with those who are important to them.

it gives them the chance to respond to messages they receive.The design of the course Furthermore. It can also be beneficial in writing letters with specific purposes. .

. A letter sent out of a company is considered the representative of the firm.The design of the course The second section. business correspondence. plays an essential role in industry and commerce.

The design of the course and thus its function is not limited to the transmission of information. being familiar with the conventions of this type of correspondence can help students in making their future career. . Therefore.

intends to help the writers to make effective use of the mechanical devices of the English writing system to convey the necessary information as clearly as possible. the mechanics of writing. .The design of the course The last part.

Addressing the envelop 3. Social correspondence: 1. The layout of the letter 2.The main sections of part 1 Part 1. Social letters on different occasions .

The layout The Word ³Layout´ (or form) is used to refer to the general arrangement of the different parts of a letter. the layout . Chapter 1.

Chapter 1. the layout .The Importance of the Layout The layout is important because a wellarranged letter is more effective and appeals more favorably to the eye of the reader.

the layout .The layout  Heading  Personalized letterhead  Inside address  Salutation  Body  Complementary close  Signature  Postscript (P.S) Chapter 1.

Heading What does it include? The writer¶s address and the date. the layout . Where does it appear? It is written at the top right hand corner of the first page of the letter. Chapter 1.

Massachusetts 02123 February 14. the layout . 1993 Chapter 1.Heading Example (sent to another city inside the country) 250 commonwealth avenue Boston.

Iran May 9. 2006 Chapter 1.4697 Tehran. (sent abroad) Payame-Noor University P.Heading Example.Box 19395. the layout .O.

Heading In another style of writing a heading. Look at the following example: Chapter 1. The day is given in ordinal form. there is a comma at the end of each line and a full stop is placed at the end of the last line. the layout .

the layout .O. Tehran .Heading Example: Payame Noor University. Iran. P. Box 19395-4697. 2005 Chapter 1. May 9th.

 In very informal letters. some writers prefer to place it at the top left hand corner. exceptions  When the letter does not have an inside address. the heading may include the date only and not the address.Heading. Chapter 1. the layout .

look at the following examples: Chapter 1. the layout .Personalized letterhead Personalized letterhead consists of peoples¶ initials or their full names and addresses printed at the top of letter papers.

Personalized letterhead ========Martha Riddenhaur========= 4723 West Niles road New Haven . CT 06510 .

Inside address What does it contain? The reader¶s name. Chapter 1. company division or department or civic agency. title (if any). and the mailing address of the receiver. the layout .

Inside address Where does it appear? At the top left hand corner of the letter single spaced. Chapter 1. the layout . flush with the left margin and two lines above the salutation.

IL 60603 Chapter 1.Inside address Example: Mr. James T. Farrell Senior Partner Barrows. the layout . & Yarby. Inc One East Madison Chicago. Farrell.

the layout .salutation What does it mean? The salutation is a greeting to the person to whom you are writing. (The written equivalent of the conversational µhello¶ or µhow do you do¶) Chapter 1.

flush with the left margin. Chapter 1. the layout .salutation Where does it appear? Two lines down from the inside address (if any). or two lines up from the first sentence of your letter.

salutation Why is it important to know the proper form of salutation? There are two reasons: .

salutation 1. the layout . It is good etiquette. Chapter 1. It can help to ensure that the recipient takes the letter more seriously. 2.

salutation How do you decide which form of salutation to use? It depends on two factors: .

the layout . whether you know the recipient¶s name or not Chapter 1.salutation 1. The degree of formality of your letter 2.

salutation Example : Dear John: to a friend Dear Mr. Smith: to a married woman Dear Ms. the layout . Smith: to a woman whose marital status is not known Chapter 1. Smith: to a man Dear Miss Smith: to an unmarried woman Dear Mrs.

You can write : ³Dear Mr. Chapter 1. John Smith. smith´ but NOT dear Mr.salutation Attention You can write : ³Dear Reza´ but NOT dear cousin Reza. the layout .

Chapter 1.Body  It begins two lines down from the salutation. middle and closing.  Paragraphs are typed single spaced with double space between them.  As a common practice. it is divided into three segments : opening. the layout .

the layout . opening  Establishes the purpose of the letter.  Contains either the main point or important preliminary information. Chapter 1.Body.

Chapter 1. middle  It presents the purpose of writing as well as supporting.Body. explaining and elaborating the main point. answers you wish to give or questions you want to ask.  It contains the points that need to be made. the layout .

Body, closing 
You may repeat the main point(s) of the letter.  Inform the reader what action or response you expect.  Bring the letter to an end with a polite wish (depending on the degree of formality).
Chapter 1, the layout

Attention In many letters, you may not be able to find the three sections (opening, middle and closing ) in separate paragraphs.
Chapter 1, the layout

Complimentary close
In all complimentary closes the first word is capitalized and they are followed by a comma. Formal and informal correspondences require different complimentary closes.
Chapter 1, the layout

Complimentary close
Example:  Very formal : Respectfully yours, respectfully,  Formal : Yours Faithfully, very truly yours,  Informal : Best wishes, regards, Chapter 1, the layout

the layout . Chapter 1.Complimentary close Attention Do not forget that the way you close a letter depends on how you opened it.

the layout . Chapter 1.Signature Block  The signature block contains your name and.  Your letter format determines where the signature block is placed. in formal correspondence your title.

S) is used when the writer decides to add something to the letter which has been closed.  Postscript (P. Chapter 1.Postscript (P.S)  The postscript is typed two lines below the signature. the layout .

Addressing the Envelope The order for informal letters:  Name ( including any titles )  Street address and suite or apartment number  City and state plus Zip Code  Country (if sent abroad) Chapter 2. addressing the envelope .

in 46715 Stamp Ms.Addressing the Envelope M. WA 98015 . Surleen Ellis 14 Roundtree LN Barton.Korson 251 Morningside Dr. Everest.

Addressing the envelope The order for Formal Letters:  Name of individual. company or agency  Title of individual  Department or division .

room. floor number  Post office box number  City. agency or institutions name  Street address plus suite. State and Zip Code Chapter 2.Addressing the envelope  Company. addressing the envelope .

Social letters on different Occasions  Letters of social obligation  Letters of friendship  Letters of personal business Chapter 3. social letters on different occasions .

Social letters on different Occasions Invitations Replying to invitations Congratulations Condolences Thank you notes 1) Letters of Social Obligation 2) 3) 4) 5) .

Chapter 3.Invitations Invitations can be formal or informal. social letters on different occasions . Certain rules should be followed in writing invitations: Indicate the kind of occasion. the place. the date and the time the guests are expected to arrive.

invitations  Formal invitations are written in the third person. the abbreviations R. Chapter 3.P is written in the lower left hand corner.  If a reply is required.S.V. social letters on different occasions .

social letters on different occasions .Replying to invitations  Give a prompt and definite answer.  If accepting the invitation. Example: We are delighted to accept« Chapter 3. imply a ³thank you´ and convey the thought that you were pleased by the invitation.

Replying to invitations  If declining. Example: I am sincerely sorry that John and I cannot join your dinner party« Chapter 3. a note of regret should give the reason for declining. social letters on different occasions .

social letters on different occasions . Chapter 3.  Mention the occasion and focus on the special event.Congratulations  Write the letter as soon as you hear the good news.  Write sincerely and cheerfully.

social letters on different occasions . Chapter 3. engagements. graduations and so on. the words that you choose must be appropriate for each particular situation. birth days.Congratulations Congratulations are sent on different occasions such as marriages. Therefore. anniversaries.

social letters on different occasions .Congratulations Almost all congratulation letters contain a phrase or sentence with ³congratulations´ or ³congratulate´. Example: Congratulations on your birthday! May an old friend congratulate you« Chapter 3.

social letters on different occasions . In the former case. send best wishes to one of them and ask her/him to give your congratulations to the other one.Congratulations In congratulations on marriages you either write to one of the married couple or to both of them. Chapter 3.

Chapter 3. comment on any special effort or achievement the graduate made during his or her school or college career.Congratulations In congratulation letters on graduation. social letters on different occasions .

 The best condolence letter is sincere and brief. People dealing with grief or shock are often unable to read long letters. social letters on different occasions .Condolences  Write the letter as soon as you hear the news. Chapter 3.

social letters on different occasions . Chapter 3.Condolences A condolence letter should be written simply and clearly. First. Example: We have just heard with profound regret the sad news. express your feeling about the loss.

Chapter 3. Example: Everyone who knew Jim loved him.  At the end.Condolences  Then. express your feeling about the deceased. social letters on different occasions . offer your help (if you wish) and close your letter.

social letters on different occasions .Thank you letters They should be sent promptly and they should focus on the thank you message. Example: My thanks for your generous hospitality« Chapter 3.

Letters of Friendship  While writing letters of friendship.  Start the letter with an interesting sentence and close it with a cheerful and positive note. social letters on different occasions . Chapter 3. imagine you are talking to the reader face to face.

Letters of personal Business 3. Letters of complaint Letters of damage apology Letters of recommendation Letters of application Letters of request Letters of resignation Resume . 7.Letters of personal business 1. 2. 6. 4. 5.

Chapter 3. or any other information that can help the company to detect the problem.Letters of complaint In letters of complaint you should write about the problem very precisely and clearly. Mention the date. social letters on different occasions . the reference number.

 Then.A letter of damage apology  In a letter of damage apology.  At the end. move on to explain how you are going to compensate for the damage. . first you should apologize for the damage. ensure the reader that it won¶t happen again.

Letters of recommendation
Letters of recommendation are written when a company or a university asks you to provide references. These letters are considered confidential and they are not always in favor of the bearer.
Chapter 3, social letters on different occasions

A letter of application
An application letter carries the burden of attracting attention, creating interest and doing a substantial part of the job of convincing your prospective employer to accept you.
Chapter 3, social letters on different occasions

Letters of request
In your initial letter of request (i.e., to a university), you give a few facts about yourself and the education you have received. The more detailed you are, the better. Try to tell them what you want.
Chapter 3, social letters on different occasions

Letters of resignation 
In a letter of resignation you start with writing about the time you have been with your employer.  Then, explain the reason for resignation.  At the end, thank them and wish for later collaboration.

social letters on different occasions . Chapter 3.Resumes (curriculum vitae) The Resume is probably the most important personal business letter. telephone number. education and the name and address of your references. work experience. e-mail address. It includes your name. address.

Business correspondence Part 2 Business correspondence .

Business Correspondence The layout : 1. Dateline 3. Subject line . Reference line 5. Inside address 4. Salutations 6. Letterhead 2.

Enclosure reminder 13.Business Correspondence 7. Reference line 12. ³cc´ notation . Company signature 10. Body 8. Complimentary close 9. Signers identification 11.

Letterhead It consists of the name. the address and sometimes the telephone or fax number of the company printed at the top of the page. chapter 1 1 . Business correspondence.

the sender¶s address is written on the top right hand corner of the page. chapter 1 .Letterhead Attention: If there is not a printed letterhead. Business correspondence.

otherwise. it is written below the senders address. chapter 1 2 . Business correspondence.Dateline Dateline appears a few lines below the letterhead on the right side of the page.

Business correspondence. 12. chapter 1 . For example.1990 means 12th of February 1990 in the UK. but 2nd of December in the USA.2.Dateline The month of the date should not be written in figures because they might confuse the reader.

Inside address  It consists of the reader¶s name and address written below the senders address and on the opposite side of the page. Business correspondence. chapter 1 3 .  The order of the lines is the same as the social letters.

.Inside address When the name of the receiver is not known. either his/her title or the name of the particular department of a company can be written.

Reference line attention line Reference line personal and confidential other reference lines .

Business correspondence. chapter 1 4 .Attention line Attention line is used to alert the person you are writing to or to make sure that your letter will be opened even if the recipient is absent.

Attention line Attention line is typed two lines below the inside address and may be centered on the page or typed flush with the left. The word ³Attention´ is used with its first letter capitalized and followed by a colon. chapter 1 . Business correspondence.

chapter 1 .Personal and confidential Personal and confidential words are used for strictly personal matters. They are placed four lines above the inside address and they are underlined. and they indicate that only the recipient should open the letter. Business correspondence.

chapter 1 . serial numbers «  The place of other reference lines : typed four lines below the date. and on the same line as the first line of the inside address.Other reference lines  The function of other reference lines : to mention some document numbers. flush with the right margin. Business correspondence.

Dear sirs: used to address a company in the UK Gentlemen: used to address a company in the USA 5 . but in a more formal manner.Business letters. salutation  The same as social letters.

Business letters. salutation Dear Sir or Madam or ladies and gentlemen: Used to address a person of whom you neither know the name or the gender  A colon or a comma usually follows a salutation. Business correspondence. chapter 1 .

salutation The salutation ³to whom it may concern´ is used when we do not know who should read our letter. chapter 1 .Business letters. Business correspondence.

underlined or typed in capitals. .Business letters. subject line  The function of subject line : Tells the reader what the letter is about. so that he can decide whether it needs immediate attention or not. 6  The place of subject line : Below the salutation.

 The place of the body : Below the salutation or the subject line 7 .Business letters. body  The function of the body : The same as social letters. carries the actual message.

complementary close The kind of complementary close depends on the general tone and the degree of formality of the letter.Business letters. chapter 1 8 . Business correspondence.

and not as an individual.Business letters. 9 . Company signature Company signature is used in cases when the signer of the letter is writing as the spokesperson for the company.

10 . signer¶s identification  The signer¶s identification includes the signer¶s name and any relevant title.Business letters.  It is typed four lines below the complementary close to provide enough space for the signature.

Business letters. reference initials  The function of reference initials: shows who prepared the letter (the signer¶s and the typist¶s initials) 11  The position of reference initials: usually at the bottom or sometimes on the top of the letter. .

enclosure reminder  The function of the enclosure reminder is to help the reader not to discard the enclosed items by mistake. 12 .Business letters.  It consists of the word enclosure followed by a list of enclosed items.

Business letters. µcc¶ notation µcc¶ notation stands for carbon copy and tells the reader who has been sent a copy of the letter. 13 .

Semi-Blocked 4. Full-Blocked 2.Formats of Business letters 1. Square-Blocked 5. Blocked 3. Simplified Letter Formats .

chapter 2 . Business correspondence.Formats of Business letters Full-Blocked Features:  All lines flush with the left margin.  No paragraphs are indented.

reference lines and paragraphs are set flush with the left margin. Business correspondence.  Heading or inside address.Formats of Business letters Blocked Features:  Date line is flush with the right margin. chapter 2 . salutation.

chapter 2 .  The date line may ed at the right margin. the attention and subject lines may be centered or indented 5 or 10 spaces Business correspondence.Formats of Business letters  Complementary close and signature are aligned with the date.

Formats of Business letters Semi-Blocked Features:  Date is flush with the right margin. heading or inside address with the left margin. .  Complementary close and signature line are slightly to the right of the page¶s center.  Paragraphs are indented.

.  Reference initials and enclosure reminder are typed on the same line as the signature.Formats of Business letters Square-Blocked Features:  The same as full-blocked with two differences:  The date is typed on the same line as the start of the inside address.

 Inside address is four or more lines below the date line.  All lines begin flush with the left margin.Formats of Business letters Simplified Features:  No salutation or complementary close. .  Date is six lines below the letterhead.

 Writer¶s name and title are typed in capitals. Business correspondence.Formats of Business letters  Subject line is typed in all capital letters three lines below the inside address and above the body. chapter 2 .

5. Letters of inquiry and their replies Letters of order Letters of complains and their replies Letters of credit and their replies Letters of collection . 4. 2. 3.Business letters on different occasions Business letters on different occasions: 1.

Business letters. How well you know the supplier. The kind of goods you are inquiring about. 3. 2. Whether your supplier is in your country or abroad. letters of inquiry Letters of inquiry The content of an inquiry letter depends on three things: 1. .

. letters of inquiry  At the opening of an inquiry letter.  Make it clear what exactly you want them to do for you.Business letters. tell the supplier what kind of firm you are and how you have come to his company.  Bring the letter to an end with a ³thank you´.

.  Encourage your prospective customer to do business with you. letters of inquiry Reply to inquiry letters  Thank the inquirer.Business letters. mention the date of his letter and mention his name in your salutation!  Tell him if you can help him or not.

letters of inquiry  Let the inquirer know whether you are enclosing what he has asked for or if he will receive them later. chapter 3 .  At the end encourage more inquiries! Business correspondence.Business letters.

let the inquirer know that and. letters of inquiry If a letter of inquiry asks for a product or service which is not presented by your company. if possible. Business correspondence.Business letters. refer him to another supplier. chapter 3 .

and inaccurate facts result in receiving wrong goods. chapter 3 .Business letters. Business correspondence. accurate information in your order letter because incomplete orders result in delayed delivery. letters of order Include complete.

exaggerated statements. .Business letters. and loss of temper. but politely.  Avoid unnecessary threats.  Do not apologize for your complaint!  Write firmly. letters of complaint Letters of complaint  Write the letter as soon as you discover the mistake.

Business correspondence.Business letters. letters of complaint Replies to letters of complaint  Inform the writer that you have received the complaint and thank your customer for telling you about the problem. chapter 3 .  Tell him what you are going to do about the complaint.

Business letters. but do not blame the staff of your company. chapter 3 . Business correspondence. letters of complaint  If you accept that a mistake has taken place.  Tell the customer that you will put the matters right as soon as possible. explain how it has happened.

Business letters. but polite. chapter 3 .  If you are rejecting the complaint. be firm. letters of complaint  In closing. assure the customer that the mistake was an exception and apologize for the inconveniences. Business correspondence.

mention your previous dealings (if any).Business letters.  Convince the supplier to grant you the credit. letters of credit  Open your letter of credit by stating the point and the type of credit you want. your reputation and offer references. chapter 3 . Business correspondence.

but be careful not to offend the customer. chapter 3 . mention the reasons.Business letters. letters of credit Replying to credit requests  If you agree with the credit. Business correspondence. you might ask for more information or set your own conditions for granting the credit.  If rejecting.

losing the customer. letters of collection Letters of collection  The main purpose of a collection letter is to ask you customers to pay the money they owe you. Business correspondence. chapter 3 .  Ask for payment without offending and. consequently.Business letters.

The successive letters get stronger in tone. . letters of collection  The first letter of collection is the mildest and most understanding.Business letters. Because your customer might simply have made a mistake.  The second request is sent if the customer does not answer the first request or acknowledge it but still fails to pay.

Business correspondence.  You may threaten to turn the matter over to a lawyer or a collection agency.Business letters. chapter 3 . letters of collection  The last collection letter reviews the situation since the account should have been paid. You can explain that you have been patient.

Part 3. 5. The mechanics of writing Part three The mechanics of writing Punctuation Capitalization Plurals Abbreviations numbers 1. 2. 4. 3. .

chapter 1 .Punctuation  Punctuation marks play an important role in the English writing system in clarifying the structure and meaning of sentences.  They separate groups of words for meaning and emphasis. part 3.

chapter 1 . and intonation of the spoken language. part 3. pauses. and they help making the meaning of sentences unambiguous.Punctuation Punctuation marks indicate differences in pitch. volume.

chapter 1 . Consequently. part 3. they might punctuate the same sentence quite differently.Punctuation Remember that in some cases not all writers agree on using a fixed pattern of punctuation.

 Use it when a shorter form is preferable. chapter 1 .Punctuation. part 3. ampersand Ampersand (&)  Ampersand is a symbol used instead of the word ³and´. but not in regular texts in correspondence.

ampersand  Use ampersand in the name of companies but not in the names of agencies that are part of the government: Dow Jones & Company. Securities and exchange commission part 3.Punctuation. chapter 1 . Inc.

apostrophe Apostrophe ( ¶ ) The apostrophe is generally used in three different ways: 1. In the possessive forms: the boy¶s mother. students¶ books. the Cohen¶s house part 3. chapter 1 . the boss¶s desk.Punctuation.

apostrophe 2. In the contractions: I¶d = I would. In making special plurals: The A¶s in the letterhead should be capitalized. part 3. it¶s = it is 3.Punctuation. chapter 1 .

chapter 1 . for example.Punctuation. the novels of Howells [1873-1920] ). part 3. brackets Brackets ( [ ] ) They are used as parentheses that are placed within parentheses: The role of business in American life has often been the subject of our fiction ( see.

or other material inserted into a text: . corrections. editorial comments.Punctuation. brackets They are used to show the additional words within a quotation. clarifications.

chapter 1 . part 3.Punctuation. brackets Example: This was the first time since it became law that the twenty-first amendment [outlining procedures for the replacement of a dead president] has been invoked.

Punctuation. colon Colon( : ) The colon can be called the mark of introduction. It shows the reader that what follows the colon is related to what has been used before it. part 3. chapter 1 .

colon  The colon is used to introduce a clause or phrase that explains. The paragraph was poorly constructed: it lacked both unity and coherence.Punctuation. amplifies. . or restates what has been said before. illustrates.

colon  A colon is used to introduce a list. Spain and Italy. France. chapter 1 .Punctuation. The conference was attended by representatives of five nations: England. Belgium. part 3.

colon  A colon is used before a quotation. after the salutation of a formal letter and between a title and a subtitle.Punctuation. Example Word processing: an introduction part 3. chapter 1 .

chapter 1 . Journal of the American Medical Association 48:356 part 3. colon  A colon is used to separate the elements in a page reference.Punctuation.

colon  Finally.M.Punctuation. part 3. chapter 1 . 11:20 A. a colon is used between the hour and the minute of a time reference.

comma comma (. chapter 1 .  A comma is used to separate main clauses joined by and. or « part 3.)  Comma is used more than any other punctuation mark in the English writing system.Punctuation. but.

 The comma is used to set off the adverbial clauses and phrases that come before a main clause. Having made that decision. so every note is clear.Punctuation. we turned our attention to other matters. chapter 1 . comma The acoustics in this hall are very good. part 3.

comma  The comma is used to separate items in a series or list. John has studied marketing. part 3. salesmanship.Punctuation. chapter 1 . and advertising.

made the decision. part 3. not the stockholders. comma  Commas are used to set off an interrupting expression in a sentence. The chairman of the board. chapter 1 .Punctuation.

helpful salespeople. chapter 1 . Our company is going to employ courteous knowledgeable. comma  A comma is used to separate the adjectives that are listed before a noun. part 3. provided that it is possible to put an µand¶ between the adjectives.Punctuation.

comma  Commas are used to separate thousands. hundreds.765.321  Street numbers and zip codes. serial or account numbers and weights and measures are exceptions. chapter 1 . decimals.543. telephone numbers. $8. part 3.Punctuation. etc. hundred thousands.

 A comma is used before a direct question. Mrs. Reid. We would like to discuss your account. what is going on here? . comma  Commas are used to set of words in direct address. I wonder.Punctuation.

honorary.D.Punctuation.A. M. chapter 1 . military. Robert Menard.. or religious degrees or titles. comma  The comma is used between surnames and the academic. Ph. part 3.

the comma can help. the comma is used after the salutation.  When the coming together of two words or expressions may cause ambiguity.Punctuation. Whatever will be. and in formal and informal letters after the complementary close. will be. chapter 1 . comma  In informal letters. part 3.

To separate items in a series that are joined with conjunctions part 3. chapter 1 .Punctuation. comma  Situations where a comma SHOULD NOT be used: 1.

With either«or. To separate adjectives if the first one modifies the second one 4. comma 2. neither«nor. chapter 1 . and not only« but also part 3. To separate an adverb from the adjective or adverb that it modifies 3.Punctuation.

Punctuation, dash
Dash (-) The dash can function like a comma, a colon, a pair of parentheses, or a pair of brackets. Therefore, it is not an obligatory punctuation mark.
part 3, chapter 1

Punctuation, dash 
The dash is used to show an abrupt change or break in the structure of a sentence.
The board of directors seem happy with the change, but the shareholders - there is the problem.
part 3, chapter 1

Punctuation, dash 
1. 2. 3. 4.
Dashes are also used to show: Interrupted speech, Emphasis on part of the sentence, Defining and enumerating phrases, Setting off the material introduced by such phrases as for example.

Punctuation, exclamation mark
exclamation point (!)  The main function of the exclamation point is that of reinforcing the attitudes and emotions expressed in the sentence. What an extraordinary invention!
part 3, chapter 1

Punctuation. hyphen hyphen (-)  The hyphen is used to join two or more words into a compound: Do-it-yourself instruction booklet  The hyphen is used with compound numbers from 21 to 99 and with fractions: Thirty-eight four-fifth .

chapter 1 . all-. self-.Punctuation. hyphen  The hyphen is used with such prefixes as ex-. part 3. and pro-. This should only be done between syllables. Self-help  A hyphen may be used to divide a word at the end of a line.

-p-r-o-b-a-t-i-o-n part 3. hyphen  A hyphen can be used as an equivalent to the phrase up to and including when placed between numbers and dashes. chapter 1 .Punctuation. 35-40 years  Hyphens indicate a word spelled out letter by letter.

. Although we liked the applicant (her background.Punctuation. parentheses parentheses ( )  Parentheses are used to enclose the supplementary material that is inserted into the main sentence. we were not ready to hire anyone at that point. training. and experience were excellent).

part 3. parentheses  Phrases and clauses introduced by expressions such as namely. and i.g. are placed within parentheses.Punctuation. Although this function can be performed by commas. e.e... that is. dashes. chapter 1 . and semicolons.

parentheses  Definitions or translations. part 3. The hotel was located just a few blocks from San Antonio¶s famous Paseo del Rio (river walk). abbreviations used after the full forms or spelled forms after abbreviations are placed within parentheses.Punctuation. chapter 1 .

The diagram (fig. part 3.  Parentheses are used to set off crossreferences.Punctuation. parentheses She referred to a ruling by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). chapter 1 . 3) illustrates the action of the pump.

You will need the following: (1) your resume.Punctuation. (2) letters of reference. and (3) an application form. parentheses  Parentheses are used for enumeration within a sentence. chapter 1 . part 3.

 A period is used to punctuate some abbreviations: e. .Punctuation.)  A period is used at the end of a sentence or a sentence fragment that is not a question or an exclamation. period period (.g.

Punctuation. Scott Fitzgrald  A period is used after Roman and Arabic numerals and also letters when they are used without parentheses in outlines and vertical enumerations: . period  A period is used with a person¶s initials: F.

part 3. Economy 1. period I.Punctuation. Low maintenance cost  A period is placed within quotation marks even when it does not punctuate the quoted material. Low initial cost 2. Objectives A. chapter 1 .

Punctuation. chapter 1 . period  Three spaced periods which is called ellipsis is used within a quotation to indicate omitted word or words: part 3.

This company « .Punctuation. chapter 1 . part 3. period President Ross began his address to the directors by saying. we expect to sell thousands of them next year. ³the age of the personal computer has just begun.

Punctuation. period  Periods should not be used in the following situations: 1. chapter 1 . After a heading or a title: Chapter one: verbs and subjects part 3.

part 3. chapter 1 . When the numbers or letters of a list have been enclosed in parentheses: The following factors will be considered: (a) attendance. and (c) performance. period 2.Punctuation. (b) punctuality.

4. After even amounts of dollars: your check for $40 has been received. After a sentence ending in a punctuated abbreviation: our gust speaker is Mark More.Punctuation. period 3. Ph. .D.

but not at the end of an indirect question: .  It is also used at the end of an interrogative element that is part of a sentence.Punctuation. question mark Question Mark (?)  It is used at the end of a direct question.

will it work?  Indirect question: She wondered whether it would work. chapter 1 .Punctuation. question mark  Interrogative element as part of a sentence: She wondered. part 3.

chapter 1 . question mark  The question mark is sometimes used to show that the writer is not sure about a fact: Susan O¶Hara. advertising vice president (?)of the corporation. part 3.Punctuation.

Punctuation.´  Fragments of directly quoted matter are enclosed within quotation marks: . quotation marks Quotation Marks (³ ´)  Quotation marks enclose direct quotations: She said: ³I am leaving.

chapter 1 . quotation marks The agreement makes it clear that he ³will be paid only on condition.´  Words borrowed from others. and very informal words used in formal texts are enclosed within quotation marks. words used in a special way. part 3.Punctuation.

They are also used to enclose certain titles: short stories. and chapters. essays. quotation marks  Quotation marks are used to enclose translation of foreign or borrowed words. articles poems. part 3.Punctuation. chapter 1 .

quotation marks  A quote within a quote is enclosed within single quotation marks: He noted: ³we all have at least one friend who brags. µI never buy anything of credit. chapter 1 .Punctuation.¶ don¶t we?´ part 3.

part 3. chapter 1 .Punctuation. )  A semicolon is used between two independent clauses that are not joined with a coordinating conjunction: He thought very deeply for one or two hours. semicolon Semicolon ( . he couldn¶t make up his mind.

however. furthermore. semicolon  A semicolon joins two clauses when the second one begins with words or phrases like: accordingly.Punctuation. chapter 1 . « It is not easy to deal with the problem. a decision must be made. therefore. part 3. as a result.

Punctuation.000 tons/year A 50/50 split part 3. chapter 1 . virgule or slash mark Virgule or slash mark (/) A virgule presents the word per or to when used with units of measure or when used to show the terms of a ratio: 40.

A/V part 3. virgule or slash mark  Virgule is used to separate alternatives: His/her  A virgule is used instead of the word and in some compound words and to punctuate some abbreviations: In the May/June issue .Punctuation. chapter 2 .

the first word of a direct quotation. the first word of a sentence used within another sentence. .Capitalization Capitalization The first word of a sentence or a sentence fragment.

part 3. chapter 2 .Capitalization the first word in an outline heading. the first word of the salutation and the complementary close of a letter are capitalized.

Capitalization The names and initials of persons. part 3. abbreviated forms of proper nouns and adjectives. chapter 2 . names of awards. honors and prizes are capitalized.

part 3. well-known buildings and other public places. places or districts are capitalized. chapter 2 . landmarks. monuments. regions. the full names of wars and revolutions. parks. words of divisions of earth¶s surface and district areas.Capitalization The names of streets.

part 3. and also personal pronouns referring to it. chapter 2 . and holidays and holy days are capitalized. months of the year.Capitalization Words designating the deity. the names of the days of the week.

The names of languages, nationalities, peoples, races, religious groups, and tribes are capitalized.  Words in titles of books, long poems, magazines, plays, movies and works of arts are capitalized (except for words like a, an, and «)

Plurals  You are already familiar with irregular forms of plurals in English. Some famous examples are: Foot feet Child children Life lives
part 3, chapter 3

Punctuated abbreviations of single words are made plural by adding s before the period: figs.  Abbreviations that are not punctuated and stand for phrases or compound words are made plural by taking s.
part 3, chapter 3

Punctuated abbreviations that stand for phrases or compounds are made plural by adding ¶s after the last period: Ph.D.¶s  The units of measure have the same form for plural and singular: 24 ml

the final element should be made plural: tree house tree houses part 3.Plurals  In most compounds that are made up of two nouns. chapter 3 .

the noun element is plural: Hanger-on hangers-on  Nouns that consist of words that are not nouns. form their plurals on the last element: put-down put-downs .Plurals  In the compounds that consist of an er agent noun and an adverb.

chapter 3 .Plurals  Some compounds are separated by a preposition. These form their plurals on the first noun: mother-in-law mothers-in-law part 3.

 Numbers become plural by taking an s: In twos and threes part 3. chapter 3 .Plurals  Letters take an apostrophe and an s to become plurals: Dot your I¶s and j¶s.

. part 3.Abbreviations  Some generally agreed patterns governing the use of abbreviations are the following: 1.. are always abbreviated when they are used before a noun.. Titles such as Mr. Dr. Mrs. chapter 4 . and St.

Gov.. However... chapter 4 . may be used before a full name. Sen.Abbreviations 2. Abbreviations such as Prof. the title is spelled out: Prof. and Rep. Fred Farkes Governor Barnes part 3. only if the last name is used.

D..Abbreviations 3. except Esq. Ph.. and Sr. chapter 4 . Jr.. Professor Fred Farkes. The titles that are used after names must be spelled out. and academic. professional and religious designations: F. Farkes. part 3.

and P. and B. chapter 4 . part 3.C. 5.M. The designations A. 6. are always used in the abbreviated form. are always abbreviated.D.Abbreviations 4. The abbreviations A. The names of firms are abbreviated only when the company prefers it.M.

chapter 4 .Numbers  A writer¶s major difficulty regarding numbers is whether to write out numbers or to express them in figures.  In the following cases numbers should be spelled out: part 3.

Numbers 1. and P. with A.M. part 3. chapter 5 . figures are used: 4:00 P. Numbers that begin a sentence 2.M.M. Large round numbers 3. Time expressed as a number alone or with the word o¶clock: four in the afternoon However.

chapter 5 .Numbers  In the following cases numbers should be indicated with figures: - Addresses Decimals part 3.

chapter 5 . 2 five-dollar bills 5 ten-meter pipes part 3.Numbers  When two numbers are used together. the first one is indicated in figures and the second one is spelled out.

2006 Ketchum collection agency 3 4 5 6 7 1267 Hollywood Boulevard Los Angeles. 9 FLANAGAN¶S DEPARTMENT STORE Martha Fayman 10 Credit manager . Gary Daniels. Norman Hyman 8 Sincerely yours. 11 12 13 MF/wg Enclosure Cc Mr.. TERRY ROBERTS Gentlemen: Subject: Mr. California 91401 ATTENTION: MS. Account # 69 112 003 ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««. California 91417 Return 2 June 7. ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« ««««««««««««.Flanagan¶s Department store 1 12207 sunset strip Los Angeles.