Physical Layer

Shivukumar B Patil 7th sem EC SJCE

1. Introduction
• The Physical Layer is the first and lowest layer in the seven-layer OSI model. • The Physical Layer consists of the basic hardware transmission technologies of a network. • Physical layer is one of the most complex layer in the OSI architecture.

O S I R e fe re n ce m o d e l .

Encoding.2. Data Transmission and Reception. . Functions of Physical Layer • • • • • Line configuration. Hardware Specifications.

Line Configuration • Point to Point ØProvide dedicated link between two devices use actual length of wire or cable to connect the two end including microwave & satellite link. • Multipoint. ØOne or more than two specific devices share a single link capacity of the channel is shared. • .

wireless radio transceivers. Signal to noise ratio and distance of communication.2. Bitrates. network interface cards and other hardware devices are generally a function of the physical layer. Power spectral density.2 Hardware Specifications • The details of operation of cables. • Bandwidth. . connectors.

3 Encoding • The waveform pattern of voltage or current used to represent the 1s and 0s of a digital data on a transmission link is called line encoding.2. .

1 Why encoding?? • • • • Timing content Ruggedness Error detection capability Matched power spectrum .2.3.

2. .3..2 Different types of encoding • Non-Return to Zero(NRZ) Ø  The signal level remains same throughout the bit-period. Continued.

• The advantages of NRZ coding are: ØDetecting a transition in presence of noise is more reliable than to compare a value to a threshold. . • Disadvantages ØWhen there is long sequence of 0’s or 1’s. the receiving side will fail to regenerate the clock and synchronization between the transmitter and receiver clocks will fail. ØNRZ codes are easy to engineer and it makes efficient use of bandwidth.

• Return to Zero(RZ) ØThe signal drops (returns) to zero between each pulse. Ø .

.  • Disadvantages ØRequires more bandwidth as compared to NRZ. Since there will be lot of transitions in signal levels as compared to NRZ format.• Advantages of Return to Zero ØEnables better synchronization between transmitter and receiver.

• Manchester coding Ø ØA binary 1 corresponds to a low-tohigh transition and a binary 0 to a high-to-low transition in the middle of bit-period. .

Po w e r S p e ctra lD e n si o f ty D i re n t e n co d i g fo rm a ts ffe n NRZ Mean square voltage per unit bandwidth M a n ch e ste r co d i g n Normalized frequency .

Network components in Physical Layer ØRepeater  ØBridges  ØTransmitting Media  .

Repeater • Repeater regenerates the low power signal to high power signal for long distance communication R e p e a te r .

. and any packet entering any port is regenerated and broadcast out on all other ports. • Hubs do not manage any of the traffic that comes through them.HUB • Hub is a device for connecting multiple links together and making them act as a single network segment.

Data OUT Data IN HUB .

ØCoaxial cable.Transmitting media • Wired ØTwisted wire pair. ØOptical fiber cable. • Wireless ØRadio frequency communication. .

Digital ansmission Data Transmission Parallel Serial Synchronous Asynchronous .gital .

we can send data n bits at a time instead of one called parallel transmission 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 Transmitt er Receiver parallel the transfer speed by a factor n over serial transmission Parallel transmission requires n communication lines Eight bits are transmitted together transmission can increase .Parallel transmission By grouping .

Serial Transmission Eight bits are transmitted one after another 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 Transmit ter 01001110 One wire is sufficient 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 Receiver Serial to Parallel converter .

.Serial transmission occurs in one of the two ways • Asynchronous • Synchronous  A sy n ch ro n o u s e tim in g o f a sig n a l is u n im p o rta n t. Th T h e sta rt a n d sto p b its a n d th e g a p a le rt th e re ce iv e r to th e b e g in n in g a n d e n d o f e a ch b y te a n d a llo w it to sy n ch ro n ize w ith th e d a ta stre a m T h e tra n sm issio n o f e a ch b y te m a y th e n b e fo llo w e d b y a g a p o f v a ry in g d u ra tio n .

Transmit ter Stop Start bit bit 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 Time gap Receiver .

Each byte is introduced onto the transmission link without a gap between it and the next one Transmit ter 0 0 1 1 01 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 Receiver .nchronous Transmission The bit stream is combined into longer “ frames .” which may contain multiple bytes .

Role of Physical layer in the development of telecommunication .

Thank you .