NETWORK LAYER

 The Network Layer is Layer 3 of the OSI model of computer networking  It is responsible for routing packets for delivery through intermediate routers  But Data Link Layer is responsible for Media Access Control, Flow Control and Error Checking.

Functions of the Network Layer 
Connection model: connectionless communication Host addressing Message forwarding

NETWORK LAYER

Internet Group Management Protocol
‡ Protocol type : Transport layer multicast ‡ ‡ ‡
protocol. Multicast addresses:224.0.0.22. IP Protocol:2 Related protocols: DVMRP, Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol. IGAP, IGMP for user Authentication Protocol. MRD, Multicast Router Discovery. RGMP, Router-port Group Management Protocol.

IGMP

‡ Working groups: idmr, Inter-Domain
Multicast Routing. magma, Multicast & Anycast Group Membership

Basic Architecture Of IGMP

IGMP 
IGMP is used between the client computer and a local multicast router  Switches are used to observe IGMP transactions  Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) is then used between the local and remote multicast routers  To direct multicast traffic from the multicast server to many multicast clients

WHAT IS MULICAST ?
‡ Multicast is communication between a single sender and multiple receivers on a network. ‡ IGMP allows Internet hosts to participate in multicasting ‡ It is used by IP hosts to report their host group memberships to any neighboring multicast routers

MULTICAST

ICMP
‡ ICMP is a message control and errorreporting protocol ‡ It placed between a host server and a . gateway to the Internet. ‡ ICMP uses Internet Protocol (IP) datagrams ‡ Messages are processed by the IP software

ICMP
‡ ICMP is useful in network management and administration ‡ ICMP is a control protocol ,that is, it does not carry application data ‡ It takes information about the status of the network itself ‡ it just send the error reporting not error correcting..

USES OF ICMP
‡ errors in the communications of network applications ‡ availability of remote hosts ‡ network congestion

FUNCTIONS OF ICMP
‡ Announce network errors ‡ Announce network congestion ‡ Assist Troubleshooting ‡ Announce Timeouts

STRUCTURE OF ICMP

ICMP HEADER

ICMP ERROR MESSAGE

TYPES OF ICMP MESSAGES

ERROR REPORTING

DESTINATION UNREACHABLE

It is created by routers

SOURCE QUENCH

A source-quench message informs the source that a datagram has been discarded due to congestion in a router or the destination host. The source must slow down the sending of datagrams until the congestion is relieved

TimeTime-exceeded message format

TIME EXCEEDED MESSAGE FORMAT
‡ Whenever a router decrements a datagram with a time-to-live value to zero, it discards the datagram and sends a time-exceeded message to the original source ‡ When the final destination does not receive all of the fragments in a set time, it discards the received fragments and sends a time-exceeded message to the original source

ParameterParameter-problem message format

A parameter-problem message can be created by a router or the destination host

Redirection message format

A redirection message is sent from a router to a host on the same local network

REDIRECTION CONCEPT

query

EchoEcho-request and echoechoreply messages

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