IMPACT OF TSUNAMI ON ANIMALS IN INDIA: TSUNAMI-Disaster Management Programs for Livestock

DR. C. KATHIRVELAN And MAYANK TANDON Animal Nutrition Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, INDIA. email: c_kathir@yahoo.com, mayanktandon1@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION
•TSUNAMI – “Harbour wave” • Tsunami – are large waves that are generated when the sea floor is deformed by seismic activity •Tsunami wave caused by Coastal earthquakes Under sea volcanic eruptions Under sea landslides •Tsunami is not a single wave, It is series of waves. •Travel at a speed of more than 800Km/hr. Frontline,Jan,2005

December 26 th ,2004 Tsunami
• Epicenter - 280 km from northern sumathra • 2100 km from Indian south coast line • Due to interface of the two tectonic plates (The Indian plate and Burma plate) • Magnitude 8.9 • 30 feet height

Frontline,Jan,2005

Countries affected
Indonesia Thailand Srilankha India Myanmar Malaysia Bangladesh Somalia

In India Andaman and nicobar TamilNadu Pondicherry Kerala Andhra Pradesh

World Tsunami occurrence
Nov 1,1755 Aug 27, 1883 June 15,1896 April 1,1946 Nov 5,1952 May 23,1960 Aug 23, 1976 July 17, 1998 - Europe - Indonesian islands (JavaSumatra) - East coast of Japan - Hawaii - Russia - Hawaii - Philippines - Bismarck sea
India Today,Jan,2005

In INDIA
•Dec 31, 1881 - Car Nicobar island •June 26,1941 - Andaman and Nicobar •From 1973-2001 7 under sea earthquakes happened.But No Tsunami •Dec 26,2004- Andaman and nicobar, Indian South coast states
India Today,Jan,2005

Number of missing or dead animals
Species Cattle Buffalo Sheep Goat Poultry Duck Swine Indonesia 28450 21561 46133 52010 449656 Thailand 372 142 454 4163 308 1086 SriLanka 12300 9000 2,30,000 2641

Source:FAO

Impact of Tsunami as a whole- In India
Particulars Length of coast affected Incursion of water into land TamilNadu 1000 Km 2 km to 3.5 km Pondicherry 25 km Kerala 250 km Andhra Pradesh 985 500m to 2km 5m 2.11lakhs 1,557 195 790 ha

300m to 3 km 1-2 km

Average height of waves 7 m to 10 m Population affected Dwelling units affected Animal lost Cropped area hit 6.91 lakhs 1,12748 5,477 2,589 ha

10 m 43,000 10,061 506 792 ha

3m to 5 m 24.7 lakhs 11,832 520 810 ha

Source: Ministry of Home Affairs

Andaman and Nicobar
Number of missing or dead animals Cattle Sheep and goat Dogs Poultry Pig -556 - 4300 - 654 -1.3 lakhs -368

In TamilNadu Number of missing or dead animals
Cattle Sheep and goat Pigs Dogs Poultry - 1,021 - 3234 - 720 - 600 -1.6lakhs
Source:TamilNadu animal Husbandry Dept.

Impact of tsunami on animal production

ANIMALS

PLANTS (Feed resources)

SOILS

ON ANIMALS
• Destruction of animals • Considerable destruction of animal building • Loss of stored animal feed resources • Disease out break; Lack of feed Movement of animals Consumption of contaminated water Stress conditions

Potenciate disease outbreak

Cont.. Especially Zoonatic diseases like; Salmonellosis Leptospirosis Anthrax, rabies Crypto sporidiosis Giardiosis Animal health problem & under nutrition

Stress conditions

Decreased animal production

ON PLANTS (FEED RESOURCES)
• Stored animal feed was soaked with sea water • Pastures and other fibrous feed not affected severely when the sea water passed over them and then quickly receded. •Long term damage : pastures and fodder crops have been flooded for long periods with stagnant salt water. •Coconuts destruction in coastal areas •Feed mill (fish meal processing unit) damage also reported

Cont.. Especially in TamilNadu, Crops affected are, • • Majorly paddy, Groundnut, Sesame, Black gram

In, Andaman and Nicobar
• • Paddy and coconut plantation totally wiped out Areca nut, palm plantation affected.

ON SOILS (Agricultural fields)
•Direct crop destruction by up rooting •Soil fertility losses when upper layer is washed away •Deposition of salt sediment •Soil infiltration •Soil erosion modifies the topography

Intensity of damage depends upon

The energy of the flood The type of soil coverage and vegetation Soil drainage capacity

• •

In Gist; Impact of tsunami on animal production in terms of,    Animal destruction Feed resources loss Soil fertility loss ( soil salinity)

TSUNAMI-Disaster management /Restocking programmes
FOR ANIMALS •Waste management •Animal health/Veterinary services Vaccination Poultry : Avian Influenza, New castle disease Pigs : Swine fever,FMD, JE

Sheep and Goat : PPR and Pasteurolosis Cattle : PPR,HS,FMD and Anthrax •Supplementation of feed,water and shelter •Veterinary public health.

For plants
•Supplementation suitable seeds, •Evolving suitable crops ‘VTL’-salt tolerant Varity of paddy For pastures- Chenopodiaceae family

For soils
1st priority: To ensure quick drainage of salt water 2nd priority : Restore physical integrity of the fields •Salt deposition Upto 30-50 mm salt deposition reported. -Removal of salt deposit, coarser elements - leaching: Through regular watering by rain fall or irrigation

In gist;   Animal health programme Provision of suitable seeds to farmer  Desalination of soil

Feeding strategies
1. Transportation of fodder Main strategy in disaster (Tsunami) management Densification of fibrous feeds. 2. Complete feed block feeding 3. Exploiting new feed resources Exploiting locally available unconventional fodder resources Addition of molasses to improve the palatability Mixing with routine feed

4. Urea supplementation • • Economic NPN compound Mode of feeding urea: Treatment of straws with urea Addition to concentrate feed Urea molasses mineral block Urea liquid supplementation 5. Conservation of fodder Green fodder conservation Depending on facility. Either as silage or hay

TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM
In 1965- International Tsunami Information Centre (ITIC). •Under water earth quakes are monitored by sensors on the floor of the sea •The sensors pass on information to floating buoys on the surface whenever they detect any change in sea pressure •Information is then relayed to satellite which pass it on to the earth stations. •Inform well in advance 3 to 14 hours.

Impact of feeding salty feed and saline water on animal production •Animal salt tolerance depend on ability of kidney to increase glomerular filtration rate and decrease salt reabsorption rate. •Exert inhibitory effect on rumen microflora •Decreased milk production Increased osmotic pressure

Alter thyroid hormone function

Decrease protein synthesis.

Cont..

In poultry: Detoriation of egg shell quality Symptoms of salt poisoning : Excessive thirst Muscular weakness Edema.

Strategies for coastal eco security •Environmentally sustainable management of the coastal zone. •Strengthening if ecological foundations Rehabilitation of mangrove forests Erection of bio shields

(M.S. SwamiNathan)

Bioshields consists of;
Planting appropriate mangrove species Salt tolerant plants Saliorine atriplex Casuarina Sp. Thespesia Sp. And some species of Bamboo
(M.S. SwamiNathan)

CONCLUSION
•Local level plans to be drawn up for evacuating animals at short notice at the time of Tsunami alert •Fodder conservation •Animal health management.

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