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Aristotle (384-322 B. C.).

Aristotle represented communication as an orator

would speak to a large audience

Laswells (1948) Model of Communication by

Harold Laswell
His model includes considerations of a

variety of factors being considered to determine the impact of a communication.

Shannon-Weaver Mathematical Model-1949

Berlo's S-M-C-R Model-1960

Schramms Model of Communication-1954

Communication Process Model


Sender
Form message Encode message

Transmit Message

Receiver
Receive encoded message Decode message

Noise
Decode feedback Receive feedback Encode feedback Form feedback

Transmit Feedback

Formal Communication
The process of sharing official information with

others who need to know it, according to the prescribed patterns depicted in an organization chart

Formal Media
Company newsletters Employee handbooks Company magazines Formal meetings

Formal Media
Letters Flyers and bulletins Memos Faxes All-employees mailings

Directions in which communication flows


Downward Upward Horizontal or lateral Diagonal or crosswise Inward Outward

Downward Communication
Downward communication involves messages from

senders relatively high in the organizational structure to receivers in lower positions. Downward communication may be used:
to give instructions to provide information about policies and procedures to give feedback about performance for indoctrinating or motivating

Upward Communication
Upward communication involves

communication from sources in lower-level positions to receivers in higher positions. Upward communication is often used:
to give information on achievement or progress to point out problems that are being encountered to pass on ideas for improvement of activities to provide feelings on work and nonwork activities

Some Forms of Upward and Downward Communications


Downward Communication Letters and Memos Manuals Handbooks Company Newsletters

Suggestion System

Grievances

Attitude Surveys

Upward Communication

Informal Communication
Information shared without any formally imposed obligations or restrictions if an organizations formal communication represents its skeleton, its informal communication constitutes its central nervous system
(Behavior in Organizations, p. 307)

eg. grapevine
An organizations informal channels of communication,

based mainly on friendship or acquaintance

Informal Media
Face-to-face discussions Telephone Voice messaging (voice mail) E-mail Instant messaging (chat)

Grapevine Characteristics
oral mostly undocumented open to change fast (hours instead of days) crossing organizational boundaries

Grapevine Characteristics
inaccuracy:
levelling

deletion of crucial details


sharpening

exaggeration of the most dramatic details while the grapevine generally carries the truth it seldom carries the whole truth

Grapevine Figures
70% of all organizational communication

occurs at the grapevine level estimated accuracy rates: 75-90% the incorrect part might change the meaning of the whole message though an estimated 80% of grapevine information is oriented toward the individual while 20% concerns the company

Factors Influencing Grapevine Activity


Importance of the subject for both listener and speaker ambiguousness of the facts Formula:

R=ixa
R: i: a: intensity of the rumor importance of the rumor to the persons ambiguity of the facts associated with the rumor

Factors influencing Grapevine Activity


Employees rely on the grapevine when: they feel threatened, insecure, under stress when there is pending change when communication from management is limited

Positive Aspects of the Grapevine


social function reduction of anxiety release mechanism for stress identification of pending problems early warning system for organizational change vehicle for creating a common organizational culture desired information can be circulated quickly to a large

group of subordinates (inofficially!)

Coping or Managing the Grapevine


the grapevine cannot be abolished, rubbed out, hidden under a basket, chopped down, tied up, or stopped
(Managing the Grapevine, p.222)

dont try to control or restrict it use it to supplement formal channels

Tapping the Grapevine


identify and make use of key communicators

( bridgers) monitor what is happening in the organization use the grapevine to give new ideas a trial run

Preventing Rumors
provide information through the formal

system of communication on the issues important to the employees supply employees with a steady flow of clear, accurate and timely information present full facts keep formal communication lines open and the process as short as possible

Informal Networks
E K Y F D C B A Chain C B A Gossip Cluster E D F G H J K C A I A Probability D F G B D J C H I X J B

McGraw-Hill

2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights rese

Centralized Networks
One central person Unequal access to information Central person is at the crossroads of the

information flow

Communication Structures Centralized

Communication Structures Centralized

Wheel

Communication Structures Centralized

Chain

Decentralized Networks
Information can flow freely No central person All members play an equal role in the

transmittal of information

Communication Structures Decentralized

Circle

Communication Structures Decentralized

Comcon

Communication Networks

Behavior in Organizations, p.305

Network Performance

Behavior in Organizations, p.306

Forms of communication
Verbal
Oral Written

Nonverbal

Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal communication is communication that

uses no words or uses words in ways that conveys meaning beyond their strict definition. It may take place through such channels as the body, the face, the tone of voice, and interpersonal distance. The meaning of nonverbal communication often varies markedly across cultures. Studies suggest that a substantial amount of information transmitted during a conversation -perhaps 80 or 90 percent -- is nonverbal.

Forms of Nonverbal Communication


Proxemics Dress Paralanguage Nonverbal Communication Hand Movements Facial Expressions Eye Contact

Touch

Posture

Paralanguage
Paralanguage concerns how something is said rather than what is

said. It involves all vocal aspects of speech other than words. For example, voice qualities -- such as pitch, rhythm, tempo, and volume -- influence interpretation of a verbal message. A soft, low-pitched voice and a slow rate indicate liking, while a high-pitched voice indicates anger. Moderate rate, pitch, and volume indicate boredom. Vocal characterizers, such as coughing, clearing the throat, and grunting, generally are distracting and annoying. Vocal qualifiers are variations in tone or intensity of speech. For instance, increases in rate or volume may indicate impatience or anger, respectively. Vocal segregates are pauses between utterances. In situations such as interviews, prolonged pauses suggest a lack of confidence and organization.

Hand Movements specific meaning that is Some hand movements have a


understood in a particular culture or occupation, such as a thumbs-up gesture. Others, such as touching oneself or others, may be associated with anxiety, guilt, hostility, or suspicion. For example, interviewers are sometimes taught that a hand-to-face movement is a sign of deception.

Facial Expressions 250,000 By one estimate, the human face can make
different expressions. The Roman scholar Pliny the Elder wrote more than 2,000 years ago that The face of man is the index to joy and mirth, to severity and sadness. Facial expressions are generally understood to have a particular meaning. For example, facial expressions communicating six emotions -- happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, and disgust -- are recognized worldwide. Even when people try to suppress facial expressions, they make very short expressions lasting a fraction of a second that will reveal true meaning.

The Japanese are too serious, says Yoshido Kadokawa, author

Global Perspectives: The Smile Trainers

of the book Power of the Laughing Face and president of the Smile Amenity Institute. At a seminar for managers, his students bite on a chopstick or pen. Kodokawa then instructs them to lift the edge of your mouth higher than the edge of the chopstick. Hold your cheeks and count: idi, ni, san. This is how you form your mouth shape. Job applicants for McDonalds in Japan are asked to describe their most pleasant experience, and then managers evaluate whether their faces reflect the pleasure they are discussing. Applicants who dont have genuine smiles are banished to making burgers rather than greeting customers.

Eye Contact
Eye contact is a major regulator of conversation. Generally, eye contact suggests understanding and

interest. Seeking eye contact connotes the desire to open a conversation. Conversely, someone hoping to avoid communication will avoid eye contact. Some characteristic eye-contact patterns have specific meanings. For instance, the slow blink -- a pattern in which an individual closes his or her eyes for two to four seconds and then slowly opens them -indicates doubt or suspicion.

Patterns of communication
Wheel-typical autocratic organization, one-man rule

and limited employee participation All channel-free-flow of communication in a group that encourages all of its members to become involved in group decision processes Chain-the top down Star-similar to the basic formal structure of many organizations Circle- lower degree of centrality