# Hashing

Concept of Hashing

a hash table, or a hash map, is a data structure that associates keys (names) with values (attributes).

.Example A small phone book as a hash table.

value) Each pair has a unique key.Dictionaries  Collection of pairs.   (key. .

Just An Idea  Hash table :   Collection of pairs. Lookup function (Hash function) .

 A hash table is partitioned into many buckets. Each bucket has many slots. A hash function f(x) transforms the identifier (key) into an address in the hash table    .Hashing  Key-value pairs are stored in a fixed size table called a hash table. Each slot holds one record.

. . . . b-1 . . . . .Hash table s slots 0 0 1 1 s-1 . . b buckets . . . . .

  Each position of this array is a bucket. . Every dictionary pair (key. A bucket can normally hold only one dictionary pair. b-1].   Uses a hash function f that converts each key k into an index in the range [0. element) is stored in its home bucket table[f[key]].Ideal Hashing  Uses an array table[0:b-1].

f) Hash table is ht[0:7].(85.c).a).f) (22.e).c) (85.(3. b = 8 (where b is the number of positions in the hash table) Hash function f is key % b = key % 8 Where are the pairs stored?   [0] [1] [2] [3] (3.e) (33.d) [4] [5] [6] [7] (72.(72.a) [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] 9 .Ideal Hashing Example   Pairs are: (22.(33.d).

d) (85.Collision (72.g) go? The home bucket for (25.f) (22.c) (3.What Can Go Wrong? .c)  This situation is called collision  Keys that have the same home bucket are called synonyms  25 and 33 are synonyms with respect to the hash function that is in use 10 .g) is already occupied by (33.a)   [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Where does (25.e) (33.

e) (33.What Can Go Wrong? Overflow (72.a) [0]  [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] A collision occurs when the home bucket for a new pair is occupied by a pair with different key An overflow occurs when there is no space in the home bucket for the new pair When a bucket can hold only one pair. collisions and overflows occur together Need a method to handle overflows 11    .c) (3.f) (22.d) (85.

  To avoid collision (two different pairs are in the same the same bucket. Overflow: there is no space in the bucket for the new pair.) Size (number of buckets) of hash table.Some Issues  Choice of hash function.  Overflow handling method.  .

.Choice of Hash Function  Requirements   easy to compute minimal number of collisions  A good hashing function distributes the key values uniformly throughout the range.

Of Address = 100( 0 -99) Let m =97 H(3205) = 3205 mod 97 . The Hash function H is defined by H(k) = K(mod m) E. 7148.Some hash functions  Division:  Choose a number m(PRIME number) larger than the number n of keys in K. K=3205. 2345 & No.g.

20. +kr e.112.241...203.g. partition k into 123. then return the address H(k)=123+203+241+112+20=699 . x=12320324111220.Some hash functions Folding: Partition the key k into several parts. and add the parts together to obtain the hash address H(k) = k1+k2+ ..

Then the Hsh function H is defined byH(k) = l Where l is obtained by deleting digits from both ends of k2 e. E. 2345 .Some hash functions Mid Square: The key k is squared. k2 = 10 272 025 H(k) = 72 7148.g. K= 3205.g.

Overflow Handling   An overflow occurs when the home bucket for a new pair (key. Rehashing  Eliminate overflows by permitting each bucket to keep a list of all pairs for which it is the home bucket.   Array linear list. Quadratic probing.    Linear probing (linear open addressing). . Chain. element) is full. We may handle overflows by:  Search the hash table in some systematic fashion for a bucket that is not full.

thus it attempts to resolve collisions using various methods. Linear Probing resolves collisions by placing the data into the next open slot in the table.Linear probing (linear open addressing)  Open addressing ensures that all elements are stored directly into the hash table.  .

29. 34. 11. 12. 28.Linear Probing – Get And Insert   divisor = b (number of buckets) = 17. 33. 7. 23. 45 . 30. 0. 4 6 8 23 7 12 16 28 12 29 11 30 33 0 34 0 45 • Insert pairs whose keys are 6. Home bucket = key % 17.

hash_value. element ht[]){ int i.Linear Probing (program 8. i = hash_value = hash(item.key. while(strlen(ht[i].3) void linear_insert(element item. } } ht[i] = item. exit(1). “Duplicate entry\n”). if (i == hash_value) { fprintf(stderr. } i = (i+1)%TABLE_SIZE.key)) { if (!strcmp(ht[i].key). item. exit(1). } . “The table is full\n”).key)) { fprintf(stderr.

Problem of Linear Probing   Identifiers tend to cluster together Increase the search time .

e.. h+ i2 .Quadratic Probing   Quadratic probing uses a quadratic function of i as the increment (H(x)+i2)%b for H(K) = h For i = 0. h... h+4 .... h+1.1.... 2 -----i.

i) = (H1(k) + i H2(k) ) % m .Rehashing   Rehashing: Try H1. H2. Here Hi is a hash function. Double hashing is one of the best methods for dealing with collisions. then a second hash function is calculated and combined with the first hash function. Hm in sequence if collision occurs.   If the slot is full. …. H(k.

Data Structure for Chaining The idea of Chaining is to combine the linked list and hash table to solve the overflow problem. .

The chain may or may not be sorted by key 25 .Hashing with Chains    Hash table can handle overflows using chaining Each bucket keeps a chain of all pairs for which it is the home bucket.

29.0.45 Home bucket = key % 17. 26  .34.7.11.23.30. 33. 28.Hash Table with Sorted Chains  Put in pairs whose keys are 6.12.