The Case of Korea Low Carbon Green City in aspect of Governance Cooperation

2011. July. 1.

WANG, Kwangik




II. Low-Carbon Green City Project
II-1. Definition II-2. Backgrounds, Objectives & Tasks II-3. Project Process

III. Conflicts
III-1. Basic Conception III-2. Participants III-3. Authorities III-4. Implications

IV. Solutions
IV-1. Efforts for Mediation & Collaboration IV-2. Solutions for Political Conflicts





I-1. Definition: Low Carbon Green Growth

LowLow-Carbon Green Growth Statement

A vision statement on low-carbon green growth
made by president Lee (2008.08.15), followed by his attendance on G8 High-level Talks

´Green Growth promotes a sustainable growth..... and a new paradigm generating dynamics of growth and creating new jobs.µ (15. Aug. 2009) ´Green represents more than environment, and Growth is complements environmentµ ´For us, Low-Carbon Green Growth is not an option, but an imperative.µ (29. Aug. 2009)


Vision Statement

A vision statement on low-carbon green growth
made by president Lee (2008.08.15), followed by his attendance on G8 High-level Talks

Green Growth

International Leadership 
Proactive role to deal with international climate change  Global leadership by building bridges internationally

Congruence of Environment & Economy 
Maximizes synergy effect by activating interactions ‡ Income growth and job creation through nurturing green technologies and industries ‡ Climate change adaptation & GHG reduction through transforming industries and energy sources

Quality Life & Green Innovation 
Expanding Low-carbon land & eco spaces  Creating green transportation system with activated public transportation  Green consumption & green markets


I-1. Definition: Low Carbon Green Growth

LowLow-Carbon Green Growth Strategies
Policies for reducing greenhouse gase Growth dynamics by green technologies Convergence policy Job creation Nurturing industries & businesses

‡Decouples economic growth with environmental pollution ‡Minimize pollution and GHG emission thru Eco-Efficiency Policies ‡Foster green tech. & industries to drive economic growth ‡Develop green technology thru convergence of IT, BT and NT, and export-oriented green industry ‡Green industry to address the pending issue: growth without job creation ‡Transform to knowledge-based industry, driving economic growth ‡Comply with future megatrends thru convergence of industries and technologies

‡Accommodate low-carbon green environment in all urban spaces eform urban planning, ‡Investment & incentives on eco-friendly SOC construction & transportation ‡Promote green home and green building system using recycled energy ‡Green growth for life innovation Promotion of green products & ‡Facilitates government fund and spending on green products environmental information ‡Promote eco-friendly activities to change energy consumption behaviors (eg. bicycle disclosure rides, energy saving, recycling, etc.) Green policies for enducation ‡Bring changes in lifestyle and culture thru social, cultural and moral approaches and culture ‡Develop a social consensus thru media and education


Eco-friendly taxation Foreign policy

‡Create more jobs and save environment and energy thru eco-friendly taxation ‡Brand the national vision for green movements to create new Hanryu ‡Bridges countries for climate change action and take the international leadership in environmental terms


[Presidential Committee on Green Growth]
Prime Minister & non-governmental delegates Council for Management Appointed Members (28) incl. Committee Members(17)

2009. 1

Presidential Instructions on the establishment and Management of Committee on Green Growth

2009. 2

Official launch of the Presidential Committee on Green Growth
Committee of Green Growth and Industry (10)

Administered by Senior Secretary to the President for State Affairs Planning

Committee of Climate Change and Energy (10)

Committee of Green Life and Sustainable Development (9)

2009. 7

Establishment of 5-year national plan for green growth

[5 Year National Plan for Green Growth]
Vision One of 7 Country with Green Advancements until 2020, and one of 5 until 2050 Strategies & Guidelines
Climate Change Adaptation & Energy Independence Generating Growth Dynamics Improving Quality of Life & National Prestige
1. Reducing greenhouse gas emission 2. Achieving energy independence & reducing oil-dependency 3. Climate Change Adaptation 4. Stimulate green tech. for growth dynamics 5. Encourage green tech applications and green industry 6. Industrial reorganization 7. Constructing green economy infrastructures and frameworks 8. Green land and transportation 9. Innovative changes in living conditions and circumstances 10. A model country representing advanced green industry

Laws concerned with Green Growth went under deliberation
2010. 3
The laws are featured with;  Generating green economy and industry in a phased manner  Creating green investment company  Establishing climate change & energy management regulation  Introducing emission trading scheme  Creating green territory  Construction Low-carbon transportation system


I-2. National Strategies for Low-Carbon Green Growth Low-

Carbon Reduction Goals Presidential Committee on Green Growth set the reduction goal (2020) of greenhouse gas Reduction Scenarios
Alt. 1 Alt. 2 Alt. 3

800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100

813 642



Alt. 2

594 298

Alt. 3 Aims 30% reduction against 2020 BAU (4% lowered from 2005 emission level) Focuses on electric vehicles and highefficient products with same strategies suggested by Alt. 2






Unit: million tons


Aims 21% reduction against 2020 BAU (8% higher than 2005 emission level)
Expand green home/buidings High-efficiency product incl. LED Transform transportation system to lower emission High-efficient process in industry Promote renewable & nuclear energy industry

Aims 25% reduction against 2020 BAU (2005 emission level)
Focuses on hybrid vehicles & CO2 collection with same strategies suggested by Alt. 1


I-2. National Strategies for Low-Carbon Green Growth Low-

LowLow-Carbon Green Growth Act Low-Carbon Green Growth Act : effect 13th, April, 2010 
Supports business transformation to climate change or energy industry  Comprehensive definition on green concept including land, city, buildings, transformation and lifestyle.  Merges Energy Acts(Energy Use Law, Recycle Energy Promotion Law, Sustainable Development Act, Climate Change Act
Aims to transform the current fossil fuel-oriented economic system  Pursues economic growth with environmental imrovements  Suggests duties for central municipal governments, businesses and individuals  Enforced prior to other laws  Policies and administration of central and municipal governments comply with this act & National Green Growth Strategies altogether  Establishment of a special presidential advisory group, Green Growth Board  Enforcement of plans on green economic growth, climate changes, energy and sustainable growth (20 year plans revised every 5 years)  Promotes green management of businesses, eco-friendly taxation, tax cut on green businesses, GHG reduction  Cope with climate change & manage energy consumption for contribution to global GHG reduction efforts & setting long term yearly reduction goals  Introduction of emission trading scheme; establishment of research center & green growth fund, national assembly discussion and penalty system


Vision Statements of Ministries
Ministry of Land, Transportation & Maritime Affairs (MLTM) and Ministry of Environment (ME) take on the projects related with low-carbon green city projects. MLTM
Green Growth by Low-Carbon Green Land & Maritime Environment

Nation with Green Wealth through Environmental Innovation




Carbon-free urban, building & transportation systems  Climate-proof Water & maritime resource management systems  Economic growth based on green technologies and industries  Urban Planning: Green city circulating energy and resources  Construction: World-class low-carbon buildings  Transportation: Low-carbon green transportation and distribution  Water Resource: Safe water management system preventing flood and drought  Maritime Affairs: Growth dynamics thru maritime resources and stable shore management


Top 5 nation in environmental technology & industry influences until 2020  Constitutional transformation to eco-friendly, lowcarbon socio-economic system



Low-Carbon: Greenhouse gas reduction and adaptation to climate changes  Green Growth: development of 10 environmental technologies and industries, green infrastructure and green leadership  Green Jobs: Green New Deal projects and nurturing human resources  Lifestyle: high quality environmental and weather service with public health care services


Action Plans of Ministries
MLTM and ME have specific action plans concerning with low-carbon green city project.
Low-Carbon Society Climate Change Adaptation & Energy Independence Energy Independence Climate Change Adaptation Developing Green Techs to Growth Dynamics Growth Dynamics Green Industries Industrial Innovation Green Economic Infrastructure

Action Plans
‡ Building emission statistics system ‡ Drawing emission reduction strategies ‡ Low-carbon, high efficient transportation ‡ Energy-efficient buildings with energy saving in existing buildings ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡
River restoration project, eco-friendly dams Flood maps and advanced dam functions Sea level prediction & countermeasures Maritime energy techs & resource utilization Carbon Zerorization

GHG Emission Control

Action Plans
‡ Recycling wasted resources & biomass ‡ Create environment & energy town ‡ Energy independence & mapping weather resources ‡ Monitoring national climate change ‡ Developing climate change scenarios and prediction models ‡ GHG emission statistics & evaluation ‡ Climate change maps & impact assessment ‡ Water processing & purification technology ‡ Green Car & bio-resource / climate change countermeasures / eco-friendly products/ GHG substitutes / environmental techs / high efficient resource recycling
Plant business / Soil purification / green car / bio resources / carbon market / environmental consulting service

Climate Change Adaptation

‡ Water processing projects ‡ Promoting green transportation industry ‡ Expand green city infrastructure ‡ Green buildings all thru the lifecycle
Green Growth

10 Environmental Technologies

10 Environmental industries Green Infra & Green Leadership Green New Deal Project Human Resources Environmental & weather service

‡ Green building grades & certification ‡ Creating Green jobs ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡
Urban planning for green city Low-carbon, eco-friendly new towns Requirements for energy-saving construction Supplying 2 million green homes Faster public transportation system Green Port & Green Airport Green distribution partnership & certification Promoting bicycle use

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Education on green growth Governance for green growth Hosting international forums & organization South-North collaborative projects

Wasted water recycling / BTO/ Blue·Green Cleantoria projects / restoring dredging areas

Increasing Quality of Life & Nation s Position

Green Land & Transportation

Green Jobs

‡ Nurturing human resources & creating jobs ‡ Establishing university & graduate school
Increasing urban amenity / clean and safe water supply / improving local water supply system / accurate weather forecast ‡ Preventing atopic disease ‡ Eco-friendly healthcare service ‡ Expanding eco-friendly playgrounds ‡ Improving air quality in subway stations

Green Lifestyle International Leadership


‡ Supporting developing countries to develop and manage water resources

Public Healthcare


Climate change policies and plans of MLTM and ME have duplicates in three sectors.
Sector MLTM
Statistical system to monitor and evaluate GHG emission from buildings and vehicles Climate Change Adaptation & Energy Independence Strategies to reduce GHG emission from buildings and vehicles Low-carbon, high efficient transportation system Predictive tools and countermeasures to handle sea level fluctuations New Growth Dynamics Quality of Life & International Leadership Creating green jobs Building green port and green airport

GHG emission statistics & evaluation on the volume of possible GHG reduction Developing climate change scenarios and prediction models Developing green car technologies Climate change impact assessment Nurturing human resources & creating jobs Blue-Green network

MLTM is to construct statistical systems supporting construction and transportation, while ME is to provide the systems to all sectors related. The systems ME is to supply evaluate the volume of possible GHG reduction. MLTM established strategies to reduce GHG emission based on the statistics, while ME is developing climate change scenarios and prediction models MLTM is to develop low-carbon, high efficient transportation systems, while ME is focusing merely on the technologies concerned with automobiles.




LowLow-Carbon Green City Project
II-1. Definition II-2. Backgrounds, Objectives & Plans II-3. Histories

Definition of Low-Carbon Green City LowLow-carbon green city refers to a city that is ecologically innocuous with slashed CO2 emission and urban sustainability. 
A city using energy and environmental technologies to zerorize CO2 emission and thus to gain economic benefits which will lead to increased jobs and income.

Conceptual Model 
Land Use & Spatial Structure Ecology & Green System Low-Carbon Energy & Housings Resource Cyclical System Green Transportation Green Lifestyle


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