The Battery

The Battery
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Main Entry: storage battery Function: noun Date: 1881 : a cell or connected group of cells that converts chemical energy into electrical energy by reversible chemical reactions and that may be recharged by passing a current through it in the direction opposite to that of its discharge -- called also storage cell.

HAZARDOUS CONSTITUENT SULFURIC ACID POSSIBLE EFFECTS Corrosive, causes severe skin burns, and can cause blindness. Causes nerve and kidney damage, suspected carcinogen


Types of Batteries
The primary battery converts chemical energy to electrical energy directly, using the chemical materials within the cell to start the action. The secondary battery must first be charged with electrical energy before it can convert chemical energy to electrical energy. The secondary battery is frequently called a storage battery, since it stores the energy that is supplied to it.

. ‡ The electrolytic paste reacts with the electrodes to produce a negative charge on one electrode and a positive charge on the other.DRY ELL ‡ Uses An electrolytic paste. ‡ The difference of potential between the two electrodes is the output voltage.

with some sulfuric acid mixed with the water. ‡ An active electrolyte. ‡ Electrodes must be of dissimilar metals. .Lead Acid Battery ‡ Electrolyte for the most part distilled (pure) water.

Cells ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Positive electrode Negative electrode Electrolyte Separator .

and the chemical solution is called the electrolyte. . and it causes one other electrode to build a surplus of electrons and develop a negative charge. ‡ The electrolyte reacts oppositely with the two different electrodes ‡ It causes one electrode to lose electrons and develop a positive charge.The basic primary wet cell ‡ The metals in a cell are called the electrodes. ‡ The difference in potential between the two electrode charges is the cell voltage.

. which is sulfuric acid. ‡ These combinations produce H2SO4. ‡ The positive hydrogen ions attracted negative sulfate ions (SO4-2) from each electrode.The Electrolyte ‡ When charging first started. electrolysis broke down each water molecule (H2O) into two hydrogen ions (H+) and one oxygen ion (O-2).

Electrolysis ‡ The producing of chemical changes by passage of an electric current through an electrolyte. .

or.water mixture compared to an equal volume of water.000. Pure water has a specific gravity of 1. equivalently. the ratio of the masses of equal volumes of the two substances. ‡ Example: It is the weight of the sulfuric acid . .Specific Gravity ‡ Ratio of the weight of a given volume of a substance to the weight of an equal volume of some reference substance.

.Hydrometer ‡ Device used to determine directly the specific gravity of a liquid.

265 1.170 1. State of Charge ‡ 100% Charged ‡ 75% Charged ‡ 50% Charged ‡ 25% Charged ‡ Fully Discharged Specific Gravity 1.110 ‡ These readings are correct at 75°F .200 1.239 1.Hydrometer The chart below gives state of charge vs. specific gravity of the electrolyte.

64 11.Voltmeter = Hydrometer ‡If you are simply using an accurate voltmeter.12 11.045 2.28 22.75 12. along with occasional checks with your hydrometer.68 n stands for nominal voltage .82 5. this chart should be helpful in determining your batteries state of charge.89 6.00% 50.170 1.13 2.96 24.270 1.50 24.08 2.94 1.00% 0.00% 20. Charge Level Specific Gravity Voltage 2V n Voltage 6V n Voltage 12V n Voltage 24V n 100.48 12.24 6.24 23.38 6.00% 75.097 1.224 1.02 1.06 5.34 25.00% 1.67 12.

Ohm¶s Law ‡ Ohm¶s Law can be expressed by the equation: ± E = IR ± I = E/R ± R = E/I .

. The current is equal to the sum of the individual currents. The current is constant.Ohm¶s Law ‡ Series circuits. the voltage is constant. the total voltage is equal to the sum of the individual voltages. ‡ Parallel circuits.

then the device has a resistance of 1 ohm = 1. . = 1V/A ‡ Most of your electrical resistance is in your skin and varies from 500 ohms (clean) to several million ohms (dirty).Currents ‡ If one volt of potential difference across a device causes on ampere of current to flow.

Currents Curr t A r < 0. Ti t r rip b c s f p r l sis ll w r c rr t t fl w. H rt st ps c rr t p ss . b f t l. St pp f br t i .010 Ph i l i l Ph N P rc pti T r s l P i T r s l P r l sis T r s l f H s Ar s Eff t M I p rc ptibl Mil S s ti P i f l S s ti P rs c t r l s rip. H rt cti c r i t .001 0. r ll r st rts c rr t i t rr pt .0 . pr b bl f t l. w N t f t l l ss it l r s r b r 0.000 R spir t r P r l sis Fibrill ti H T r s l l rt P r l sis T r s .030 0.001 0. icti b if t r w cl r.003 0. fr tl f t l. rip.000 Tiss B r i .

is called a series connected battery. ‡ The voltage of this type of battery is the sum of a individual cell voltages. .Series Connected Batteries ‡ Positive terminal of one cell is connected to the negative terminal of the next.

Parallel Connected Batteries ‡ Connect the negative terminal from one cell to the negative of the next cell ‡ Connect the positive terminal to the positive terminal. ‡ Voltage remains constant and the current is cumulative. . is parallel connected.


Capacity Rating System ‡ The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has established two ratings for domestic made batteries: ± Reserve Capacity (RC) ± Cold Cranking Amps (CCA) .

.5 volts.Reserve Capacity ‡ Reserve capacity is the time required (in minutes) for a fully charged battery at 80°F under a constant 25 amp draw to reach a voltage of 10.

.2 volts per battery or higher).2 volts per cell (7. ‡ This rating measures the discharge lead (in amps) that a battery can supply for 30 seconds at 0°F (-17°C). while maintaining a voltage of 1.Cold Cranking Amps (CCA) ‡ CCA is an important measurement of battery capacity.

.Preventive Maintenance ‡ When the top of a battery is ³dirty or looks damp. use hot water (130° F to 170° F) with a neutralizer / detergent solution. ‡ Give a battery a general cleaning.

‡ Sulfate (SO4) leaves both plates.Charging ‡ Chemical reaction occur during charging. . ‡ The negative returns to original form of lead (Pb. ‡ It combines with hydrogen (H) in the electrolyte to form sulfuric acid (H2SO4). ‡ Lead sulfate on both plates is separated into Lead (Pb). ‡ Oxygen (O) combines with the lead (Pb) at the positive plate to form lead oxide (PbO2).

Keep open flames and sparks away from battery.Charging ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Clean Battery Terminals. Attach clamps to the battery in proper polarity. Ventilate the battery well while charging. .

Charging ‡ The charge a battery receives is equal to the charge rate in amperes multiplied by the time in hours. . ‡ Measure the specific gravity of a cell once per hour during charging to determine full charge.

which cause plates to dry out.Overcharging ‡ Results in warped or broken plates. severe shedding of the active materials pasted to the plates. . damaged separators. and excessive loss of water.

000 ppm).8 % (by volume) or 20 percent of the lower explosive range.Ventilation Requirements ‡ The oxygen and hydrogen gases released during the gassing phase of a typical flooded lead-acid battery recharge can be dangerous if allowed to exceed 0. .000 ppm and 740. Concentrations of hydrogen between 4 % and 74% are considered explosive (40.

0695 Color: one Odor: None Taste: None Origin: pplying water to super hot mine fires.74% Ignition Tem : 1030o . . Squeeze Tube Detectors. explosions electrolysis of battery acid.HYDROG N ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Chemical ormula: H2 ecific Gravity: 0. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Ex losive ange: 4.1% . o Detected: lectronic Detectors. NOT : Hydrogen is the reason a flame safety lamp is not permitted in a battery charging station. Chemical nalysis.1130o F % Oxygen eeded To urn or Ex lode: 5% TLV: None TEL: None Effect on ody: sphxysiant Due to Displacement of Oxygen.

It is suggested that the concentration be controlled to a maximum of 2% (by volume).Ventilation ‡ All lead acid power batteries give off gases when recharging and also for a period after the charge is completed. ± A Concentration of hydrogen in excess of 4% (by volume). .

capacity (C6) during this over charge period.) ‡ Gas given off per hour per cell = 0.Ventilation (cont. evolve approximately . ‡ Since this gas is given off at the maximum rate at the end of the charging period.) ‡ A typical lead acid motive power cell will. (This charging current is excessive but has been used to take account of the worst case. overcharge. . the following calculation assumes a charging current of 5% of the 6 hour A.0008 C6 cu / ft.H.05 = .016 cubic feet of hydrogen gas over A.H. / cell / hr.16 x .

per hour should be installed as near the roof as possible. ‡ Volume of Hydrogen gas given off = 8.64 cu. Ft./hr. ‡ From the above formula. ‡ In order that the concentration of hydrogen is kept at 2% maximum./hr.).4 cu. .000 cu. fans capable of extracting 6. x 20ft. type 75CB-13 (C6 = 450 A.0008 x 450 A.H.64 x 10 = 86. high.000 x 60/83 = 86. Ft. = 8. Ft. ‡ Volume of charging room = 6.H.4 cu. ‡ Consequently. x 12 ft. the air must be changer every 6.Example: ‡ Consider a battery of 24 cells.ft. the rate of gas evolution during overcharge is 24 x . ‡ Assume that there are 10 such batteries on charge simultaneously in a room whose dimensions are 25 ft. X 60 = 83 minutes.000 x 60/83 = 4337 cu.

1992. .Ventilation Requirements ‡ The following is a calculation used for determining percentage of concentration for hydrogen produced from the charging of batteries on battery / trolley vehicles outside of charging stations built according to the items of 334 committee appointed on May 29.

= A constant. U. y H y H y G y N y B y I =GxNxBxI = volume of hydrogen produced during charge. The volume of hydrogen produced by 1 amp hour of charge use . (Reference Dr.S. Lloyd A Morley. = number of cells in the battery (120 cells) = percentage of overcharge given to the battery (20 percent of overcharge) = amp-hour capacity of battery 625 AH . IC 9258. Mine Power Systems. as well as ³KW Battery Manufacturer´.01474 for cubic feet of hydrogen.Ventilation Requirements ‡ Formulas used were from ³GNB Battery Manufacturer´. Bureau of Mines Information Circular 1990.

height and 14 ft.Ventilation Requirements ‡ Amount of air required for dilution is: 3.74 fpm Therefore. width = 98 square feet = 464. 4.74 feet per minute provides proper dilution of entry.94 cfm Velocity required for dilution assuming a small area: Area Area Velocity Velocity = 7 ft.94 cfm / 98 square feet = 4.25 cfm air + 3. .69 / 0.69 cfm H2 = 464.008 = 461.25 cfm of air Total volume or quantity of mixture: 461.

Ventilation Requirements y H=GxNxBxI y H = (.1 cfh or 3.20)(625) y H = 221.69 cfm .01474)(120)(.

Then connect one end of the black cable to the negative terminal on the good battery.Jump Starting ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Be sure to turn off accessories. . Connect the other end of the red cable to the positive terminal on the dead battery. Connect the other end of the negative cable to a known good ground in the vehicle with the dead battery. Remove the negative jumper cable starting with the end that is connected to the vehicle ground Remove the positive cable. Connect the red cable to the positive terminal on the good battery while the engine is running. allow the engine to return to idle speed. After starting the vehicle with the discharged battery.

Contacts ‡ Crown Battery Company ± Jack Enos ± Ron Bauer 724-444-6444 724-925-7266 .

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